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(Maikatallopulo ket Innem a Leksion)

pag- (instrumental focus)1

36.1 Dialogue.

Situation:    Two classmates discuss an extra-curricular assignment.
Aida:   Ania ti aramiden tayo para iti programa tayo intono Domingo?    What shall we do for the program on Sunday?
Jose:   Agaramid tayo iti bassit a kalapaw a pagdekorasyon iti entablado.   We shall make a small hut to decorate the stage with.
Aida:   Ado ngata ti masapol tayo a pagaramid ti kalapaw?   Do we need much to make a hut?
Jose:   Saan. Mangala tayo latta ti nipa ken kawayan idiay talon.   No. We’ll just get some thatch palm and bamboo in the field.
Aida:   Ay wen. Pagatep tayo daydiay nipa ken pagdiding tayo met daydiay kawayan.   Oh, yes. We shall use the thatch palm for a roof and we shall use the bamboo for walls.

36.2 Repetition Drill. The infinitive form of the pag- verb.

Pagsurat mo daytoy. Use this to write with.
Pagbadok dayta. I’ll use that to dress with.
Pagpunas ta daydiay  nisnis. We’ll use that rag to wipe  with.
Paglampaso tayo daytoy  bunot. We’ll use this coconut husk  to scrub with.
Pagdigos mi daytoy danom. We’ll use this water to  bathe with.
Pagdait da dayta panait. They’ll use that thread to  sew with.
Pagtualia yo daydiay. Use that for a towel.

30236.3 Simple Substitution Drill.

Cue   Response
  Model:     Pagbadok daytoy.
surat   _____________
punas   _____________
lampaso   _____________
digos   _____________
dait   _____________
tualia   _____________
mula   _____________

36.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Use nouns you use every day with pag-. You may consult Appendix E, Sections M, N, O for clothing, utensils, etc.

Example: Pagtsinelas ko daytoy.
  Pagsipilyok daytoy.
  Pagtualiak daydiay.
  Pagbadok dayta.

36.5 Question and Answer Drills. S1 asks questions; S2 answers.

(1) with ania  
Question Response
Ania ti pagbadom? Daytay puraw.
Ania ti pagsurat ko? Daytoy lapis ko.
Ania ti paglampaso na? Dayta bunot. ‘The coconut husk.’
Ania ti pagkali mi? Dayta barreta. ‘The crowbar.’
_________________ ______________________
_________________ ______________________
(2) with adda/awan  
Adda pagsurat yo? Adda./Awan.
Awan pagdait mo? Adda./Awan.
______________ __________
______________ __________ 303
(3) with ayan na  
Ayan na daytay pagdait mo? Addaytoy (Adda ditoy).
Ayan na daytay pagpunas ta? Addaydiay (Adda idiay).
Ayan na ti pagbadok? Addayta (Adda dita).
_________________ ________________
_________________ ________________
(4) with kayat  
Kayat mo a pagsurat daytoy lapis ko? Wen./Saan.
Kayat yo a pagtualia daydiay? Wen./Saan.
_________________ _________
_________________ _________

36.6 Expansion Drill. Join two clauses with no ‘if’.

Daytoy ti pagdait mo no agdait ka.
Daydiay ti pagpunas yo no agpunas kayo.

36.7 Expansion Drill. Use no saan ‘if not’ in the first clause. Note the verb forms.

No saan mo a pagdigos daytoy, alaen na.
No saan yo a pagsurat dayta, idulin ko.
No saan ta a pagpunas daydiay, ited ko kenni Rosa.

36.8 Transformation and Expansion Drill. Teacher gives a sentence; S1 changes the verb to the future; S2 gives a time expression.

(1) T Pagbadom dayta puraw. 304
  S1 Pagbadomto dayta puraw.
  S2 Pagbadomto dayta puraw intono bigat.
(2) T Pagtualia ta dayta dakkel.
  S1 Pagtualia tanto dayta dakkel.
  S2 Pagtualia tanto dayta dakkel intono Domingo.

36.9 Repetition Drill. Progressive form of pag-.

Pagbadbadok daytoy puraw.
Pagdigdigos na dayta danum a napudot.
Pagsursurat da dagiti lapis.
Paglamlampaso yo dagita ragragas.
Pagpunpunas na ti nisnis.
Pagdadait tayo ti makina.

36.10 Simple Substitution Drill.

Cue   Response
  Model:     Pagbadbadok daytoy.
surat   _________________
dait   _________________
punas   _________________
tualia   _________________
lampaso   _________________
awit   _________________
pinggan   _________________

36.11 Repetition Drill. The progressive form with time expressions: kanayon ‘always’; no dadduma ‘sometimes’; pasaray ‘once in a while’.

