publisher colophon

Index

Page numbers followed by f or t refer to figures and tables, respectively.

AAC Memory Dumper, 134

Academic freedom, 67, 83, 97, 156t

Access control

Copyright Act and, 35

Corley case and, 105, 110

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 201

digital signatures and, 49

hackers and, 4, 61

iTunes and, 134

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 35, 46

passwords and, 48, 64, 130

rights of access and, 100–101, 136

Section 1201 and, 52

technology and, 35, 46, 48, 52–54, 105, 110, 134, 201n17

White Paper and, 48–49

Activists, 8, 14, 197n3, 198n9. See also Digital rights movement

consumer rights and, 5, 44, 110–111, 155, 156t, 187t

content industry and, 4

Corley case and, 101, 105, 109, 115, 119

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 5, 101

effects of, 175–179

ElcomSoft and, 71, 79–80

fair use and, 10 (see also Fair use)

free speech and, 3

Grey Tuesday and, 165–168

hackers and, 61–62 (see also Hackers)

iTunes and, 125, 144

Judge Kaplan and, 101

organizations of, 188t–196t

policy and, 29, 35, 39

Reimerdes case and, 101

Sit-ins and, 171, 198n8

Sklyarov case and, 63, 68–71, 82

tactics of, 157–160, 166–167, 169t, 171–172

Adobe

BarnesandNoble.com and, 63, 65

call for reprisals against, 67–68

Creative Commons and, 164

digital rights management (DRM) and, 64–65

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and, 66–67, 69, 71

iTunes and, 14

PDF (portable document format) files and, 63

public relations and, 65, 71–72

retreat of, 71–72

Sklyarov case and, 3, 62–83, 85, 91, 104, 155–160, 202n4, 203n8

true-to-print look and, 63

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), 134–143, 146–148

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR), 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

AllHipHop News, 168

Amazon.com, 54, 125, 151

American Association of Law Libraries, 154t, 184t, 196t, 203n8

American Libraries Association, 154t, 182t, 184t, 187t, 192t

Americans with Disabilities Act, 8

Anticircumvention provisions

Campaign for Audiovisual Free Expression (CAFE) and, 160

codifying, 35–47

copy control technology and, 28

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 85, 99, 102

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 10, 28, 35–37, 41–42, 50–52, 57–58, 72–73, 76, 85, 99, 102, 141, 148, 160, 197n2

ElcomSoft and, 76

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 99

fair use and, 10

Green Paper and, 35–37

Hayes and, 141

imagined concerns over, 41

international trade and, 156t

ISP liability and, 42

iTunes and, 141–142

legal statement of, 35–37

Reimerdes case and, 99, 102

Samuelson on, 57–58

Section 1201 and, 52, 148, 202n9

Sklyarov case and, 72, 85, 160

White Paper and, 50–51

Appeals, 91–94, 100, 121–122, 198n10

Apple

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) and, 134–143, 146–148

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) and, 135

digital rights management (DRM) and, 14–15, 54, 125, 127–151, 170, 172, 205n3, 206n18

end-user license agreement (EULA) of, 205n2

iTunes and, 127–136, 141–151, 205nn1–3 (see also iTunes)

QuickTime and, 134

AppleRecords, 132

Ashcroft, John, 68

Association for Computing Machinery, 196t, 203n8

Association of Software Publishers, 22

Attaway, Fritz, 22

Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA), 26, 35, 50, 199n4

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF), 135

BannedMusic, 168

Barlow, John Perry, 55–56

BarnesandNoble.com, 63, 65

Battle Cart, 168

Battle Labs, 168–172, 177, 207n3

BBC, 168

Beatles, 165

Berkeley Boalt School of Law, 188t

Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 162, 166, 190t

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 51, 202n7

Bernstein v. US Department of State, 202n3

Billboard Magazine, 168

BitTorrent, 124, 169t, 170

Blackman, David, 134

Blogdex, 167

BlogTorrent, 169t, 170

Blume, Stuart, 199n16

Bookstores, 53–54

Boucher, Richard, 73

Boyle, James, 6, 47–48, 55–57, 175, 201n3

Broadcast Machine, 170

Brown, Ronald H., 20

Bulletin boards, 33, 39, 49, 116

Bunner case, 97–98, 105, 203nn3–4

California Superior Court and, 88, 90

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 88–90, 93–95

copyright and, 88–91

cryptography and, 87–90

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 88–95

distribution and, 90

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 88–95

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 88, 90–94, 99

fair use and, 88, 95

First Amendment and, 88, 91–92

hackers and, 88–93

Internet and, 88–91

licensing and, 88, 90

Pavlovich and, 111

reverse engineering and, 94

source code and, 88–91

X-ing and, 88, 90

Burton, Brian, 165–168

Burton, Joseph, 73

California Superior court, 88, 90, 98

Campaign for Audiovisual Free Expression (CAFE), 160

Carnegie Mellon’s Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, 107

Cease-and-desist letters, 65, 104, 141, 165–168

Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT), 190t

Chicago Lock Co. v. Fanberg, 202n5

Chilling Effects: Cease-and-Desist Clearinghouse, 191t

Civil disobedience, 3, 45, 94, 118–119, 142, 165, 168, 201n4, 204n5

Civil rights movement, 198n8

Click-through agreements, 5, 88, 90, 128

Clinton, Bill, 20

CNET, 67

CNN, 67

Coalition to Free Dmitry, 71

Code

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) and, 134–143, 146–148

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR), 65

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) and, 135

Bunner case and, 88–91

as computer instructions, 78, 79

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 85–87 (see also Content Scrambling System (CSS))

Corley case and, 98, 100–101, 103, 107–108, 110, 119–120

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 79–80, 85, 87–88, 99–100, 103, 107, 110, 119

description of, 78

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 101

embedded, 49

encryption and, 3 (see also Encryption)

enforcement and, 10–12

First Amendment and, 78

free speech and, 78–80

HTML (hypertext markup language) and, 104

iTunes and, 131, 133, 143

Kaplan decision and, 121–122

as law, 11

as lock pick, 74–75, 78–79

master key and, 80, 86, 88

MyTunes and, 133

nonspeech elements and, 78–79

open applications and, 87

politics and, 80

regulatory power of, 11–12

Reimerdes case and, 98, 100–101

reverse engineering and, 78 (see also Reverse engineering)

