publisher colophon


Boldface parenthetical interjections presented with some of the entries are the shortened citation forms employed in the text and notes.


Abend, Hallet Edward. My Life in China 1926-1941. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1943.

Akimova, Vera Vladimirovna (Vishnyakova). (Akimova). Two years in Revolutionary China, 1925-1927. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971.

Bergamini, David. Japan’s Imperial Conspiracy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Biographical Dictionary of Republican China. Vols. 1, 2, and 3. Edited by Howard L. Boorman. (Boorman). New York: Columbia University Press, 1967 (vol. 1), 1968 (vol. 2), 1970 (vol. 3).

Borton, Hugh. Japan’s Modern Century. New York: The Ronald Press, 1955.

Brandt, Conrad. Stalins Failure in China: 1924-1927. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958.

Carey, F.W. “China: A Survey of the Present Position,” Journal of the Central Asian Society 15(4):399-415.

Ch’an, F. Gilbert, ed. Nationalism and Revolution: China in the 1920’s. Vol. 1 of Twentieth-Century China. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976.

Chang Ch’i-yün. Tang-shih kai-yao [Outline of the party’s history]. (TSKY). Taipei: Central Committee on Culture Supply Association, 1953.

Chang Hsing-ping. “Peiching kung-jen yün-tung shih-liao” [Historical materials on the Pe­king workers’ movement]. Mimeographed. Taiwan: ca. 1960s.

Chang Kuo-t’ao. (Chang Kuo-t’ao). The Rise of the Chinese Communist Party 1921-1927, vol. 1. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1971. 330

Chapman, H. Owen. The Chinese Revolution 1926-27, A Record of the Period under Com­munist Control as Seen from the Nationalist Capital, Hankow. London: Constable & Co., 1928.

Ch’en Kung-po. (Ch’enKung-po). Han feng chi [Collection of the north wind]. 4th ed. Shanghai: Association of Local Government, 1945.

Ch’en Kuo-fu. (Ch’en Kuo-fu). Huang-p’u chien-chün shih-hua [Short history of establishing the army at Whampoa]. N. p., 1944.

Ch’en Pu-lei. Kuo-min ko-ming chün chan-shih [A history of the battles of the National Revolutionary Army]. Nanking: KMT(?), 1936.

Ch’eng Hao-sheng. Chung-hua min-kuo chien-kuo shih [The history of the establishment of the Chinese republic]. Chungking: Cheng-chung Publishers, 1943.

Chesneaux, Jean. The Chinese Labor Movement, 1919-1927. English translation: Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968.

——. “The Federalist Movement in China, 1920-3.” In Modern China’s Search for a Political Form, edited by Jack Gray. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.

Chiang Chieh-shih yao-lun chi [A collection of Chiang Kai-shek’s important discourses]. Taipei: Shih-chieh Book Co., 1955.

Chiang Kai-shek. Soviet Russia in China: A Summing-Up at Seventy. (Russia in China). New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1965.

Chiang Yung-ching. Pao-lo-t’ing Wuhan cheng-ch’üan [Borodin and the Wuhan regime]. (Borodin). Taipei: Chung-kuo Hsüeh-shu Ch’u-tso Chiang-tsu Wei-yüan Hui, 1963.

Ch’ing-tang yün-tung [The party purification movement]. Edited by the Committee to Encourage Party Purification. Nanking: Ch’ing-tang Committee, 1927.

Ch’ing-tang yün-tung kai-lün [A summary of the party purification movement]. Shanghai: Ch’ün-chung T’u-shu Co., 1927.

Ch’ou Ch’ing-chüan. Min-tsu chan-shih Ch’ou Ch’ing-chüan [Ch’ou Ch’ing-chüan: national warrior]. Taipei: Pa-t’i Book Co., 1959.

Ch’ü Ching-pai. (Ch’ü Ching-pai). Chung-kuo chih-kung yün-tung ts’ai-liao [Selected mate­rials on the Chinese labor movement]. Shanghai: CCP, March 1931.

Chung Hsia and K’ang Sheng. Su Chao-ch’eng, Lo Teng-hsien chuan [The biographies of Su Chao-ch’eng and Lo Teng-hsien]. Shanghai: International Publishing Co., 1940.

Chung-hua Min-kuo ta-shih chi [Record of major events of the Republic of China]. (Ta-shih chi). Edited by Kao Yin-tzu. Taipei: Shih-chieh Book Co., 1957.

