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225

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT

(Maikaduapulo ket walo a Leksion)

The future
The future marker:   -nto/-to/intono
Question word:   kaano ‘when’
Verbal nouns:   panag- + base; iR base1
Particles:     ngata ‘maybe’
                   sa ‘I think so’

28.1 Dialogue.

Situation:   A friend asks John his plans when he returns home.
      
Pedro:   Kaanonto ti panagawid mo idiay Amerika? When will you go home to America?
John:   Intono umay a tawen. Next year.
Pedro:   Anianto ti aramidem intono adda kay idiay? What will you do when you are there?
John:   Agbasa ak to. I’ll study.
Pedro:   Saan kanto nga agtrabaho? Won’t you work?
John:   Saan man. Yes, I will.
Pedro:   Agkasar kanto pay ngatan? You’ll get married, perhaps?
John:   Saan ta ubing ak pay. No because I’m still young.

28.2 Repetition Drill. Question word kaano + panag + base + ko pronoun.

Question Answer
Kaano ti panagsurat yo?2
‘When will you write?’
Intono bigat.
‘Tomorrow.’
Kaano ti panagkanta tayo?
‘When will we sing?’
Intono rabii.
‘Tonight.’
Kaano ti panag luto ni Ana?
‘When will Ana cook?’
Intono madamdama.
‘Later.’
Kaano ti panagbasa da?
‘When will they read?’
Intono malem.
‘This afternoon.’
Kaano ti panagdalos yo?
‘When will you clean?’
Intono aldaw.
‘This noon.’

22628.3 Substitution Drill.

Cue Response
  Model:    Kaano ti panagbasa ni Pedro?
surat   _______________________
kanta   _______________________
punas   _______________________
luto   _______________________
dalus   _______________________
     
  Model:     Kaano ti panaglutok?
mo   ________________
na   ________________
ta   ________________
mi   ________________
tayo   ________________
yo   ________________
da   ________________
ni Nanang   ________________
da Fidel   ________________
dagiti babbai   ________________
     
Intono bigat.  
_____ malem.  
_____ lunes. On Monday.
_____ umay a bulan. Next month.
_____ sumaruno nga aldaw. Next day.
_____ lawas na. Next week.
_____ alas singko. At 5 o’clock.
_____ madamdama. By and by./Later.
_____ kua. indefinite future time

28.4 Substitution Drill. Teacher cues the verb base for the question and the time expression in English for the response; S1 asks a question with kaano; S2 answers with intono.

Cue Question Cue Response
basa Kaano ti panagbasam? this afternoon Intono malem.
luto ___________ Thursday ___________
punas ___________ by and by ___________
surat ___________ indefinite future tense ___________
kanta ___________ 8:00 p.m. ___________
dait ___________ next month ___________

22728.5 Repetition Drill. The question and the answer in the future may also be stated this way.

Question Answer
Inton ano ti panagbasam?
‘When will you read?’
Intono3 madamdama.
Inton ano ti panagsurat tayo?
‘When will we write?’
Inton Lunes.
Inton ano ti panagdait mo?
‘When will you sew?’
No umay a bulan.

28.6 Chain Drill. S1 asks a kaano or inton ano question; S2 answers with intono/inton/no + time expression. Consult your vocabulary list for bases and for time expressions.

S1 Kaano ti panagbasam?
S2 Intono bigat.
  Kaanonto ti panagsurat mo?
S3 Inton madamdama.
  Inton ano ti panagkanta da?
S4 No malem.

28.7 Expansion Drill. Follow the pattern below. S1 asks a kaano question; S2 adds an object; S3 adds a locative word or phrase; S4 answers. (You may consult Appendix E for more words.)

Question: S1 Kaano ti panagbasa tayo?
Expansion: S2 Kaano ti panagbasa tayo iti istorya?
  S3 Kaano ti panagbasa tayo iti istorya ditoy klase?
Answer: S4 Intono/Inton/No bigat.

22828.8 Some verbs are also nominalized with the affix iR base; e.g., ipapan. Go through exercises 28.3-28.7 with these bases.