Sarovar.org and, 141–142

X-ing, 90

Code war, 10, 134

DeDRMS and, 143–144

FairKeys and, 144–146

iOpener and, 146–148

JHymn and, 146–148

software bloom and, 141–148

Commissioner of Patents, 20

Committee on Applications and Technology, 20

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA), 155

Comp.text.pdf, 65

Computer professionals, 42, 154t, 191t, 196t

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR), 191t

Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), 200n13, 201n14

Consumer Project on Technology, 203n8

Consumer rights, 5, 44, 110–111, 155, 156t, 187t–188t

Content owners

click-through agreements and, 5, 88, 90, 128

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 44–45, 48–50, 55, 82

digital rights movement and, 44–45, 48–50, 55

fear of rampant copying and, 111–115

iTunes and, 133

policy and, 18, 22–23, 27–28, 35

terms of service agreement (TOSA) and, 127–129, 131, 137, 205n2

Content Scrambling System (CSS), 80

Bunner case and, 88–90, 93–95

Corley case and, 105–115, 119

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 85–87 (see also Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS))

digital rights management (DRM) and, 86

licensing and, 86–87

master key and, 86, 88

Matsushita and, 3

tactics of digital rights movement and, 171

Toshiba and, 3

Copy control

access control and, 105, 134

anticircumvention provisions and, 28 (see also Anticircumvention provisions)

Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA) and, 26

copyright and, 12 (see also Copyright)

Corley case and, 105

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3, 86 (see also DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA))

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 155

exclusive rights and, 18–19, 22–23, 31, 35, 37, 51–54, 77, 81, 200n10

Macrovision and, 87, 203n1

peer-to-peer technologies and, 34, 44, 123–124, 131, 143–147, 160, 164–167, 170, 172, 198n12, 201n6, 204nn7–8

reverse engineering and, 102

Section 1201 and, 202n9

technology and, 12, 26, 28, 52–53, 58, 86, 99, 102, 105, 134, 155, 202n9

Copyfight, 57, 154t, 189t

Copyright, 176, 201n6

access control and, 53

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) case and, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

all works of authorship and, 19

anticircumvention provisions and, 35, 58 (see also Anticircumvention provisions)

balance of, 41

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and, 51, 202n7

Boyle on, 6

Bunner case and, 88–91

code-free DVD players and, 203n4

codifying, 20

copy control and, 12 (see also Copy control)

Corley case and, 91, 93, 97–123

creative benefits and, 44

Creative Commons and, 8, 47, 57, 154, 162–164, 173, 188t–189t, 193t, 198n9, 206n2

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 50–54 (see also Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA))

digital rights management (DRM) and, 15, 189t–196t (see also Digital rights management (DRM))

distribution channels and, 47, 124

DVD Copyright Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3 (see also DVD Copyright Control Association (DVD CCA))

ElcomSoft and, 65–66, 71–77, 80–82, 202n7

Electronics Industry Association and, 22

enforcement of, 13, 26, 38, 179 (see also Regulation)

exclusive rights and, 18–19, 22–23, 31, 35, 37, 51–54, 77, 81, 200n10

expansion of, 19–20, 27, 55–56, 200n12

fair use and, 23, 33 (see also Fair use)

fear of rampant copying and, 111–115

flexible, 188t

framing strategy for, 10

free speech and, 27

good-faith assumption and, 53–54

Green Paper and, 21, 28, 50 (see also Green Paper)

increasing criminal liability and, 49–50

infringement on, 10

iTunes and, 128, 130, 133, 136, 141–144, 147–151

Library of Congress and, 19

licensing and, 17 (see also Licensing)

as limited property right, 47–48

Macrovision and, 87, 203n2

National Copywrong Day and, 46

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act and, 48, 201n5

permissions and, 18, 64–65, 87, 164

personal use and, 3, 22–23, 26–28, 42, 53–54, 128, 206n19

piracy and, 28, 37, 45, 56, 74, 79, 82, 89, 113–114, 121, 123–124, 144

printed works and, 54

privatization of speech and, 57

purpose of, 23

Reimerdes case and, 97–98, 101–102

royalties and, 18, 86

Section 501 and, 36

Section 512 and, 36

Sklyarov case and, 3, 63, 65–83, 85, 91, 104, 155–160, 202n4, 203n8

social contract and, 47

tactics of digital rights movement and, 153–173

term limits and, 19

user-centered view of, 42

US law on, 5, 7, 10, 18–20, 48, 50–51, 198n9, 204n8

violation of, 37

White Paper and, 48, 50 (see also White Paper)

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 21 (see also Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP))

Copyright Act

Green Paper and, 28–37

of 1790, 19

of 1831, 19

of 1870, 19

of 1901, 19

of 1957, 142

of 1976, 19, 28–37, 48, 200nn7–9

Copyright land grab, 6

Copyright Term Extension Act, 199n1

Corley case

access control and, 105, 110

activists and, 101, 105, 109, 115, 119

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 105–115, 119

copy control and, 105

copyright and, 91, 93, 97–123

Corley’s allies and, 105–111

decision of, 121–122

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 97–123

distribution and, 99–100, 114, 119–123

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 106, 111–113

expanding injunction and, 102–105

fair use and, 99, 103–105, 109–111, 115, 121, 198n10

fear of rampant copying and, 111–115

First Amendment and, 104, 107–109, 117, 121, 122t

free speech and, 98, 101, 115, 121

hackers and, 103, 110, 115–119

innovation and, 103, 109, 111, 113

Internet and, 98–99, 103, 106t, 107, 110–114, 118, 123

Judge Kaplan and, 101, 107–108, 118–119, 121–123, 204n1

licensing and, 105, 111–112, 114

Pavlovich and, 111, 119–121

phreaking and, 97–98

reverse engineering and, 101–103, 109–112

source code and, 98, 100–101, 103, 107–108, 110, 119–120

themes in supporter statements and, 109–111

themes in testimony and, 115–121

Touretsky and, 106–110, 115, 119, 123

2600 magazine and, 97–98, 103–105, 115–119

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 110

Counterpane Internet Security Inc., 112

Crackers, 68, 197n1

Creative Commons, 8, 154t, 198n9

Adobe and, 164

Berkman Center for Internet and Society and, 162

digital rights management (DRM) and, 173

digital rights movement 47, 57, 188t–189t, 193t

Lessig and, 162

licenses of, 163t

restructuring legal structure and, 162–164

tactics of, 162–164, 206n2

Creativity, 179

Boyle on, 57

participatory culture and, 9, 47, 164–165, 170, 178

policy and, 27

tactics of digital rights movement and, 166, 168

White Paper and, 43–44, 46

Cryptography, 87–90, 99, 101–103, 106t, 108

Cultural commons, 5–6, 47, 56–57

Danger Mouse, 165–168

Davies, Chris, 132

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS), 83, 202n3

access control and, 201

activists and, 3, 5, 101

anticircumvention and, 85, 99, 102

Bunner case and, 88–95

Corley case and, 97–123

development of, 3

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 3

distribution and, 3

DVD Copyright Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3, 8, 86–94, 97–99, 105, 111, 119–120, 134, 203nn3–4