Chung-kung Nanch’ang pao-tung chi-yao [Sketch of the CCP’s Nanch’ang uprising]. Chung­king(?): Central Investigation Statistics Bureau, 1944.

Chung-kuo hsien-tai ko-ming yün-tung shih [History of the Modern Chinese revolution]. (CKHT). 2nd. ed. Shanghai(?): Committee on Study of Chinese modern History, 1938.

Chung-kuo kuan-shen jen-ming lu [Lives of Chinese officials and gentry]. Tokyo: China Research Soc., 1918.

Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang chien-ming li-shih [A simple history of the CCP]. (CCP History). Shanghai(?): CCP Central, 1926.

Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang lieh-shih chuan [Biographies of the Chinese communist martyrs]. (CCP Martyrs). Peking: Youth Publishing Society, 1951.

Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang shih-lieh [Brief history of the CCP]. 2nd ed. Chungking: United Publishing Society, 1942.

Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang ti-ssu-chieh erh-chung ch’uan-hui erh-ts’e chung-yang k’uo-ta chih-hsing wei-yüan-hui yi-chüeh-an [Decisions of the second enlarged central com­mittee of the CCP; fourth session]. (CCP 2nd Enlarged CEC Meeting). Shanghai(?): CCP, July 12, 1926.

Chung-kuo kung-jen yün-tung shih-kao [A history of the Chinese workers’ movement]. (CKYS). Edited by Hsü Wen-tien. Chungking: Central Social Department, 1940(?)

Chung-kuo nung-min yüeh-k’an [Chinese peasant monthly]. Canton: CCP, 1926.

Cunningham, Edwin S. “A Brief Historical Sketch of the Political History of Chekiang Province since the Year 1911.” Shanghai: U.S. Consul General Report, 1925. U.S. National Archives.

Davis, John K. Historical Sketch of Political Conditions in Kiangsu Province from the 331Revolution of 1911 to the End of 1924. Nanking Consulate, 1925. U.S. National Archives 893.00/6104.

Gillin, Donald G. Warlord: Yen Hsi-shan in Shansi province 1911-1940. (Warlord: Yen Hsi-shan). Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.

Harrison, James P. The Long March to Power. New York: Praeger, 1972.

Ho Kan-chih. Chung-kuo hsien-tai ko-ming shih [A history of the modern Chinese revolution]. Vol. 1. Peking: Higher Education Publishing Society, 1957.

Holcombe, Arthur N. The Chinese Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930.

Hsien-tai shih-liao [Contemporary historical materials]. (HTSL). Vols. 3and 4. Shanghai: Hai T’ien Publishing Society, 1934.

Hsin Chung-kuo jen-wu chih [The record of the figures of new China]. Hong Kong: Chou-muo Pao She-hang, 1950.

Hsin Chung-kuo jen-wu chih: fen-sheng [A record of the personalities of new China: by provinces]. Edited and published by Huang Hui-ch’üan. Hong Kong, 1930.

Hsü, Emanuel. The Rise of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Hsü En-ts’eng. Wo ho kung-tang tou-cheng ti hui-yi [Recollections of my struggle with the CCP]. Taipei: n. p., 1953.

Huang-pu chien-chün san-shih-nien kai-shu [A summary of thirty years of creating the army at Whampoa]. Edited by the Kuomintang Party Historical Materials Compilation Committee. Taiwan: Huang-pu Publication Society, 1954.

Huang-p’u hsün-lien chi [A collection of training materials from Whampoa]. Edited by Teng Wen-yi. Nanking: National Defense Ministry Information Bureau, 1947.

Hu Ch’iao-mu. Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang-te san-shih nien [Thirty years of the Chinese Communist Party]. Peking: Jen-min Ch’u-pan She, 1951.

Hung-seh wen-hsien [Red documents]. Shanghai(?): Chieh Fang She Liberation Society, 1938.

Huston, J.C. “General Historical Sketch of Political Conditions in the Hankow Consular District from the Revolution of 1911 to March 1925.” U.S. Hankow Consul General report, 1925, U.S. National Archives 893.00/6206. (Huston, “Sketch”).

Isaacs, Harold R. (Isaacs). The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution. Stanford: Stanford Univer­sity Press, 1951.

Jansen, Marius B. The Japanese and Sun Yat-sen. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954.

June Twenty-third. Canton: Commission for the Investigation of the Shakee Massacre, 1925.

June Twenty-third, The Truth. Canton: 1925. Included by U.S. Canton Consul Jenkins in report of March 15, 1926 (SD 893.00/7384).

