publisher colophon


(Maikasangapulo ket Walo a Leksion)

Numerals (Spanish numbers)
Telling time, day, month
Clitic: -en ‘already’

18.1 Dialogue. (This is a portion of a conversa­tion between a PCV and his landlady, Nana Berta.)

Nana B:    Ania ti trabahom, barok?    What do you do, my son? (‘Son’ here is a term of affection for a non-relative.)
PCV:   PCV ak ditoy, Nana.   I’m a PCV here, Aunt. (‘Aunt’ here is a term of affection for a non-relative.)
Nana B:   Nabayag ka di-toyen?   Have you been here long?
PCV:   Saan Nana, idi la Martes; idi dos ti Hulyo.   No, Aunt, only since Tuesday, the second of July.
Nana B:   (after a pause) Ania ti orasen?   (after a pause) What time is it now?
PCV:   Alas tresen.   It’s three o’clock already.

18.2 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (Items are written on the board.)

Spanish Loan Numbers (1-31)
1 uno (primero) 17 disisiete
2 dos 18 disiotso
3 tres 19 disinuebe
4 kuatro 20 beinte
5 singko 21 beinte uno
6 sais 22 beinte dos
7 siete 23 beinte tres
8 otso 24 beinte kuatro
9 nuebe 25 beinte singko
10 dies 26 beinte sais
11 onse 27 beinte siete
12 dose 28 beinte otso
13 trese 29 beinte nuebe
14 katorse 30 treinta
15 kinse 31 treinta y uno
16 disisais    
See Appendix D for more Spanish numbers.

14318.3 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following items after the teacher. (Teacher may use a cardboard clock as visual aid.)

      Ala una 1:00
  Alas dos 2:00
  ____ tres 3:00
  ____ kuatro 4:00
  ____ singko 5:00
  ____ sais 6:00
  ____ siete 7:00
  ____ otso 8:00
  ____ nuebe 9:00
  ____ otso y media 8:30
  ____ nuebe y kuarto 9:15
  ____ dies y singko 10:05
menos kuarto para alas nuebe 8:45
_____ singko para alas dies 9:55
_____ beinte para alas dose 11:40
_____ dies para alas onse 10:50

18.4 Question and Answer Drill. Students take turns asking Ania ti orasen?. The whole class answers according to the cue shown on the cardboard clock.

Question Cue


Ania ti orasen?   7:00 Alas siete.
____________ 10:00 ________
____________   2:15 ________
____________ 12:30 ________
____________   1:00 ________
____________ 11:05 ________
____________   8:40 ________
____________   5:55 ________
Repeat the above exercise as a chain drill.

14418.5 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer questions regarding the daily schedule. Follow the given pattern.

S1 Ania nga oras ti ‘language’?  
S2 Alas siete ti agsapa. 7:00 a.m.
Additional Vocabulary
almosar -    breakfast ti agsapa -    a.m.
pangngaldaw - lunch ti malem - p.m.
pangrabii - dinner/supper tialdaw - at noon
panagriing - reveille ti rabii - at night
panagturog - bedtime      
#1 M1 Ania nga aldaw ita? What day is today?
    Ania nga aldaw idi kalman? What day was yesterday?
    Ania nga aldaw intono bigat? What day is tomorrow?
  M2 Lunes ita. Today is Monday.
    Domingo idi kalman. Yesterday was Sunday.
    Martes intono bigat. Tomorrow is Tuesday.
  C1 Ania nga aldaw ita?  
    Lunes ita.  
  C2 Ania nga aldaw idi kalman?  
    Domingo idi kalman.  
  C3 Ania nga aldaw intono bigat?  
    Martes intono bigat.  

18.6 Repetition Drill.

Days of the Week
Lunes -   Monday Biernes -   Friday
Martes - Tuesday Sabado - Saturday
Mierkoles - Wednesday Domingo - Sunday
Huebes - Thursday      

14518.7 Chain Drill. Ask one another a series of three ania questions regarding the day today, yesterday, and tomorrow. For your first answer, use the cue given by the teacher.

  Question Cue   Answer
S1 Ania nga aldaw ita? Biernes S2 Biernes ita.
  Ania nga aldaw idi kalman?     Huebes idi kalman.
  Ania nga aldaw intono bigat?     Sabado intono bigat.
S2 Ania nga aldaw ita? Martes S3 Martes ita.
  Kdp.     Kdp.