DVDs and, 3, 85–103, 105, 109–115, 119–121, 124, 134, 201n17

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 159–160

encryption and, 3, 86–90, 98, 102, 107–113, 120, 125

fear of rampant copying and, 111–115

free speech and, 3, 85, 95

futility of banning, 119

innovation and, 85

iTunes and, 127, 134, 150

Johansen and, 205n10

Linux and, 85, 87–89, 101–102, 109, 111, 113, 115, 119–121, 201n17

Mac OS and, 3

media attention of, 87

movie industry and, 86–90, 93, 98–102, 106, 112–114, 121–124

normative power of law and, 198n9

origins of, 85–88

Reimerdes case and, 97–102

source code of, 3, 79–80, 85, 87–88, 99–100, 103, 107, 110, 119

tactics of digital rights movement and, 155, 159–160, 171, 173

Touretsky and, 106–109, 115, 119, 123

US Title 17 and, 51

Windows OS and, 3, 87–88, 102, 120–121

DeDRMS, 143–145, 149t, 206n18

DefCon, 66, 69

Defense Fund, 168

DHB Chapter Sites, 168, 170

Dibona, Chris, 113–114

Digital Future Coalition (DFC), 194t

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 59, 61

activists and, 63 (see also Activists)

acts of identification and, 204n6

amendments to, 73

anticircumvention provisions and, 10, 28, 35–37, 41–42, 50–52, 57–58, 72–73, 76, 85, 99, 102, 141, 148, 160, 197n2

Barlow and, 55–56

Boyle and, 56–57

Campaign for Audiovisual Free Expression (CAFE) and, 160

consumer practices and, 5

content owners and, 44–45, 48–50, 55, 82

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3

ElcomSoft and, 64–66, 71–82, 202nn4–5, 202n7, 203nn9–10

emerging case law and, 5

fair use and, 28, 73 (see also Fair use)

feasibility issues and, 56

First Amendment and, 198n10

free speech and, 67

Green Paper and, 32, 41–45, 48, 50

inconsistencies in, 55

initial resistance to, 55–59

innovation and, 67, 198n10

iTunes and, 127, 141, 148–150

as law, 63

legislative history of, 4, 18, 61, 175

Litman and, 58, 199n2

opposition to, 5

Samuelson and, 57–58

Section 1201 and, 51–53, 66, 99, 102, 105, 109, 113, 148, 156t, 202n9, 204n6, 205n11

Sklyarov case and, 3, 63, 65–83, 85, 91, 104, 155–160, 202n4, 203n8

statute amendments and, 20

tactics of digital rights movement and, 156t, 159–161

US Congress and, 18, 28, 32, 51, 58, 68, 73, 76–77, 82, 105, 109, 122, 202n7

US Constitution and, 74

White Paper and, 32, 41, 46–51, 55–58, 201n5

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 197n2 (see also Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP))

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and, 51

Digital rights management (DRM)

Adobe and, 64–65

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) and, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

Amazon and, 54

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 86

Creative Commons and, 173

DeDRMS and, 143–145, 149t, 206n18

digital rights movement and, 156t, 160, 170, 172–173

distribution and, 86, 125

drms.c and, 137–138, 143–144, 149t

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 14

Green Paper and, 34

iTunes and, 14–15, 54, 125, 127–151, 170, 172, 205n3, 206n18

Johansen and, 134, 137–138, 140, 143, 145, 151

licensing and, 54, 160

limited copying privileges and, 86

user agency and, 15

VideoLan Client (VLC) and, 206n15

Digital rights movement

access rights and, 7

Boyle on, 57

civil disobedience and, 3, 45, 94, 118–119, 142, 165, 168, 201n4, 204n5

coalescence of, 5–9

content owners and, 44–45, 48–50, 55

control of culture and, 4

Creative Commons and, 8, 47, 57, 154t, 162–164, 173, 188t–189t, 193t, 198n9, 206n2

cultural commons and, 5–6, 47, 56–57

cultural products and, 4–7, 10, 18, 23, 27, 55–57, 164, 175–177

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 85–125, 155, 159–160, 171, 173

digital rights management (DRM) and, 156t, 160, 170, 172–173

distribution issues and, 160, 164, 170–173

Downhill Battle and, 154, 164–171, 173, 178, 192t–193t

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 155–161 (see also Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF))

fair use and, 57 (see also Fair use)

free speech and, 4 (see also Free speech)

general consumer rights and, 5

hackers and, 153–154, 162, 164, 171–173

iCommons and, 164

individuals vs. organizations and, 8

Internet and, 154t, 156t, 162, 165–167, 170–172, 206n18

key players and, 153, 171, 178

mass virtual direct action (MVDA) and, 171–172

meaning of, 178

organizations of, 154t, 188t–196t

origins of, 41–59

participatory rights and, 7, 178

policy and, 17–18 (see also Policy)

popularity of, 4

social movement organizations (SMOs) and, 8, 10, 68, 95, 153–155, 162, 171–173

tactics of, 152–173

technological regimes and, 11

user agency and, 41–50, 55–58, 155, 160, 164, 170–171

Digital signatures, 49

Distribution, 7–8, 52

access to systems for, 18, 46

Barlow on, 56

Bunner case and, 90

copyright and, 47, 124

Corley case and, 99–100, 114, 119–123

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3

defining, 22

digital rights management (DRM) and, 86, 125

encryption and, 49

fair use and, 53 (see also Fair use)

first-sale doctrine and, 30 (see also First-sale doctrine)

iTunes and, 127, 131, 133, 136, 142, 148

licensing and, 54 (see also Licensing)

mp3 format and, 124

peer-to-peer technologies and, 34 (see also Peer-to-peer technologies)

policy and, 18, 22, 26–27, 30–37

sanctions against, 26

Sklyarov case and, 81

tactics of digital rights movement and, 160, 164, 170–173

DJing project, 14

Doctorow, Cory, 164

Donation Bats, 168

Downhill Battle, 154, 178, 192t–193t

Battle labs and, 168–171

Blogdex and, 167

EMI and, 165–168

funding of, 168, 170

Grey Tuesday and, 165–168

issues of, 164–165

media coverage of, 167–168

Popdex and, 167

support for, 167–168

tactics of, 164–171, 173

Zittrain and, 162, 166

Drink or Die (DoD) group, 87

Drms.c, 137–138, 143–144, 149t

DVD CCA v. Andrew Bunner, 88–92, 94, 203nn3–4

Dvd-copy.com, 97

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA), 3, 80, 134, 203nn3–4

Bunner case and, 88–95

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 86–94, 97–99, 105, 111, 119–120

