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(Maikadua a Leksion)

Greetings, continued
Particles: laeng, ket

2.1 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

Cue   Response
  Model:   Naimbag a bigat yo, maestra.
aldaw   Naimbag nga aldaw yo, maestra.
malem   __________________________
rabii   __________________________
  Model:   Naimbag a malem yo, Miss Santos.
Mr. Cruz   __________________________
Mrs. Cruz   __________________________
Dr. Reyes   __________________________
apo   __________________________
Apo Prinsipal   __________________________
  Model:   Naimbag a bigat mo met, Ana.
Ben   __________________________
Rosa   __________________________
Edy   __________________________

2.2 Response Drill. Respond to the cues given by the teacher by giving the appropriate greeting.

Cue   Response
6:30 a.m., Mr. White Naimbag a bigat yo, Mr. White.
3:00 p.m., Ruben Naimbag a malem mo, Ruben.
11:30 a. m., Dr. Sison __________________________
8:30 a.m., apo __________________________
7:30 p.m., Edy __________________________
12:30 p.m., Alice __________________________
4:00 p.m., Miss Santos __________________________
9:30 p.m., Mrs. Reyes __________________________
#1 M1 Kumusta kayo?1 How are you?
    Kumusta kayo, maestra? How are you, teacher?
    Kumusta ka? How are you?
    Kumusta ka, Rosa? How are you, Rosa?
  M2 Naimbag laeng. Just fine.
    Naimbag laeng, maestra. Just fine, teacher.
    Naimbag laeng, Juan. Just fine, Juan.
  C1 Kumusta kayo?2  
    Naimbag laeng, maestra.  
  C2 Kumusta kayo, maestra?  
    Naimbag laeng.  
    Naimbag laeng, Juan.  
  C3 Kumusta ka?  
    Naimbag laeng.  
  C4 Kumusta ka, Rosa?  
    Naimbag laeng.  
    Naimbag laeng, Juan.  

2.4 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

Cue      Response
  Model:     Kumusta ka, Rosa?
Ben     __________________________
Edy     __________________________
gayyem     __________________________
  Model:     Kumusta kayo, maestra?
Miss Cruz     __________________________
Mrs. de Leon     __________________________
Apo Prinsipal     __________________________

2.5 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Afterwards, substitute the given cues, making all the changes necessary in the new sentence.

Cue   Response
  Model:   Kumusta ka, Maria?
maestro   Kumusta kayo, maestro?
apo   __________________________
Linda   __________________________
Ruben   __________________________
Mrs. Santos   __________________________
Apo Prinsipal   __________________________
gayyem   __________________________

132.6 Response Drill. Teacher and students greet one another.

(1) Teacher starts the exchange.

T Kumusta ka, Maria?
S1 Naimbag laeng, maestra.
T Kumusta ka, Edy?
S2 Naimbag laeng, maestra.

(2) Students start the exchange.

S1 Kumusta kayo, maestra?
T Naimbag laeng.
S2 Kumusta kayo, maestra?
T Naimbag laeng.

(Students can be asked to act as teacher.)

2.7 Chain Drill. Practice greeting your classmates.

S1 Kumusta ka? (to S2)
S2 Naimbag laeng.
Kumusta ka? (to S3)
S3 Naimbag laeng.
Kumusta ka? (to S4)
S4 Naimbag laeng.

142.8 Chain Drill. Teacher and students participate in this drill. Teacher indicates by gesture who should recite. (Students can be asked to take the role of teacher.)

S1 Kumusta ka?
S2 Naimbag laeng.
Kumusta ka?
S3 Naimbag laeng.
Kumusta kayo, maestra?
T Naimbag laeng.
Kumusta ka?
S4 Naimbag laeng‚ maestra.
Kumusta ka?
S5 Naimbag laeng.

2.9 Cumulative Drill. Greet one another according to the following pattern. Teacher gives cues and indi­cates by gesture who should recite.

Cue   Response
7:15 a.m. S1 Naimbag a bigat mo, Edy.
  S2 Naimbag a bigat mo met, Ana.
  S1 Kumusta ka?
9:00 p.m. S2 Naimbag laeng.
    Naimbag a rabiim, Juan.
  S3 Naimbag a rabiim met, Edy.
  S2 Kumusta ka?
11:15 a.m. S3 Naimbag laeng.
    Naimbag nga aldaw mo, Norma.
  S4 Naimbag nga aldaw mo met, Juan.
  S3 Kumusta ka?
  S4 Naimbag laeng.

Continue with other cues.

8:00 p.m.  4:00 p.m.
6:00 a.m. 12:00 noon

152.10 Dialogues for Memory.

(1)   Ben:    Naimbag a malem mo, Rosa.  
  Rosa:   Naimbag a malem mo met, Ben.  
  Ben:   Kumusta ka?  
  Rosa:   Naimbag laeng. And you? How are you?
      Ket sika? Kumusta ka?  
  Ben:   Naimbag met.  
(2) Ana:   Naimbag a bigat yo, Miss Santos.  
  Miss S:   Kasta met. Same to you.
  Ana:   Kumusta kayo, Miss Santos?  
  Miss S:   Nasayaat met. Just fine.
      Ket sika? Kumusta ka?  
  Ana:   Nasayaat met, Miss Santos.  
(3) Mr. R:   Naimbag a bigat mo, Rosa  
  Rosa:   Naimbag a bigat yo met, Mr. Reyes.
  Mr. R:   Kumusta ka?  
  Rosa:   Naimbag laeng, Mr. Reyes. And you? How are you?
      Ket dakayo? Kumusta kayo?   
  Mr. R:   Kastoy latta. Just fine.
(4) PCV:   Naimbag nga aldaw mo, Pedro.  
  Pedro:   Kasta met kenka, Jim Same to you, Jim.
  PCV:   Kumusta ka?  
  Pedro:   Kastoy latta.  

2.11 Role-Playing. Use the text of the above dialogues in acting out the situations below. Make your performance natural and convincing by using appropriate gestures.

(1) You are walking to the dorm. You meet your teacher. You greet him and ask how he is.

(2) You are on a bus. A friend gets on. You greet each other.

(3) You’re a teacher. You meet your student on the playground. You greet each other.

(4) You are walking on the street. You meet your student’s father. Greet him and ask how he is. 16


apo title of respect for older people or  for strangers
doktor (Dr.) doctor
ka you (singular)
kasta met a greeting response: ‘same to you’
kastoy latta a greeting response: ‘just fine’
kayo you (plural)
kenka to you
ket and
kumusta (ka) a greeting: how (are you)
dakayo you (plural)
gayyem friend
laeng a grammatical element (particle)  meaning ‘only’, ‘just’
maestro teacher (male)
mister (Mr.) mister (Mr.)
misis (Mrs.) madam (Mrs.)
naimbag fine
nasayaat fine
prinsipal principal
sika you (singular)


1. Ka and kayo mean ‘you’ (singular) and ‘you’ (plural), respectively. They are parallel to mo and yo. Ka and kayo and mo and yo belong to two different sets of pronouns. You will learn more about them in the succeeding lessons.

2. Kumusta kayo means ‘How are you all’. It is used as a greeting for a group of people. However, it is also used as a polite greeting for an individual–usually an elder or a stranger. (See Notes, 1, Lesson One.)

3. Dakayo is a full form of the pronoun kayo. These two forms have their respective uses which will be learned in the succeeding lessons.

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