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(Maikaduapulo ket Lima a Leksion)

i- verb (goal focus)
Particles: man (request marker)
  kano (quotative marker)

25.1 Dialogue. (At the dining table)

Roy:    Iyawat mo1 man bassit ta asin, Ben.    Please pass the salt, Ben.
Ben:   Ited mo man kenkuana, John.   Will you pass it to him, John?
John:   Ne, addaytoy.   Here it is.
Roy:   Dios ti agngina.   Thank you.

25.2 Repetition Drill.

-ted    Ited ko ti/daytoy libro kenka.    I give this book to you.
-awat   Iyawat na ti/dayta lapis kenkuana.   He/She hands (gives) the/that pencil to him/her.
-pan   Ipan ni Juan ti/dayta papel idiay.   John brings the/that paper there.
-subli   Isubli tayo ti/daydiay tugaw kadakuada.   Let us return the/that yonder chair to them.
-kabil   Ikabil yo ti/dayta kape dita lamisaan.   Put the coffee on the table.

25.3 Simple Substitution Drill. 199

Cue   Response
  Model:    Ited ko toy libro kenka.
awat   __________________
pan   __________________
subli   __________________
lako   __________________
  Model:    Ited ni Tom daytoy lapis kenkuana.
ko   ___________________________
mo   ___________________________
na   ___________________________
ta   ___________________________
tayo   ___________________________
mi   ___________________________
da   ___________________________
da Tom   ___________________________
ti ubing   ___________________________
dagiti ubbing   ___________________________
  Model:    Ited ni Juan ta surat kaniak.
kenka   _____________________
kenkuana   _____________________
kadata   _____________________
kadatayo   _____________________
kadakami   _____________________
kadakayo   _____________________
kadakuada   _____________________
kenni Juan   _____________________
kada Rico   _____________________
iti ubing   _____________________
kadagiti ubbing   _____________________
  Model:    Ipan mo daytoy papel idiay opisina.
dita kuarto   ____________________________
iti kahon   ____________________________

25.4 Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command; S2 negates the command changing nouns to kaniak pronouns whenever applicable.

Cue Command1 Command2
awat ‘hand over’ Iyawat mo dayta papel kaniak Saan mo nga iyawat dayta papel kaniak.
ted ‘give’ Ited tayo daytoy tsokolate ubing. Saan tayo nga ited daytoy tsokolate kenkuana.
pan ‘take’ Ipan yo dagitoy libro kadakuada. Saan yo nga ipan dagitoy libro kadakuada.
kabil ‘put’ _______________ _______________
baga ‘say’ _______________ _______________
subli ‘return’ _______________ _______________

200Vary the exercise by changing the word order like: Iyawat mo kaniak ta papel.

25.5 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks an ania ti question; S2 gives a long response.

Question S1 Response S2
Ania ti ited mo kaniak? Libro ti ited ko kenka.
Ania ti ipan ta idiay opisina? Papel ti ipan ta idiay opisina.
Ania ti ikabil yo iti kahon? Sapatos ti ikabil mi iti kahon.
____________________ ____________________
____________________ ____________________

Deletion Drill. For naturalness, answer the questions with the following shorter forms.

(1) Libro ti ited ko. (2) Daytoy libro. (3) Libro.
(1) Papel ti ipan ta. (2) Dagita papel. (3) Papel.
  ___________   __________   ____
  ___________   __________   ____

25.6 Conversion Drill. Convert the singular forms in the following questions to plural.

Singular Plural
Ania ti ited mo kaniak? Ania dagiti ited yo kadakami?
Ania ti ipan ni Juan kenkuana? Ania dagiti ipan da Juan kadakuada?
Ania ti ikabil ko iti lamisaan? ______________________
Ania ti isubli na kenka? ______________________
Ania ti ibagam kenni Rosa? ______________________
Ania ti iyawat ko kenkuana? ______________________