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 3

reverse engineering and, 88

DVDs, 176

code-free players and, 203n4

commercials on, 87, 111

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 3, 80, 85–90, 93–95, 105–115, 119, 171

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 85–103, 105, 109–115, 119–121, 124, 134, 201n17

Drink or Die (DoD) group and, 87

encryption and, 3, 86–90, 98, 102, 107–113, 120, 125

end-user license agreements (EULAs) and, 54

fear of rampant copying and, 111–115

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and, 87

Linux and, 87, 119–121, 204n2

Macrovision and, 87

Masters of Reverse Engineering (MoRe) group and, 87

non-fast-forward sectors and, 87, 111

open-source/free-software movement and, 87, 103, 111, 115, 119–120

policy and, 18, 34

regional formats and, 87

ripping of, 87

Speed Ripper and, 87

VHS recorders and, 87

Windows and, 87

X-ing and, 88, 90

eBooks, 5, 14, 18, 54

Adobe and, 62–72, 76, 81–83, 155, 157–158

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) and, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 86

ElcomSoft and, 64–66, 71–82

hackers and, 92, 171

Microsoft Reader and, 64, 202n1

Sklyarov case and, 63–83

ElcomSoft

activists and, 71, 79–80

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) and, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

anticircumvention provisions and, 76

content-specific regulation and, 74–76

copyright and, 65–66, 71–77, 80–82, 202n7

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 202n7

fair use and, 72–77, 80–82

free speech and, 72, 75–78

hacking and, 65–66, 79–80

Internet and, 71–72, 74, 79–81

Katalov and, 65–67

legal points of, 74–76

motion to dismiss case and, 77–78

password recovery and, 64

reverse engineering and, 78, 81–82, 202n5

right to privacy issues and, 75

US Constitution and, 74

Eldred v. Ashcroft, 162

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), 106, 188t, 203n8

Action Alerts and, 155

anticircumvention provisions and, 99

Barlow and, 55

Bunner case and, 88, 90–94, 99

Campaign for Audiovisual Free Expression (CAFE) and, 160

Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) and, 155

copy control and, 155

Corley case and, 106, 111–113

fair use and, 83

fear of rampant copying and, 111–112

free speech and, 68, 155–156

Gilmore and, 111

Gross and, 113

innovation and, 157, 173

issue campaigns of, 155

issues covered by, 156t–157t

Kaplan and, 101, 107–108, 118–119, 121–123, 204n1

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 55

Parlow and, 55

Reimerdes case and, 99, 101

reverse engineering and, 101

Sklyarov case and, 68–73, 83, 155, 157–160, 203n8

source code and, 101

tactics of, 155–161

US Congress and, 173

Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), 189t, 203n8

Electronics Industry Association, 22

Elving, William, 90–91

EMI, 165–168

Encryption

certainty of defeat of, 45

decryption keys and, 49

DVDs and, 3, 86–90, 98, 102, 107–113, 120, 125

hackers and, 14 (see also Hackers)

iTunes and, 128–129, 134–137, 143, 146, 206n14

policy and, 35

Sklyarov case and, 65–83

End-user license agreement (EULA), 14, 54, 127–131, 144, 205n2

Exgae, 7

Explorer, 176

FairKeys, 144–146, 149t

FairPlay, 134, 142

Fair use, 47, 61, 190t, 194t, 198n6

anticircumvention provisions and, 10

artists and, 168

books and, 53–54

Boyle on, 57

Bunner case and, 88, 95

codifying, 20, 33–34, 177

Conference on Fair Use (CONFU) and, 200n13, 201n14

consumer’s surrender of, 53–54

copy control and, 52–53

Corley case and, 99, 103–105, 109–111, 115, 121, 198n10

ElcomSoft and, 72–77, 80–82

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 83

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 54

expansion of, 43–44

Green Paper and, 33–36, 42–43, 50

iTunes and, 127–128, 135–136, 142–149

legal interpretation of, 200n12

legal issues and, 4–6, 9–10

liability of infringement and, 43

libraries and, 22–23, 200n13

licensing schemes and, 58

master frame for, 10

meaning of, 9–10

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 21–23, 27, 42, 44, 58–59

personal use and, 3, 22–23, 26–28, 42, 53–54, 128, 206n19

Reimerdes case and, 99, 103–105

restrictive technology and, 175–176

second takers and, 168

Sklyarov case and, 68–69, 72–73

user-centered meanings for, 160

White Paper and, 50, 58–59, 200n13

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 21, 26, 29, 34, 42

“Fair Use: The Fight for Consumer Rights” (Fries), 110

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 66–67, 69, 71, 87

Feenberg, Andrew, 199n15

Felten et al. v. RIAA, 155, 198n10

Fenwic and West, 141

Firefox (Mozilla), 151

First Amendment, 189t, 191t

Bunner case and, 88, 91–92

code and, 78

Corley case and, 104, 107–109, 117, 121, 122t

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 198n10

Felten et al. v. RIAA and, 198n10

Garbus and, 104–105, 204n3

Sklyarov case and, 67, 74, 77–78, 202n7, 203n9

First-sale doctrine, 4, 175, 194t

codifying, 20, 30–33, 200n10

consumer practice and, 53

control limitations and, 47

digital media and, 44

Green Paper and, 29, 30–32, 35

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 44

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 44

Free App a Day (FAAD), 141

Freebooting, 56

Free Culture Forum, 7

Freedmitry.org, 71–72

Free Knowledge Institute, 7

Freesklyarov.org, 71–72

Free Software Foundation (FSF), 143, 188t

Free speech, 4, 176–177, 188t, 190t, 204n2

Barlow on, 56

Boyle on, 57

Bunner case and, 91–93, 95

code and, 78–80

Corley case and, 98, 101, 115, 121

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 85, 95

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 67–68

ElcomSoft and, 72, 75–78

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 68, 155–156

entertainment products and, 155

fair use and, 10 (see also Fair use)

First Amendment and, 67, 74, 77–78, 88, 91–92, 104, 107–109, 117, 122, 189t, 191t, 198n10, 202n7, 203n9, 204n3