K’ang-chan yi-ch’ien-te Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang [The Chinese Communist Party before the war of resistance]. (CCP before the War). 2nd ed. Chungking(?): Sheng-li Publishing Agency, 1942.

Ko-ming wen-hsien [Revolutionary documents]. (Ko-mingwen-hsien). Edited by Lo Chia-lün. Taipei: Historical Materials Editing Committee of the Party History of the KMT, from 1950 onward as a series.

KoT’eh (pen name). “Pei-fa sheng-chung-chih Hunan” [Hunan in the midst of the noise of the Northern Expedition]. Hsiang Tao (July 14, 1926), p. 1606.

Kuang-chou p’ao-tung-chih yi-yi chiao-hsün [The significance and lessons learned from the Canton uprising]. (Canton Uprising). N. p.: CCP Central Committee, 1928.

Kung-fei-te kung-jen yün-tung [Communists’ workers movement]. Taipei: Bureau of Inves­tigation, 1962.

Kuo-chün cheng-kung shih-kao [History of political work in the national military]. (History of Political Work). Vols. 1 and 2. Taipei: History Bureau of Ministry of Defense, 1960.

Kuo Mo-jo. (Kuo Mo-jo). Wuch’ang ch’eng-hsia (Shanghai: 1933) appears as “A Poet with the Northern Expedition,” translation and notes by Josiah W. Bennett. Far Eastern Quarterly 3(1-4) (November 1943-August 1944):144-145, 165.

Lei Hsiao-ch’en. San-shih nien tung-luan chung-kuo [Thirty years of turmoil in China]. Vol. 1. Hong Kong: Asia Publishing Co., 1955.

Liang Han-ping. Chung-kuo hsien-tai ko-ming shih chiao-hsüeh ts’an-k’ao t’i-kang [History of 332China’s modern revolution—reference outline for teaching]. Tientsin: Tientsin T’ung Publishing Society, 1955.

Li Chien-nung. The Political History of China 1840-1928. Princeton: D. VanNostrand Co., 1956.

Liu Chien-ch’ün, “Pei-fa ch’ien-hou ku-jen ch’ün” [Old friends from the Northern Expedition], Chüan-chi wen-hsüeh [Biographical literature]. Taipei, 1966, pp. 22-27.

Liu, F.F. (F.F. Liu). A Military History of Modern China 1924-1949. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.

Lo Sheng, “Ti-san-ts’e ch’uan-kuo lao-tung ta-hui-chih ching-kuo chi-ch’i chieh-kuo” [Results of the third national labor assembly], Hsiang Tao (May 30, 1926), pp. 1500, 1501.

Lo Yü-t’ien. Chün-fa i-wen [Anecdotes of the warlords]. Taipei: Hu-p’o Publishing Soc., 1967.

MacFarquhar, Roderick L. “The Whampoa Military Academy,” Papers on China 9 (August 1955):146-163.

Ma Ch’ao-chün, ed. (Ma, Labor). Chung-kuo lao-kung yün-tung shih [History of the Chinese labor movement]. 4 vols. Taipei: Chung-kuo lao-kung Fu-li Ch’u-pan She, 1959.

“Ma Ch’ao-chün chuan-chi” [The biography of Ma Ch’ao-chün]. Mimeographed. Taipei, 1966.

MacNair, Harley Farnsworth. (MacNair). China in Revolution: An Analysis of Politics and Militarism under the Republic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1931.

Ma Hsü-lun. (Ma Hsü-lun). Wo tsai liu-shih-sui i-ch’ien [My life sixty years ago]. Shanghai: Sheng-huo Book Store, 1947.

Mao Szu-ch’eng. Min-kuo shih-wu-nien yi-ch’ien-chih Chiang Chieh-shih hsien-sheng [Chiang Kai-shek before 1926]. (Chiang before 1926). Reprint. Hong Kong: Lung-men Book Store, 1965.

Ma Yün. Chung-kuo fan-kung yün-tung shih [History of the Chinese anti-CCP movement]. T’ai-chung: Tung-nan Co., 1957.

Miao Ch’u-huang. Chung-kuo kung-ch’an-tang chien-yao li-shih [The simple outline history of the CCP]. Peking: Hsueh-hsi Tso-chih She, 1956.

Min-kuo chün-fa ch’ü-hsien [Interesting anecdotes on the warlords of the republic]. N. p.: Hsien-tai Publishing Co., ca. 1937.

