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(Maikasangapulo ket Maysa a Leksion)

Ag- verb (actor focus)
Structure: Ag + Vbase + ak pronoun / ni/ti ____

11.1 Dialogue.


A PCV is on his way to the library. He is stopped by an elderly neighbor and they talk for a short while.

N:   Sika ni John Brown? Are you John Brown?
John:   Wen, apo. Yes, sir.
N:   Agtugaw ka, John. Sit down, John.
    Ne, agsigarilyo ka. Here, have a cigarette. (literally: Here, smoke.)
John:   Dios ti agngina, apo. Thank you, sir.
N:   Papanam, John? Where are you going, John?
John:   Dita laybrari, apo. (There) to the library, sir.
N:   Ania ti aramidem? What will you do?
John:   Agbasa ak ti leksion ko, apo. I will read my lesson, sir.

11.2 Action Drill. The teacher gives a command; everybody performs the action.

Command Response
Agtakder tayo.
‘Let’s stand.’
Everybody stands.
Agtugaw tayo.
‘Let’s sit down.’
Everybody sits down.
Agsurat tayo.
‘Let’s write.’
Everybody writes.
Agbasa tayo.
‘Let’s read.’
Everybody reads.
Agkanta tayo.
‘Let’s sing.’
Everybody sings.
Agsala tayo.
‘Let’s dance.’
Everybody dances.
Agtaray tayo.
‘Let’s run.’
Everybody runs.
Agbasketbol tayo.
‘Let’s play basketball.’
Everybody plays basketball.

9111.3 Repeat exercise 11.2, this time using the pronoun kayo. Teacher gives a command; students perform the action.

Teacher Students
Agtakder kayo.
‘You (pl) stand.’
Everybody stands.
Agtugaw kayo.
‘You (pl) sit down.’
Everybody sits down.

11.4 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher.

Agtakder tayo.
Agtugaw tayo.
Agsurat kayo.
Agbasa kayo.
Agkanta ta.
Agsala ta.
Agtaray ka.
Agbasketbol ka.

11.5 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command to S2; S2 executes the command; and so on around the class.

Cue Command Response
surat S1 Agsurat ka. S2 writes.
taray S2 Agtaray ka. S3 runs.
basa S3 Agbasa ka. S4 reads.
tugaw   _________ _________
takder   _________ _________
kanta   _________ _________
sala   _________ _________
basketbol   _________ _________

9211.6 Repeat exercise 11.5 but this time use plural pronouns. Use gestures to indicate the people involved in the command.

  Command Response
S1 Agsurat ta. S1 and S2 write.
S2 Agtaray tayo. Everybody runs.
S3 Agbasa kayo. S4, S5… read.
#1 M1 Ania ti aramidem? What do you do?
    Ania ti aramiden ni Juan? What does John do?
    Ania ti aramiden dagiti ubbing? What do the children do?
  M2 Agsurat ak. I write.
    Agsala. He dances.
    Agtaray da. They run.
  C1 Ania ti aramidem?  
    Agsurat ak.  
  C2 Ania ti aramiden ni Juan?
  C3 Ania ti aramiden dagiti ubbing?
    Agtaray da.  

11.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sen­tence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. (the present form of the verb)

Cue   Response
  Model:   Agtugaw ak.
ka   Agtugaw ka.
ta   __________
tayo   __________
kayo   __________
da   __________
Fina   __________
Fina ken Elsa   __________
ubing   __________
ubbing   __________

9311.8 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sen­tence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. This is a drill on the pattern ania + ti aramid + -en + ko pronoun / ni/ti ___   meaning ‘what do/does ___ do?’. 

Cue   Response
  Model:   Ania ti aramidem?
ko   Ania ti aramidek?
na   Ania ti aramiden na?
ta   _________________
tayo   _________________
mi   _________________
yo   _________________
da   _________________
Edy   _________________
Edy ken Ana   _________________
ubing   _________________
ubbing   _________________

Repeat the exercise using kua instead of aramid. Kua and aramid are synonyms and are used interchangeably.

11.9 Chain Drill. Teacher cues a noun or a pro­noun subject; S1 asks a question introduced by ania ti aramid/kua + -en; S2 answers; and so on around the class. A student may be assigned to give the cue.

Cue   Question   Response
tayo S1 Ania ti aramiden tayo? S2 Agbasa tayo.
mo S2 Ania ti aramidem? S3 Agsurat ak.
Pedro S3 Ania ti kuaen ni Pedro? S4 Agtaray.
ubing   __________________   ________
mi   __________________   ________
ko   __________________   ________
da   __________________   ________
yo   __________________   ________
Juan ken Pedro   __________________   ________
Kdp.   __________________   ________

11.10 Transformation Drill. Change the teacher’s statements to intonation questions. 94

Statement Question
Agsurat ni Ben. Agsurat ni Ben?
Agtakder tayo. _____________
Agsala dagiti babbalasang. _____________
Agtaray da. _____________
Agkanta kayo. _____________

11.11 Conversation Exercise. Memorize the patterns. Afterwards, use them in conversation with your classmates. Substitute on the underlined words.

Pattern 1:

S1 Agsala ka?  
S2 Wen, agsala ak.  
S1 Ania pay ti aramidem? What else do you do?
S2 Agkanta ak pay. I sing, too.

Pattern 2:

S1 Agsurat ni Juan?
S2 Saan.
S1 Ania ti kuaen na?
S2 Agbasa.


agbasa to read
agbasketbol to play basketball
agkanta to sing
agsala to dance
agsigarilyo to smoke (cigarettes)
agsurat to write
agtakder to stand
agtaray to run
agtugaw to sit down 95
aramiden to do/make
kuaen to do/make
ubing child
ubbing children


1. The Ilokano verb is composed of a base or stem and an affix. The base/stem provides the meaning and the affix shows the relationship of the verb to other parts of the sentence.

2. The ag- verb is an actor-focus verb. That is to say, it lays emphasis on the actor. The ag- verb takes the nominative pronouns: the siak series and the ak series.

e.g. Agtugaw ak. I sit.
  Siak ti agtugaw. I will be the one to sit.

3. In verb formation the affix ag- is prefixed to the base/stem. If the base/stem starts with a vowel, the g of ag- becomes the first sound of the first syllable of the base/stem.

e.g. ag- + taray ‘run’ --     agtaray /ag.ta.ray/ ‘to run’
  ag- + awid ‘go home’ --   agawid / ‘to go home’

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