Green Paper and, 42

Internet and, 204n2

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 26

Reimerdes case and, 98, 101

rights activism and, 61

Sklyarov case and, 67–83, 155

user practices and, 5, 27

Frewing, Scott, 81

Fries, Bruce, 110

Future of Music Coalition (FMC), 195t

Gallery of CSS De-Scramblers, 106–107, 119

Garbus, Martin, 104–105, 204n3

General Public License (GNU GPL), 65

Germany, 87–88

Get Democracy, 195t

GetTunes, 133–134, 149t

Gillespie, Taleton, 17

Gilmore, John, 111–112, 114, 203n4

Glitches, 17

Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC), 189t

Goeckner, Gregory, 113

Good-faith assumptions, 53

Google, 178–179

Granick, Jennifer, 72

Graphical user interface (GUI), 138, 140, 206n16

Green Paper, 200n12

anticircumvention provisions and, 35–37

comments on, 38–39, 42–45, 48, 183t–187t

computer professionals and, 42–43

copying and, 29–30

Copyright Act of 1976 and, 28–37

critics of, 200n11

as crucial policy, 37

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 32, 41–45, 48, 50

digital rights management (DRM) and, 34

fair use and, 33–36, 42–43, 50

first-sale doctrine and, 29–32, 35

free speech and, 38, 42

hackers and, 42

innovation and, 35–36, 42

international treaties and, 199n5

law professors and, 42–43

licensing and, 42

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 21, 28–50, 199n5

Rothman on, 38–39

transmission and, 29–30

US Constitution and, 43

White Paper and, 41 (see also White Paper)

Grey Album, The (Danger Mouse), 165–168

GreyTuesday.org, 166–168

Grokster, 10, 18, 204n8

Gross, Robin, 113

Gurus, 55

Hackademy, 179

Hackers, 17, 61, 176

access control and, 4, 61

as assassins, 121–122

brazen statements by, 99–100

Bunner case and, 88–93

civil disobedience and, 204n5

Corley case and, 97–123

crackers and, 68, 197n1

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 85, 201n17 (see also Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS))

DefCon and, 66, 69

eBook, 5, 92, 171

ElcomSoft and, 65–66, 79–80

ethic of, 103, 110, 115–121

fair use and, 50 (see also Fair use)

Green Paper and, 42

iTunes and, 14–15, 79, 125, 127–151, 171, 177

key store and, 140, 206n18

LaMacchia and, 49

mass virtual direct action (MVDA) and, 171–172

meaning of term, 197n1

as misunderstood by society, 103

newsgroups and, 65

normative power of law and, 198n9

participatory culture and, 9

personal use and, 14

phreaking and, 97–98, 197n1

politics and, 12

Reimerdes case and, 97–102

reverse engineering and, 78, 81–82, 87–90, 94, 101–103, 109–112, 138, 202n5, 203nn2–3

rights of access and, 100–101, 136

Section 1201 and, 52, 148

Sklyarov case and, 65–83

Slashdot.org and, 67

social movement organizations (SMOs) and, 8, 10, 68, 95, 153–155, 162, 171–173

source code and, 79

SourceForge and, 131, 134, 141, 168

speech/nonspeech elements and, 80

tactics of digital rights movement and, 153–154, 162, 164, 171–173

as technological resistance, 12

2600 magazine and, 97–98, 103–105, 115–119

understanding of authority and, 116–117

Web sites for, 65, 67, 97, 102, 108

White Paper and, 50

work-arounds and, 8, 17, 50, 62, 132, 176, 205n7

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (Levy), 116

Hackerware, 93

“Hacktivism,” 8, 171–172

“Ham,” 87

Hammerton, David, 132

Harvard Law School, 110, 162, 190t

Hayes, David, 141

Hocevar, Sam, 137–140

Holcomb, Gus, 132

Home Recording Rights Coalition (HRRC), 196t

HTML (hypertext markup language), 104

Hymn Project

iTunes and, 138–149, 171, 206n16, 206n18

Mac OS and, 138

PlayFair and, 143

Windows OS and, 138

iCommons, 164

iCommune, 131–133, 149t

iLeech, 132–133, 149t

Illegal Art, 168

Immediate fixation, 29–32

India, 141–143

Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF), 20, 24t, 175, 183t

Information Policy Committee, 20

Innovation, 4

activist organizations and, 188t–190t

Barlow on, 56

Boyle on, 57

Corley case and, 103, 109, 111, 113

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 85

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 67, 198n10

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 157

Green Paper and, 35–36, 42

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 42

Sklyarov case and, 67–68, 83, 157

stifling of, 55–57, 67

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) hearings and, 181t, 184t

Innovation Award, 173

Intellectual property. See also Creativity

anticircumvention provisions and, 35–37 (see also Anticircumvention provisions)

Barlow on, 55–56

Boyle and, 56–57

Bunner case and, 88–95, 97–99, 105, 111, 203nn3–4

Corley case and, 91, 93, 97–123, 198n10

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3, 80, 86–94, 97–99, 105, 111, 119–120, 134, 203nn3–4

ElcomSoft and, 64–66, 71–82, 202nn4–5, 202n7, 203nn9–10

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 99, 101

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 14, 54, 127–131, 144, 205n2

General Public License (GNU GPL) and, 65

incentives for, 197n4

natural rights and, 57

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act and, 48, 201n5

patents and, 18, 20, 43, 55

piracy and, 28, 37, 45, 56, 74, 79, 82, 89, 113–114, 121, 123–124, 144

politics and, 6

Reimerdes case and, 91–93, 97–102

trade secrets and, 88, 90–94, 202n5

US Constitution and, 18–19, 43, 58

watermarking and, 49, 157t

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 20 (see also Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP))

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and, 51, 74, 157t, 197n2

Internet, 176

activist organizations and, 188t–191t, 195t–196t

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) source code on, 65

bulletin boards and, 33, 39, 49, 116

Bunner case and, 88–91

content industry and, 4

as contested space, 55–56

Corley case and, 98–99, 103, 106–107, 110–114, 118, 123

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) source code posted on, 3

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 5 (see also Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA))

DVD Copy Control Association’s legal campaign and, 3

ElcomSoft and, 71–72, 74, 79–81

envisioning future of, 21–28

formulation process and, 55

free speech and, 204n2

future vision for, 21–28

Google and, 178–179

gurus of, 55

hackers and, 61 (see also Hackers)

iTunes and, 130–134, 142

Lessig and, 11

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 18 (see also National Information Infrastructure (NII))

open-source software and, 46

PDF (portable document format) documents and, 63

Pew Internet and American Life Project and, 204n7

piracy and, 28

policy debate over, 17

politics and, 55–56

Reimerdes case and, 98–99

Section 1201 and, 53

Sklyarov case and, 65–72

Stanford Center for Internet and Society and, 57

tactics of digital rights movement and, 154t, 156t, 162, 165–167, 170–172, 206n18

White Paper and, 49

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 26 (see also Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP))