(1) Pagbadbado na dayta asul a binigat.
  Pagsursurat ko daytoy lapis a kanayon.
  Pagdadait mi dayta panait mo no dadduma.
(2) Pasaray da pagtagbat dayta buneng mo.
  No dadduma pagsursurat da dayta bolpen mo.
  Kanayon da a paglampaso dayta bunot.

36.12 Sentence Formation Drill. Make sentences with verbs in the progressive form. Use time expressions similar to those in 36.11. 305

Example: Paglinlinis ko daytoy a kanayon.
  Pasaray mi pagpunpunas dayta.

36.13 Expansion Drill. Add pay la (laeng) ‘still’ to a wen/saan question. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Notice the en ‘already’ in the response. Consult Appendix E, Section V for adjectives.

Question Response
Pagbadbado na pay la daydiay puraw? Wen./Saanen.
Pagsursurat yo pay la dayta lapis a bassit? Wen./Saanen.
Pagdadait da pay la dayta panait a napuskol? Wen./Saanen.
Pagkalkali yo pay la dayta barreta? Wen./Saanen.
________________________ __________
________________________ __________

36.14 Presentation. The past form of pag- is pinag-. Teacher asks a student to do something. Afterwards teacher and students talk about the activity.

T:    John, pagsurat mo daytoy tisa.
John:   (Writes with piece of chalk.)
T:   Pinagsurat ni John daydiay tisa. (addressing John) Ania ti inaramid mo dita tisa?
John:   Pinagsurat ko daytoy tisa.
T:   (addressing class) Ania ti pinagsurat ni John?
Class:   Tisa ti pinagsurat ni John.

36.15 Simple Substitution Drill.

Cue   Response
  Model:    Pinagsurat mo daytoy?
dait   _________________
punas   _________________
digos   _________________ 306
awit   _________________
sapatos   _________________
tungo   _________________
innaw   _________________

36.16 Question and Answer Drill. Ask ania ti _____ and yes/no questions alternately, to be answered accordingly.

Pattern:    S1    Ania ti pinagsurat mo?
    S2   Daytoy (ti pinagsurat ko).
        Pinagsurat mo daytoy?
    S3   Wen./Saan.
    S2   Saan mo a pinagsurat daytoy?
    S3   Saan man./Saan.

36.17 Repetition Drill. Past progressive form (optional).

Pinagsursurat ko ta lapis idi rabii.
Pinagdadait na ta dagom idi kalman.
Pinagpunpunas ta dayta rigis itay napan a domingo.
Pinagtutualia mi dayta idi awan ka.

36.18 Simple Substitution Drill.

Cue   Response
  Model:     Pinagsursurat na dayta idi.
dait   ____________________
punas   ____________________
tualia   ____________________
digos   ____________________
lampaso   ____________________

36.19 Question and Answer Drill with ania. 307

Question Response
Ania ti pinagpunpunas na idi? Daytoy.
Ania ti pinagdadait mo idi? Daydiay.
_____________________ ______
_____________________ ______

36.20 Cumulative Practice.

(1) Tell the class what they can use to do certain activities.

(2) Pretend that after telling a new maid her duties, you show her the cleaning materials, the cooking utensils, etc.

36.21 Supplementary Dialogue.

Lita:    Ania daytoy?    What’s this?
Sara:   Dayta ti pagkagkagay ni Nana Barang no nalamek.   That’s what Nana Barang uses for a shawl when it’s cold.
Lita:   Ania met ti pagul-ules na?   And what does she use for a blanket?
Sara:   Daytay burbur a napuskol.   The thick furry one.
Lita:   Ket pagpanpandiling na met la di inted ko?   Does she ever use the long skirt I gave her?
Sara:   Wen a, patinayon. Pinagpandiling na man idi kalmanen.   Oh yes, very often. She used it again yesterday.


aginnaw to wash dishes
ala get
buneng bolo, machete
bunot coconut husk 308
kali dig
kanayon always
dagom needle
idulin keep
innaw wash dishes
lampaso polish (the floor) with a coconut husk
mula plant
nadadael destroyed, broken
napuskol thick
narugit dirty
nisnis rag for wiping
panait thread
pasaray occasionally, sometimes
rigis rag
sepilyo toothbrush
tsinelas slippers
tualia towel
tungo firewood


1. The pag- verb (instrumental focus) indicates that what is in focus is the thing that is used for accomplishing an action. This is one of the most versatile verb prefixes and its use should be mastered.

e.g. Pagdait mo ti panait. Use the thread for sewing.

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