Misselwitz, Henry F. The Dragon Stirs. New York: Harbinger House, 1941.

Monroe, Paul. China: A Nation in Evolution. New York: Macmillan, 1928.

North, Robert C. Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Elites. Hoover Institute Studies, Series B. Elite Studies No. 8 (July 1952). Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1952.

——. M.N. Roy’s mission to China: The Communist-Kuomintang Split of 1927. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1963.

Pao Tsun-p’eng. Chung-kuo chin-tai ch’ing-nien yün-tung shih [History of the modern Chinese youth movement]. Chungking: Shih-tai Publishing Association, 1943.

Pei-fa chan-shih [Military history of the northern expedition]. (N. Exp.) 4 vols. Taipei: National Defense Ministry Historical and Political Bureau, 1959.

Powell, John B. My Twenty-five Years in China. New York: Macmillan, 1945.

Pye, Lucien. Warlord Politics: Conflict and Coalition in the Modernization of Republican China. New York: Praeger, 1971.

San-shih nien lai te Shanghai kung-yün [The thirty-year Shanghai labor movement]. Shanghai: Department of Culture and Education, Shanghai General Labor Union, 1951.

Schram, Stuart. (Schram). Mao Tse-tung. New York: Penguin Books, 1967.

Sheean, Vincent. “Some People from Canton,” Asia 27(10):815-817. (Sheean).

——. “Moscow and the Chinese Revolution,” Asia 27(6):468-486. (Sheean, “Moscow”).

Sheridan, James E. Chinese Warlord: The Career of Feng Yü-hsiang. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966.

Su Chao-cheng. (Su Chao-cheng). Shanghai(?): China National General Labor Union, 1930.

Sun Lien-chung. (Sun Lien-chung). Sun Lien-chung hui-i-lu [Memoirs of Sun Lien-chung]. Taipei: Hai T’ien Printing Co., 1962.

Tang-tai Chung-kuo ming-jen chih [A record of famous men of contemporary China]. Shanghai: Shih-chieh P’ing-lun Publ. Soc., 1940. 333

Tang-tai Chung-kuo ming-jen lu [A listing of famous men of contemporary China]. Edited by Fan Yin-nan. Shanghai: N. p., 1931.

T’ang Leang-li. (T’ang Leang-li). The Inner History of the Chinese Revolution. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1930.

Teng Chung-hsia. (Teng Chung-hsia). Sheng-kang pa-kung k’ai-kuan [Hong Kong-Kwangtung strike]. Canton: 1926.

Ti-yi-tz’u kuo-nei ko-ming chan-cheng shih-ch’i-te kung-jen yün-tung [The workers’ move­ment during the first period of national revolutionary war]. (1st Workers’ Movement). Peking: People’s Publishing Association, 1958.

Ti-yi-tz’u kuo-nei ko-ming chan-cheng shih-ch’i-te nung-min yün-tung [The peasant move­ment during the first national revolutionary war]. (1st Peasants’ Movement). Peking: People’s Press Agency, 1953.

Toynbee, Arnold J. Survey of International Affairs. London: Oxford University Press, 1929.

Trotsky, Leon. Problems of the Chinese Revolution. Reprint. New York: Paragon, 1966.

Tseng Wen-cheng kung ch’üan-chi [The collective works of Duke Tseng]. Vol. 10. Shanghai: World Book Co., 1932. Reprinted in Taipei, 1956.

Wang Chien-min. (Wang Chien-min). Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang shih-kao [History of the Chinese Communist Party]. 2 vols. Taipei: by the author, 1965.

Wang Ching-wei. (Wang Ching-wei). “Wuhan fen-kung-chih ching-kuo” [Wuhan’s split with the CCP]. Kuo-li Chung-shan ta-hsüeh jih-pao [National Chung-shan University daily] Supplement (Canton, November 9, 1927).

Who’s Who in China. Edited by M.C. Powell. Shanghai: The China Weekly Review, 1925, and 4th edition of 1931.

Wilbur, C. Martin, and How Julie Lien-ying. Documents on Communism, Nationalism and Soviet Advisors in China 1918-1927. (Documents). New York: Columbia University Press, 1956.

Wu Hsiang-hsiang. (Wu Hsiang-hsiang). O-ti ch’in-lieh chung-kuo shih [The history of the Russian empire’s invasion of China]. Taipei: Cheng-chung Shu-chü, 1954.

Wu T’ien-wei. “Chiang Kai-shek’s March Twentieth Coup d’etat of 1926, “Journal of Asian Studies 27(3):585-602.

