I wish to thank those who have provided so much help in the innumerable hours and years of research, and with translation, writing, and revision. Chinese friends and associates have been invaluable in translating difficult passages and terms and in leading me to useful materials. In Taiwan they provided me with introductions that led to interviews and access to collections. The staff and librarian at Taipei’s research center for Chinese Communist Studies under the Bureau of Investigation were helpful beyond any expectation. The Fulbright Foundation in Taipei aided in countless vital ways my research there. Scholars at Academia Sinica, and Chengchih University deserve my gratitude. Walter Gourlay must be thanked for recommending the Hong Kong newspapers, which he had already researched, and the British White Paper on Shameen. He and the Harvard East Asia Research Center scholars also provided editorial advice. As a scholar steeped in the period of this study, C. Martin Wilbur made valuable suggestions in Taiwan and helped immensely through his Documents on Communism, Nationalism, and Soviet Advisors in China, 1918–1927. Crucial to the beginning of my study was Eugene Boardman who directed it through the dissertation phase at the University of Wisconsin, where Leonard Gordon also encouraged my work and aided me in gaining Fulbright and NDEA grants. Later at Ohio University, the Research Committee, Graduate College, and International Studies Center provided financial support for further research and travel. At the Hoover Institution, John Ma and David Tseng were inspiring in their patient xvicooperation. Saving me considerable time through his efficiency was J. Taylor at the National Archives, Military Records Division. For suggestions and encouragement in seeking a publisher, I thank Samuel Chu and David C. Wilson. Most difficult to express in words is my dependency on my wife, Mary Kaye, who was a partner in all phases of the project and should be titled something between a patron saint and the coauthor.