Internet service providers (ISPs), 42, 55, 65, 130–131, 156t

“In the Trenches: Reports from the DMCA Battlefield” (Gross), 113

iOpener, 146–148, 149t

iPods, 123, 127, 140, 142, 146–147, 150–151, 206n16, 206n18

iRC, 39

Isaac Hackimov, 179

iSlurp, 132–133, 149t

iTMS4ALL, 169t, 170–171

iTunes, 92

access control and, 134

activists and, 125, 144

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) and, 134–143, 146–148

anticircumvention provisions and, 141–142

Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) and, 135

content owners and, 133

copyright and, 128, 130, 133, 136, 141–144, 147–151

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 127, 134, 150

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 127, 141, 148–150

digital rights management (DRM) and, 14–15, 54, 125, 127–151, 170, 172, 205n3, 206n18

distribution and, 127, 131, 133, 136, 142, 148

drms.c and, 137–138, 143–144, 149t

early circumvention and, 130–133

encryption and, 128–129, 134–137, 143, 146, 206n14

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 127–131, 144

FairKeys and, 144–146, 149t

FairPlay and, 134, 142

fair use and, 127–128, 135–136, 142–149

GetTunes and, 133–134, 149t

hackers and, 79, 125, 127–151, 171

Hymn Project and, 138–149, 206n16

iCommune and, 131–133, 149t

iLeech and, 132–133, 149t

Internet and, 130–134, 142

iOpener and, 146–148, 149t

iPods and, 123, 127, 140, 142, 146–147, 150–151, 206n16, 206n18

iSlurp and, 132–133, 149t

iTunes Music Store (iTMS) and, 127–134, 137, 142, 144–151, 171, 205n1, 205n3, 206n18

Johansen and, 134, 137–138, 140, 143, 145, 151

key store and, 140, 206n18

licensing and, 128, 130, 144

Linux and, 132, 136, 138

Mac OS and, 130–135, 138–140, 146–147, 206n16, 206n18

movies and, 127, 134

mp4 files and, 134–135

MyTunes and, 133–134, 149t, 205n9

open-source/free-software movement and, 131–133, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 176

OurTunes and, 134, 149t

PlayFair and, 138–143, 147, 149t, 151, 206n16, 206n18

popularity of, 127, 205n1

QTFairUse and, 133–136, 140–141, 149t

Rendezvous feature and, 130–134

reverse engineering and, 138

Sarovar.org and, 141–142

source code and, 131, 133, 143

terms of service agreement (TOSA) and, 127–129, 131, 137, 205n2

VideoLan Client (VLC) and, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 149t, 176, 206n12, 206nn14–15

Webcast licensing and, 130–131

Winamp and, 135, 141, 147, 176

Windows OS and, 132–138, 140, 143, 146

iTunesDL, 132, 149t

iTunesTracker, 130, 149t

Jackson, Michael, 165

Java, 147

Jay-Z, 165

Jenkins, Henry, 9, 47

JHymn, 146–148, 149t

Johansen, Jon, 171, 178, 205n10

Bunner case and, 89–90

DeDRMS and, 143

FairKeys and, 144–146, 149t

Innovation Award and, 173

iTunes and, 134, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 149t, 151

PodKey and, 206n18

VideoLan Client (VLC) and, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 149t

Johnson, Richard, 45

Jones, Norah, 167

Journalism, 85, 97, 104, 117–118, 156t, 187t, 196t, 204n4

Kane-Jeeves, Mahatma, 45

Kaplan, Lewis, 101, 107–108, 118–119, 121–123, 204n1

Katalov, Alexander, 65–67

Kazan, Roman, 97, 102

Key store, 140, 206n18

LaMacchia, David, 49–50

Lasica, J. D., 47

Law professors, 42–44, 48, 55, 160, 175, 193t

Legal issues, 176

academic freedom and, 67, 83, 97, 156t

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) case and, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

anticircumvention provisions and, 35–37, 141 (see also Anticircumvention provisions)

appeals and, 91–94, 100, 121–122, 198n10

Bernstein v. US Department of State, 202n3

Boyle and, 6, 47–48, 55–57, 175, 201n3

Bunner case and, 88–95, 97–99, 105, 111, 203nn3–4

cease-and-desist letters and, 65, 104, 141, 165–168

Chicago Lock Co. v. Fanberg, 202n5

click-through agreements and, 5, 88, 90, 128

copy control and, 52–53

Corley case and, 91, 93, 97–123, 198n10

Creative Commons and, 8, 47, 57, 154, 162–164, 173, 188t–189t, 193t, 198n9, 206n2

distribution and, 52 (see also Distribution)

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3, 80, 86–94, 97–99, 105, 111, 119–120, 134, 203nn3–4

ElcomSoft and, 64–66, 71–82, 202nn4–5, 202n7, 203nn9–10

Eldred v. Ashcroft, 162

emerging case law and, 5

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 14, 54, 127–131, 144, 205n2

exclusive rights and, 18–19, 22–23, 31, 35, 37, 51–54, 77, 81, 200n10

fair use and, 4–6, 9–10 (see also Fair use)

Felten et al. v. RIAA, 155, 198n10

First Amendment, 67, 74, 77–78, 88, 91–92, 104, 107–109, 117, 122, 122t, 189t, 191t, 198n10, 202n7, 203n9, 204n3

First-sale doctrine and, 30–33 (see also First-sale doctrine)

free speech and, 26 (see also Free speech)

General Public License (GNU GPL) and, 65

increasing criminal liability and, 49–50

Judge Elving and, 90–91

Judge Kaplan and, 101, 107–108, 118–119, 121–123, 204n1

law professors and, 42–44, 48, 55, 160, 175, 193t

Lessig and, 8–11, 55, 57, 72–75, 122t, 154t, 162, 164, 178, 189t, 193t, 201n3

licensing and, 18 (see also Licensing)

Litman and, 39, 43–44, 48, 55, 58, 122t, 186t, 199n2, 200n12, 201n14

MGM v. Grokster, 10, 204n8

Napster case and, 18, 37, 63, 123, 130

New York Times Co. v. United States, 92

normative power of law and, 9, 198n9

participatory rights and, 7, 178

permissions and, 18, 64–65, 87, 164

piracy and, 28, 37, 45, 56, 74, 79, 82, 89, 113–114, 121, 123–124, 144

Playboy Enterprises v. Frena, 33

plea bargaining and, 73

RealNetworks, Inc. v. Streambox, Inc., 198n10

Reimerdes case and, 91–93, 97–102

restraining orders and, 99

reverse engineering and, 90 (see also Reverse engineering)

rights of access and, 100–101, 136

Samuelson and, 28, 55, 57–58, 106t, 109–110, 122t, 187t–188t, 200n12, 202n8, 202n10