- pan ipapan4 - umay iyuumay
- awat iyaawat - dawat idadawat
- subli isusubli - tulong itutulong
- gatang igagatang    

28.9 Repetition Drill. The future marker -nto/-to + intono with the ag- and -um- verbs and the -en and i- verbs.

Agsurat akto intono rabii.    I will write tonight.
Agbasa kayto intono malem.   You will read this afternoon.
Uminom tanto intono alas tres.   We will drink at 3:00.
Dumawat kayonto iti papel intono madamdama.   You will ask for paper by and by.
Labaam to dagiti badok intono bigat.   You will wash my dresses tomorrow.
Daitento ni Maria toy pantalon ko intono umay a bulan.   Maria will sew my pants next month.
Iyegto ni Carlos daydiay libro na intono Lunes.   Carlos will bring his book on Monday.
Ited konto daytoy kenka intono alas kuatro.   I will give this to you at 4:00.

28.10 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases and verb forms; students form sentences in the future. They may choose their time expressions.

Cue Response
gatang (-um-) Gumatang akto iti libro intono bigat.5
" (-en) Gatangekto daydiay medias intono madamdama.
luto (-en) ______________________________________
punas (i-) ______________________________________
" (ag-) ______________________________________
dait (ag-) ______________________________________
" (-en) ______________________________________
" (i-) ______________________________________
laba (ag-) ______________________________________

22928.11 Question and Answer Drill with adda + papanan + ko pronoun or a ni/ti phrase and the future marker. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. S2 asks the next question, S3 answers, etc.

S1 Adda papanan yo intono bigat? S2 Adda/Awan.
S2 Adda papanam intono aldaw? S3 Adda/Awan.
  ______________________   _________
  ______________________   _________

Use adda with the -en and i- verbs + the future marker.

  Question   Response
S1 Adda basaen yo intono bigat? S2 Adda/Awan.
S2 Adda iyeg da intono madamdama? S3 Adda/Awan.
  ______________________   _________
  ______________________   _________
  ______________________   _________

28.12 Question and Answer Drill with ania + ti kayat.

  Question   Response
S1 Ania ti kayat monto a sida intono bigat? S2  Ikan. ‘Fish.’
S2  Ania ti kayat danto nga aramiden intono Lunes? S3 Agay-ayam danto. ‘They will play.’
  ______________________   _______________
  ______________________   _______________

28.13 Question and Answer Drill.

(1) S1 asks ania ti aramid + -en + to + intono; S2 answers.

  Question   Response
S1  Ania ti aramidemto intono bigat? S2  Agbasa akto (intono bigat).
S2 Ania ti aramiden yonto intono malem? S3 Labaan minto dagiti badbado mi (intono malem).
  _____________________   ______________
  _____________________   ______________

230(2) Variation Drill. Use no in place of intono in the preceding sentences. Answer in short responses.

Question Response
Ania ti aramidemto no bigat? Agbasa akto.
______________________ __________
______________________ __________
______________________ __________

28.14 Transformation Drill. S1 gives an affirma­tive statement; S2 converts it to the negative.

Affirmative Negative
Agsurat akto kenka intono bigat. Saan akto nga agsurat kenka intono bigat.
Agdaitto ni Maria iti bado na no malem. Saanto nga agdait ni Maria iti bado na no malem.
______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________

28.15 Substitution Drill. Replace saan in the negative sentences in 28.14 with di-.

Diakto agsurat kenka intono bigat.
Dinto agdait ni Maria iti bado na intono malem.
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

28.16 Question and Answer Drill. Wen/Saan questions. S1 asks a negative or affirmative question; S2 answers either in the negative or affirmative in this manner:

Question   Response
Lutuem to daytoy karne intono rabii?    Wen, lutuekto./Saan, diakto lutuen.
Saan nga agbasa ni Jose intono malem?   Saan man, agbasanto./Saan, dinto agbasa.
___________________   ___________________
___________________   ___________________

23128.17 Chain Drill. Use of ngata ‘maybe’; sa ‘I think so’.

Pattern 1: S1 Saan ak nga aglaba intono bigat.
  S2 Kaanonto ngarud ti panaglabam?
  S1 Intono lawasna ngata. ‘Next week maybe.’
     
Pattern 2: S1 Umay kanto intono bigat?
  S2 Wen sa. ‘Yes, I think so.’

28.18 Repetition Drill. The use of ngata ‘do you think’ in questions.

Umay da ngata intono bigat? Do you think they’re coming tomorrow?
Agtokar ngata ni Ben iti biolin intono bigat? Do you think Ben will play the violin tomorrow?
Agpyano ngata ni Rosa intono madamdama? Do you think Rosa will play the piano later?