20125.7 Repetition Drill.

Command Request
Iyawat mo dayta lapis. Iyawat mo man dayta lapis.
‘Hand over that pencil.’ ‘Please hand over that pencil.’
Ibelleng mo daytoy. Ibelleng mo man daytoy.
‘Throw this.’ ‘Please throw this.’
Ibaga yo ti damag. Ibaga yo man ti damag.
‘Tell the news.’ ‘Please tell the news.’
Isurat tayo ti nagan na. Isurat tayo man ti nagan na.
‘Let’s write his/her name.’ ‘Let us please write his/her name.’
Ited ta ti kartib. Ited ta man ti kartib.
‘Let’s give the scissors.’ ‘Let us please give the scissors.’

25.8 Transformation Drill. Change the following commands to requests.

Command Request
Isurat mo ti nagan mo. ______________________
Ited tayo ti bola kenkuana. ______________________
Idulin yo ti libro yo. ______________________
Ipan mo daytoy sida idiay. ______________________

25.9 Repetition Drill. The indirect command or request.

Isurat mo man kano ti nagan mo.    Somebody requests that you write your name.
Ited tayo man kano ti bola.   Somebody requests that we give the ball.
Idulin yo man kano ti libro yo.   Somebody requests that you keep your books.
Ibati tayo kano ti tsinelas tayo.   Somebody commands that we leave our slippers (behind).
Ibato ta kano ti bola.   Somebody commands that we throw the ball.

20225.10 Transformation Drill. Change the following commands or requests to indirect forms.

Ibelleng mo daytoy basura idiay.
Idulin yo dagiti daan a peryodiko.
Ited tayo dagitoy papel kadakuada.
Ipan tayo man dagitoy mangga dita.
Irikep tayo man ti ruangan.

25.11 Sentence Formation-Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command; S2 changes it to a request; S3 changes the request to its indirect form.

Cue   Response
dulin S1 Idulin mo ti librom.
  S2 Idulin mo man ti librom.
  S3 Idulin mo man kano ti librom.
rikep   _______________________
bati   _______________________
bato   _______________________
baga   _______________________
awat   _______________________
surat   _______________________

25.12 Expansion Drill. Modify the nouns with adjectives and attributes. S1 gives a statement; S2 expands. 203

Ited mo kenkuana daytoy libro. Ited mo kenkuana daytoy dakkel a librok.
Ikabil ko daytoy lapis iti lamisaan. Ikabil ko daytoy atiddog a lapis iti lamisaan ni Maria.
____________________ ____________________
____________________ ____________________
#1 M1 Ania ti ar-aramidem? What are you doing?
  M2 Isubsublik ti makinilya. I’m returning the typewriter.
  C Ania ti ar-aramidem?  
    Isubsublik ti makinilya.  

25.13 Repetition Drill. The progressive form of the verb.

isurat isursurat ibelleng ibelbelleng
ited it-ited ipan ip-ipan
idulin iduldulin irikep irikrikep
iyawat iyaw-awat      

25.14 Substitution Drill.

Cue   Response
  Model:    Iyaw-awat ni Juanito ti libro.
ited   ______________________
isubli   ______________________
ipan   ______________________
idulin   ______________________
isurat   ______________________
iyawat   ______________________

25.15 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher gives the verb bases; students form sentences in the pro­gressive form. 204

Cue   Response
-ted e.g. It-ited ko daytoy kahon kenka.
-pan   _______________________
-subli   _______________________
-awat   _______________________
-surat   _______________________
-baga   _______________________
-kabil ‘put’   _______________________

25.16 Question and Answer Drill using ania ti ___.

Question Response
Ania ti ar-aramidem? It-ited ko toy libro kenni Maria.
Ania ti ar-aramiden yo? Isubsubli mi daytoy lapis.
__________________ ____________________
__________________ ____________________

25.17 Repetition Drill. The past form of the verb.

Inrikep ko ti ruangan. I closed the door.
Insurom ti sala kenkuana. You taught the dance to him.
Imbelleng2ni Nena ti sida. Nena threw the fish away.
Impan tayo daydiay tugaw kenni Juan. We took the chair to John.