Section 1201 and, 51–53, 66, 99, 102, 105, 109, 113, 148, 156t, 202n9, 204n6, 205n11

Sega Enterprise Ltd. v. MAPHIA, 33–34

situated user concept and, 44

Sklyarov case and, 3, 63, 65–83, 85, 91, 104, 155–160, 202n4, 203n8

Sony Corp America v. Universal City Studios Inc., 34, 36, 109

technological protection measures and, 48–50

terms of service agreement (TOSA) and, 127–129, 131, 137, 205n2

trade secrets and, 88, 90–94, 202n5

transmission and, 31 (see also Transmission)

United States v. Dmitry Sklyarov, 65–66, 202n4, 203n8

United States v. ElcomSoft, 74, 76, 78, 81–82, 202n4, 202n7, 203nn9–10

United States v. LaMacchia, 49

Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 91, 100, 103–123, 198n10

Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 92, 99, 102

US Constitution and, 18–19, 26, 43, 58, 68, 73–77, 81, 91, 98, 101, 176, 189t–190t, 192t, 197n4

US Title 17 and, 51

Lehman, Bruce A., 20, 36, 46, 48

Lernvall, Tobias, 132

Lessig, Lawrence

blog of, 189t

Corley case and, 122t

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCCS) and, 122t

digital rights movement and, 154t, 162, 164, 183t, 189t

indirect regulation and, 75

legal issues and, 8–11, 55, 57, 72–75, 122t, 154t, 162, 164, 178, 189t, 193t, 201n3

Sklyarov case and, 72–75

Levy, Steven, 116

Libraries, 6, 10

alternate visions of National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 46–47

American Libraries Association and, 154t, 182t, 184t, 187t, 192t

applications, 206n12

digital rights movement and, 192t, 194t, 196t

fair use and, 23, 200n13

music, 130–134, 137, 146

policy and, 22–23, 38

resistance to Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 55, 175

White Paper and, 41–44

Library of Congress, 19

Licensing, 87, 175–176

Bunner case and, 88, 90

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 86–87

Corley case and, 105, 111–112, 114

Creative Commons and, 8, 47, 57, 154, 162–164, 173, 188t–189t, 193t, 198n9, 206n2

designers and, 17

digital rights management (DRM) and, 160

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3 (see also DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA))

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 14, 54, 127–131, 144, 205n2

enforceability of, 177

General Public License (GNU GPL) and, 65

Green Paper and, 42

iTunes and, 128, 130, 144

master key and, 80, 86, 88

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 17–18, 21, 23, 38, 42, 47

reverse engineering and, 203n2

Sklyarov case and, 81–82

Webcast, 130–131

White Paper and, 58

Linux OS, 188

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 85, 87–89, 101–102, 109, 111, 113, 115, 119–121, 201n17

General Public License (GNU GPL) and, 65

iTunes and, 132, 136, 138

Pavlovich and, 119–121

Litman, Jessica

Green Paper and, 43–44

legal issues and, 39, 43–44, 48, 55, 58, 122t, 186t, 199n2, 200n12, 201n14

situated user and, 44

White Paper and, 48, 55, 58

LiViD, 119

Local Link, 168

Mac OS

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3

GetTunes and, 133–134, 149t

Hymn Project and, 206n16, 206n18

iTunes and, 130–135, 138–140, 146–147, 206n16, 206n18

meaning of technology and, 176

Macrovision, 87, 203n1

MacRumor forums, 135

Mass virtual direct action (MVDA), 171–172

Master key, 80, 86, 88

Masters of Reverse Engineering (MoRe), 87, 134

Matsushita, 85

Meislin, Richard, 104

Metalitz, Steven, 23, 37–38

MGM v. Grokster, 10, 204n8

Microsoft Reader, 64, 202n1

Miller, Robin, 141

Miro, 178

Mirroring, 75, 98, 102–105, 119, 133, 169t

Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) and, 22, 88, 97–105, 108, 111, 113–115, 120, 134, 159

Movies, 3, 54

BlogTorrent and, 169t

code-free DVD players and, 203n4 (see also DVDs)

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 86–90, 93, 98–102, 106, 112–114, 121–124

digital rights organizations and, 191t, 196t

iTunes and, 127, 134

Mozilla Firefox, 151, 176

mp3 format, 124, 133, 135, 147

mp4 format, 134–135

MSNBC, 67

MTV News, 168

Music

BannedMusic and, 168

Battle Labs and, 168–171

copyright and, 128, 130, 133, 136, 141–144, 147–151

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 127, 134, 150

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 127, 141, 148–150

digital rights management (DRM) and, 14–15, 54, 125, 127–151, 170, 172, 205n3, 206n18

distribution and, 127, 131, 133, 136, 142, 148

Downhill Battle and, 164–171, 173

Illegal Art and, 168

iTunes and, 127–151 (see also iTunes)

Napster and, 18, 37, 63, 123, 130

peer-to-peer technologies and, 123–124, 131, 143–147, 201n6, 204nn7–8

PyMusique and, 172

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 24t, 133, 144, 155, 160, 161f, 181t, 186t, 198n10, 204n7

Music Library Association, 203n8

MyTunes, 133–134, 149t, 205n9

Napster, 18, 37, 63, 123, 130

National Copywrong Day, 46

National Information Infrastructure (NII), 4, 185t

access control and, 35, 46

alternative versions of, 44–48

copyright law and, 22

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 55

envisioning future of, 21–28

fair use and, 21–23, 27, 42, 44, 58–59 (see also Fair use)

first-sale doctrine and, 44

free speech and, 26, 38

future vision for, 21–28

Green Paper and, 21, 28–48, 50, 199n5

industry position on, 26, 28

Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) and, 20, 24t, 175, 183t

innovation and, 42

licensing and, 17–18, 21, 23, 38, 42, 47

policy and, 18, 20–23, 26–39

regulation of, 20–22 (see also Regulation)

transmission issues and, 22, 29

White Paper and, 39, 48–51, 55, 57–58

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 20–50, 57–58, 181t

Nesson, Charles, 110

.net framework, 146

Networked Politics, 7

Newsgroups, 65

New Yorker, The, 167

New York Times, 67, 73, 104, 167

New York Times Co. v. United States, 92

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act, 48, 201n5

Normative power of law, 9, 198n9

Norway, 88–90, 187t, 203n3, 205n10

Oakley, Robert, 23

O’Connell, Dan, 66

O’Connor, Sandra Day, 149

Open-source/free-software movement

Battle Labs and, 168–172, 177, 207n3

Bunner case and, 88–99, 105, 111, 203nn3–4

business model for, 56

copyright symbols for, 162–163

Corley case and, 91, 93, 97–123, 198n10

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 201n17 (see also Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS))

