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Executive Summary

1. We use the term "social media" to refer to the set of new media that enable social interaction between participants, often through the sharing of media. Although all media are in some ways social, the term "social media" came into common usage in 2005 as a term referencing a central component of what is frequently called Web 2.0 (O’Reilly 2005 at or the social Web. All these terms refer to the layering of social interaction and online content. Popular genres of social media include: instant messaging, blogs, social network sites, and video/photosharing sites.

Living and Learning with New Media

1. The seven postdoctoral researchers included Sonja Baumer (University of California, Berkeley), Matteo Bittanti (University of California, Berkeley), Heather A. Horst (University of Southern California/University of California, Berkeley), Patricia G. Lange (University of Southern California), Katynka Z. Martínez (University of Southern California), C. J. Pascoe (University of California, Berkeley), and Laura Robinson (University of Southern California).

2. The six doctoral students included danah boyd (University of California, Berkeley), Becky Herr-Stephenson (University of Southern California), Mahad Ibrahim (University of California, Berkeley), Dilan Mahendran (University of California, Berkeley), Dan Perkel (University of California, Berkeley), and Christo Sims (University of California, Berkeley).

3. The nine master’s students included Judd Antin (University of California, Berkeley), Alison Billings (University of California, Berkeley), Megan Finn (University of California, Berkeley), Arthur Law (University of California, Berkeley), Annie Manion (University of Southern California), Sarai Mitnick (University of California, Berkeley), Paul Poling (University of California, Berkeley), David Schlossberg (University of California, Berkeley), and Sarita Yardi (University of California, Berkeley).

4. Judy Suwatanapongched is a JD student at the University of Southern California.

5. Rachel Cody was a project assistant at the University of Southern California.

6. The seven undergraduates are Max Besbris (University of California, Berkeley), Brendan Callum (University of Southern California), Allison Dusine (University of California, Berkeley), Lou-Anthony Limon (University of California, Berkeley), Renee Saito (University of Southern California), Tammy Zhu (University of Southern California), and Sam Jackson (Yale).

7. The collaborators include Natalie Boero, an Assistant Professor of Sociology at San Jose State University; Scott Carter, a PhD candidate at the University of California, Berkeley who now works at FXPal; Lisa Tripp, Assistant Professor of School Media and Youth Services, College of Information, Florida State University; and Jennifer Urban, Clinical Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Southern California.

8. Full descriptions of individual research studies conducted by members of the Digital Youth project are provided online at

9. Like many teens, Missy wrote using typical social media shorthand. Translated, her comment would read: "Hey, hmm, what to say? I don’t know. Laughing out loud. Well I left you a comment. . . . You should feel special haha (smiley face)."

10. "G" is slang for "gangsta," in this case an affectionate term for a friend.

11. We capitalize the term "Friends" when we are referring to the social network site feature for selecting Friends.

12. Although a variety of search engines are available to digital youth, across different case studies there are frequent references to Google. Some youth use various permutations such as "Googling," "Googled," and "Googler" as normative information-seeking language. The ubiquitous nature of Google may indicate that the idea of "Googling" has been normalized into the media ecology of digital youth such that for many Googling may be considered synonymous with information seeking itself.

13. Anime music videos (AMVs) are remix fan videos, in which editors will combine footage from anime with other soundtracks. Most commonly, editors will use popular Euro-American music, but some will also edit to movie trailer or TV ad soundtracks or to pieces of dialogue from movies and TV.

14. Vidding, like AMVs, is a process of remixing footage from TV shows and movies to soundtracks of an editor’s choosing. Unlike AMVs, however, the live-action vidding community has been dominated by women.

15. Hyphy is a rap genre that originated in the San Francisco Bay Area and is closely associated with the late rapper Marc Dre and with Fabby Davis Junior. Hyphy music is often categorized as rhythmically uptempo with a focus on eclectic instrumental beat arrangements, and it is also tightly coupled with particular dance styles.

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