18.8 Repetition Drill.

The Months of the Year
Enero - January Hulio - July
Pebrero - February Agosto - August
Marso - March Septiembre - September
Abril - April Oktubre - October
Mayo - May Nobiembre - November
Hunio - June Disiembre - December

18.9 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another Ania a bulan ita. Answer with the cue the teacher points to on the blackboard.

  Question Cue   Answer
S1 Ania a bulan ita? Enero S2 Enero ita.
  ‘What month is it now?’      
S2 Ania a bulan ita? Hunio S3 Hunio ita.
#2  M1 Ania ti petsa ita? What date is today?
  M2 Dos ti Pebrero. February 2.
  C Ania ti petsa ita?  
    Dos ti Pebrero.  

14618.10 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following phrases after the teacher.

Primero ti Enero January 1
Dos ti Pebrero February 2
Tres ti Marso March 3
Kuatro ti Abril April 4
Singko ti Mayo May 5
Sais ti Hunio June 6

18.11 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks the date; S2 gives dates based on cues given by the teacher. (Cues may be written on flash cards.)

Question Cue Response
Ania ti petsa ita? February 1 Primero ti Pebrero.
_____________ January 6 Sais ti Enero.
_____________ September 11 Onse ti Septiembre.
_____________ August 10 Dies ti Agosto.

18.12 Dialogue. Follow this pattern. Substitute other words for the underlined ones.

S1 Naimbag a bigat mo.  
S2 Naimbag a bigat mo met.  
S1 Ania ti orasen?  
S2 Alas otso y media.  
S1 Ania nga aldaw ita?  
S2 Mierkoles.  
S1 Ania ti petsa?  
S2 Beinte uno ti Hunio.  
S1 Dios ti agngina.  
S2 Awan ti aniaman na.  
S1 Innak ngaruden a. I’m going now.
S2 Ala wen. Okay.

18.13 Cumulative Practice.

(1) Imagine that you want to see the principal for something important but he is out. You find his clerk. Talk to the clerk to find out what day and time you may be able to see him.

(2) You meet someone and after the social 147amenities ask him for the time, date and day. Don’t forget the thank-you and leave-taking expressions.

18.14 Supplementary Dialogue.

Lilia:    Nagsapa kan?    Why are you so early?
Rosa:   Adda miting mi iti alas otso.   We have a meeting at 8:00.
Lilia:   Alas siete y kuarto laeng. Apay ania kadi nga aldaw ita?   It’s only 7:15. Why, what day is today?
Rosa:   Sabado.   Saturday.
Lilia:   Di met Biernes ti miting ti mamaestra aya?   Isn’t the teacher’s  meeting Friday?
Rosa:   Saan, Sabado, disisais iti daytoy a bulan.   No, Saturday, the sixteenth of this month.


Abril April
Agosto August
Agsapa morning
almosar breakfast
bulan month
Biernes Friday
kalman yesterday
Disiembre December
Domingo Sunday
Enero January
Huebes Thursday 148
Hulio July
Hunio June
intono future time marker
ita now, today
Lunes Monday
Marso March
Martes Tuesday
Mayo May
Mierkoles Wednesday
nabayag long time
Nobiembre November
Oktubre October
panagriing reveille
panagturog bedtime
pangngaldaw lunch
pangrabii dinner/supper
Pebrero February
petsa date
Sabado Saturday
Septiembre September


Ilokano uses two systems of numbers, the Iloko and a borrowed system from Spanish. Spanish numbers are used for telling the time and the date. They are also 149used in giving monetary amounts. The ‘native’ numbers are used in practically all other situations and may vary with some Spanish numbers in the last instances mentioned above where Spanish numbers are used. The following illustrates this overlap in the use of money.

      Q Mano ti kuartam?     How much money do you have?
  R Dos pesos./Dua nga pesos.   Two pesos.
  Q Sagmamano ti saba?   How much each are the bananas?
  R (1) Saglilima a centavo./Sagsisinko.   Five centavos each.
    (2) Sagsasanpagulo a centavos./Sagdidies.   Ten centavos each.

(Note the reduplication even with the Spanish loans.)

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