——. “A Review of the Wuhan Debacle,” Journal of Asian Studies 29(1):125-143.

Yeh T’ing t’ung-chih lieh-li [A history of comrade Yeh T’ing]. CCP, May 5, 1946. Short, mimeographed biography held at the Bureau of Investigation, Research Center on Communism, Ch’ing-t’an, Taiwan.

Yün-yung t’ung-yi chan-hsien yi-ch’ien Chung-kung-chih chien-shih [A short history of the CCP before the united front]. Yenan: Chinese Communist Central Committee, 1939.


British Foreign Office confidential prints, “Quarterly reports to the Foreign Office”, London, F.O. 405/230 series on China.

Chung-kuo Kung-ch’an-tang ti-szu-chieh erh-chung ch’üan hui erh-ts’e chung-yang k’uo-ta chih-hsing wei-yüan-hui yi-chüeh-an [The decisions of the fourth session of the entire second enlarged central executive committee]. N. p.: CCP Central Enlarged Execu­tive Committee, 1926.

Chung-yang lin-shih cheng-chih-chü k’uo-ta hui-yi chüeh-yi an [Decisions of the enlarged meeting of the central provisional political bureau]. N. p.: CCP Central Political Bureau, 1927.

Chung-yang t’ung-hsin [Communiqué from the headquarters]. Shanghai(?): CCP Central Party Headquarters(?), periodic series of 1926 and after.

Kwangchou paotung chih yi-yi yü chiao-hsün [The significance and the lesson learned from the uprising in Canton]. N. p.: CCP Central Committee, 1928.

National Military Historical Museum collections of pictorial photographs and photographs of documents. Taipei.

Papers relating to the First Firing in the Shameen Affair of June 23, 1925 (Shameen White Paper): China No. 1 (1926) Cmd. 2636, House of Commons, London, 1926, XXX, Accounts and Papers No. 15. 334

Papers relating to the Nanking Incident of March 24 and 25, 1927: China No. 4 (1927) Cmd. 2953, House of Commons, London, 1927, XXVI, Accounts and Papers No. 14.

U.S. State Department Records, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. National Archives, Military Records Division: intelligence reports on China from foreign military commands and U.S. Army military attachés stationed in China.


Asia. Concord, N.H., 1926-1927.

Chan-shih chou-pao [Soldiers’ weekly]. Changsha, 1926.

Cheng-chih chou-pao [Political weekly]. Canton, Kuomintang.

China Christian Year Book 1928. Shanghai, 1928.

China Mail. Hong Kong, 1926-1928.

China Yearbook 1926. (China Yearbook 1926). Edited by H.E.W. Woodhead. Tientsin, 1927.

China Yearbook 1928. (China Yearbook 1928). Edited by H.E.W. Woodhead. Tientsin, 1927.

Chung-kuo hai-yüan [China seaman]. Canton: China Seamen Industrial Union, January 1926.

Chüan-chi wen-hsüeh [Biographical literature]. Taipei, 1960s.

Chung-yang jih-pao [Central daily news]. Shanghai: KMT, 1928.

Hong Kong Daily Press. (HKDP). 1926-1928.

Hong Kong Telegraph. 1926-1928.

Hsiang Tao [The guide weekly]. Shanghai: CCP, September 1922-July 1927.

Hsien-tai p’ing-lün [Contemporary review]. Shanghai and Peking: Hsien-tai p’ing-lün Soc., December 1924-December 1928.

Ko-ming hua-pao [Revolutionary pictorial]. Canton: Whampoa Academy, 1926.

Kuowen chou-pao [National news weekly]. (Kuowen). Shanghai and Tientsin: Kuowen Chou-pao Soc., August 1924-December 1928.

Le Monde. Paris, 1926-1928.

L’Humanité. Paris, 1926-1929.

North China Herald. (NCH). Shanghai, 1920-1941.

Sheng ching jih-pao [Sheng Ching daily]. Mukden, 1922.

Shen pao [Daily]. Shanghai.

South China Morning Post (SCMP). Hong Kong, 1926-1928.

Tao-chih hsün-pao [Punish Reds weekly]. Hong Kong: Ch’en Keng Huan Book Store, nos. 1-9, July-October 1926.

Tu-li ch’ing nien [Independent youth]. Shanghai: Tu-li ch’ing-nien Magazine Soc., 1926-1927.

Tung-fang tsa-chih [Eastern miscellany]. Shanghai: Commercial Press, 1920s.

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