28.19 Question and Answer Drill. Ask questions similar to those in exercise 28.18 (with ngata). Possible answers are:

Wen ngata. Yes, maybe.
Wen sa. Yes, I think so.
Saan sa. No, I don’t think so.
Question Response
Agbasa ka ngata intono madamdama? Wen ngata.
Aglinis tayo ngata iti balay intono Lunes? Wen sa.
Bumulod da ngata iti martilyo? Saan sa.
________________________ ______
________________________ ______

23228.20 Question and Answer Drill. Base + -nto/ -to to show a certain degree of uncertainty of the future; absence of the future marker shows certainty.

Certain Uncertain
Umay Umayto
Agbasa Agbasanto
Agtaray kami Agtaray kaminto
   
Practice with other bases.

28.21 Repetition and Question-Answer Drill with the base + -nto/-to to show uncertainty of the future.

Question Response
Agbasa kayonto? Wento/Saan.
Agsurat danto? Wento/Saan.
Saan tanto nga agluto? Wento/Saan. Saanto man.
Saanto nga agbasa ni Jose? Saanto man/Wen, saan.
   
Practice with other bases.

28.22 Chain Drill. Substitute other words for the underlined ones.

S1 Umay kanto?
S2 Kaano?
S1 Intono bigat.
S2 Saan sa a mabalin.
S1 Apay?
S2 Adda papanak.

28.23 Cumulative Practice.

(1) Tell about your plans when you get to the Philippines.

(2) Tell about your plans when you get back home.

(3) Write about (1) and (2) to a friend.

23328.24 Supplemental Dialogue.

Sandra:    Kaanonto ti panageksomen tayo?    When shall we have our examinations?
Cecile:   Intono umay a domingo (lawasna).   Next week.
Sandra:   Iti bigat wenno malem?   Morning or afternoon?
Cecile:   Bigatto ngata.   Morning, maybe.
Sandra:   Saan tayonto nga umay iti malemen?   Shall we not come in the afternoon anymore?
Cecile:   Saan man.   Oh yes, we will.

VOCABULARY

agawid to go home
lawas week
madamdama later
ngata perhaps, maybe
panagawid one’s going home
sa expression of doubt: ‘I think’ as in ‘I think it’s red.’
saanto man Yes, indeed (future)
singko five, nickel
subli return
sumaruno next
tawen year
umay to come

234NOTES

1. (panag- + base.

e.g. panag- + basa ‘read’ --    panagbasa
       
  panag- + dalus ‘clean’ -- panagdalus ‘act of reading’

The second is the prefix i- + partial reduplication + base, abbreviated iR base.

e.g.  i + R + subli ‘return’ --    insusubli ‘act of returning’
       
  i + R + awat ‘receive’ -- iyaawat /i.ya.a.wat/ ‘act of receiving’

When the base starts with a vowel as in awat ‘receive’, y is introduced after i- and it becomes the initial sound of the first syllable of the base. (See example above. See also Notes, Lesson 25.)

2. In this example, Kaano ti panagsurat yo? is translated ‘When will you write?’ the precise tense conveyed by the construction is usually determined by the context. Thus, the response intono bigat ‘tomorrow’ indicates that the context requires a future answer. Where the contextual situation does not clearly indicate the tense involved, tense markers are used to make the time element clear: -nto for the future; idi for the past.

e.g. Kaanonto ti panagsurat yo? When will you write?
  Kaano idi ti panagsurat yo? When did you write?

In much the same way, iR base verbal nouns may also translate as future or past.

e.g.  Kaano ti isasangpet da? When will they arrive?/When did they arrive?
  Kaanonto ti isasangpet da? When will they arrive?
  Kaano idi ti isasangpet da? When did they arrive?

2353. The future marker intono may be reduced to tono or no. Intono bigat, tono bigat, no bigat all form is more formal than mean ‘tomorrow’. The long the short forms with no being the most informal.

4. Refer to #1 above.

5. In this construction the following are possible:

Gumatang ak to iti libro intono bigat.
Gumatang ak iti libronto intono bigat.
Gumatang ak iti libro intono bigat.
Gumatang ak to iti libro. (no definite time)

Note that when there is a definite time indicated, the future marker must precede it (intono bigat).

6. Saanto man may be translated ‘Yes, sometime later’ or ‘Why not, but later.’

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780824879006
MARC Record
OCLC
1053883192
Launched on MUSE
2018-09-19
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-SA
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