25.18 Command-Question and Answer Drill. Teacher gives command. S1 follows the command. Teacher asks: Ania ti inaramid mo? ‘What did you do?’S1 answers using the past form in-. Vary the exercise by asking a member of the class the question: Ania ti inaramid ni ______/na?

T    Ited mo daytoy papel kenni John.
S1   Acts.
T   Ania ti inaramid mo?
S1   Inted ko daydiay papel kenni John.
T   (Addressing S2) Ania ti inaramid ni (name of S1)?
S2   Inted ni (name of S1) daydiay papel kenni John. or Inted na daydiay papel kenni John.

Continue in the same manner with the following commands.205

Ipan mo dayta libro dita lamisaan.
Iyawat mo kaniak dayta lapis.
Isubli tayo daytoy lamisaan idiay opisina.
Ikabil mo dayta lapis mo ditoy tugaw ko.
Ibagam ti oras iti klase.
Iyeg mo kaniak dayta librom.

Vary the exercise by having the members of the class give the commands, ask the questions, and give the answers with minimum assistance from the teacher.

25.19 Supplemental Dialogue.

Sylvia:    Ilako yo kadi ta saba, Nana? Will you sell those bananas, Aunt? (‘Aunt’, here, is a term of respect for non-relatives.)
Old Woman:   Wen, balasang ko. Yes, my girl.
Sylvia:   Ibaba yo3 man ngarud. Please put them down.
    Mano ti sangasapad? How much is a bunch?
Old Woman:   Singkuenta laeng. Fifty centavos only.
Sylvia:   Nagnginan! Awan tawar nan, Nana? That’s too expen­sive. Can’t you lower the price, Aunt?
Old Woman:   Ited ko kenka iti kuarenta. I’ll give it to you for forty (cen­tavos).
Sylvia:   Ala wen. (to a boy) Ipanmo man bassit daytoy idiay balay, barok. All right. (to a boy) Please take this to the house, son. (‘Son’, here, is an affectionate term used for non-relatives.)


addaytoy contraction of adda ditoy ‘Here it is.’
asin salt 206
kahon box
kano it is said (quotative marker)
ibaga to tell (something)
ibati to leave (something) behind
ibato to hurl (something)
ibelleng to throw (something) away
ikabil to put (something) (somewhere)
idulin to keep (something)
ipan to take (something) to a place
irikep to close (something like a door or a window)
isubli to return (something)
isurat to write (something)
isuro to teach (something or someone)
ited to give (something)
iyawat to hand (something) over
makinilya typewriter
nangina expensive


1. Morphophonemic Note. The verbal affix i- when prefixed to a vowel-initial verb base is followed by y with y becoming the initial sound of the first syllable of the verb base.

e.g. i + awat --  iyawat /i.ya.wat/
      ‘to hand over’
  i + alis -- iyalis /i.ya.lis/
      ‘to transfer (something)’ 207

The initial i- may be dropped forming yawat and yalis.
The past forms are inyawat and inyalis, respectively.

2. Morphophonemic Note. The past form of the i-verb is in- + verb base.

e.g. in- + surat --    insurat

When the verb base starts with p or b, the n in in- becomes m.

e.g. in- + bato --    imbato
  in- + pan -- impan

When the verb base starts with k or g, the n of in- is pronounced ng.

e.g. in- + kabit --    inkabit /ingkabil/
  in- + gawid -- ingawid /inggawid/
  ‘hold back’   ‘to hold back

3. Cultural Note. This suggests that the old woman selling the bananas is a peddler who goes around carrying her wares in a basket (generally called labba) on her head. The buyer requests the seller to put the basket down. The seller may set the basket down on the ground, or she may hold it while standing, and the prospective buyer looks the goods over.

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