DVD players and, 87, 103, 111, 115, 119–120

General Public License (GNU GPL) and, 65

iTunes and, 131–133, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 176

Linux and, 87

LiViD and, 119

Miro and, 178

Mozilla Firefox and, 151, 176

nonspeech elements in code and, 78–80

open applications and, 87

PlayFair and, 138–143, 147, 151, 206n16, 206n18

politics and, 85

as profitable, 46

Reimerdes case and, 91–93, 97–102

services revenue and, 46

SourceForge and, 131

strong allies of, 122

VideoLan Client (VLC) and, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 176, 206n12, 206nn14–15

White Paper and, 49

Orlowski, Andrew, 137

Orwell, George, 97

OurTunes, 134, 149t

Out Media, 196t

Panasonic, 85

Participatory culture, 9, 47, 164–165, 170, 178

Participatory Culture Foundation, 195t

Participatory rights, 7, 178

Passwords, 48, 64, 130

Patents, 18, 20, 43, 55

Patterson, L. R., 47

Pavlovich, Matt, 111, 119–121

PDF (portable document format), 63–65, 68–69

Peer-to-peer technologies, 34, 198n12

music and, 123–124, 131, 143–147, 201n6, 204nn7–8

quality content and, 44

tactics of digital rights movement and, 160, 164–167, 170, 172

Performances, 22, 30–32, 51

Permanent fixation, 200n9

Permissions, 18, 64–65, 87, 164

Personal use, 3, 22–23, 26–28, 42, 53–54, 128, 206n19

Pew Internet and American Life Project, 204n7

Pfaffenberger, Bryan, 198n14

Phreaking, 97–98, 197n1

Piracy

Bunner case and, 89

Corley case and, 113–114, 121, 123

extent of harm from, 45

freebooting and, 56

music and, 144 (see also iTunes)

policy and, 28, 37

Sklyarov case and, 74, 79, 82

PirateBay.org, 124

PlaneteBook.com, 67

Playboy Enterprises v. Frena, 33

PlayFair, 138–143, 147, 149t, 151, 206n16, 206n18

Plea bargaining, 73

PodKey, 206n18

Policy, 175–176

activists and, 29, 35, 39

Americans with Disabilities Act and, 8

Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA) and, 26, 35, 50, 199n4

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and, 51, 202n7

Committee on Applications and Technology and, 20

content owners and, 18, 22–23, 27–28, 35

Copyright Acts and, 19, 28–30, 33, 35, 48, 142, 200n7, 200n9 (see also Copyright)

Copyright Term Extension Act and, 199n1

creativity and, 27

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 56 (see also Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA))

digital rights management (DRM) and, 15 (see also Digital rights management (DRM))

distribution, 18, 22, 26–27, 30–37

DVDs and, 18, 34

Green Paper and, 37, 42 (see also Green Paper)

Information Policy Committee and, 20

libraries and, 22–23, 38

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 18, 20–23, 26–39

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act and, 48, 201n5

Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and, 179

Telecommunications Act and, 35, 201n15

Telecommunications Policy Committee and, 20

user agency and, 17, 20–23, 27–28, 33–34, 37–39

White Paper and, 42, 48 (see also White Paper)

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) and, 20–39

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Copyright Treaty and, 51

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Performance and Phonograms Treaty and, 51

Politics. See also Digital rights movement

civil disobedience and, 3, 45, 94, 118–119, 142, 165, 168, 201n4, 204n5

code and, 80

hackers and, 12

intellectual property and, 6

Internet and, 55–56

mass virtual direct action (MVDA) and, 171–172

open-source/free-software movement and, 85

Touretsky and, 107–108

Winner on, 11–12, 178

Popdex, 167

Pravda, 67

Privacy, 4, 106t, 154t

Boyle on, 57

digital rights organizations and, 188t–191t, 194t

ElcomSoft and, 75

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 155, 156t

Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) and, 203n8

infringement upon, 12

right to, 75

Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and, 179

trade secrets and, 88, 90–94, 202n5

Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, 194t

Programmers, 42

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 87, 89, 101, 106t, 108, 113

digital rights organizations and, 190t

iTunes hacks and, 133–134, 137–138, 157

Sklyarov case and, 72, 76

Public displays, 32

Public Knowledge, 190t

PyMusique, 172

QTFairUse, 133–136, 140–141, 149t

QuickTime, 134

Raymond, Eric, 116, 164, 197n1

Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, 170

RealNetworks, Inc. v. Streambox, Inc., 198n10

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA)

digital rights organizations and, 186t

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 161f

Felten case and, 155, 198n10

music piracy and, 133, 144, 155, 160, 161f, 181t, 186t, 198n10, 204n7

peer-to-peer file sharing and, 160, 204n7

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) hearings and, 24t, 181t

Register, The (magazine), 137

Regulation. See also Policy

content-specific, 74–76

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 56 (see also Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA))

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 3, 80, 86–94, 97–99, 105, 111, 119–120, 134, 203nn3–4

exclusive rights and, 18–19, 22–23, 31, 35, 37, 51–54, 77, 81, 200n10

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and, 66–67, 69, 71, 87

free speech and, 56 (see also Free speech)

indirect, 75

Information Infrastructure Task Force (IITF) and, 20, 24t, 175, 183t

Lessig on, 75

Macrovision, 87, 203n1

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act and, 48, 201n5

Section 1201 and, 51–53, 66, 99, 102, 105, 109, 113, 148, 156t, 204n6, 205n11

US Congress and, 87 (see also US Congress)

Reimerdes case, 91–93

activists and, 101

anticircumvention provisions and, 99, 102

copyright and, 97–102

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 97–102

defining issues in, 101–102

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 99

fair use and, 99, 103–105

free speech and, 98, 101

Internet and, 98–99

reverse engineering and, 101–102

source code and, 98, 100–101

Rendezvous feature, 130–134

Restraining orders, 99

Reuters, 67

Reverse engineering

Bunner case and, 94

copy control and, 102

Corley case and, 101–103, 109–112

digital rights management (DRM) and, 54

DVD Copy Control Association (DVD CCA) and, 88

education and, 203n2

ElcomSoft and, 78, 81–82, 202n5

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 101

hackers and, 78, 81–82, 87–90, 94, 101–103, 109–112, 138, 202n5, 203nn2–3

illustration of, 78

interoperability and, 203n2

iTunes and, 138

licensing and, 203n2

Masters of Reverse Engineering (MoRe) and, 87

Norwegian law and, 90, 203n3

Reimerdes case and, 101–102

Sklyarov case and, 81

Rights of access, 100–101, 136

Rolling Stone magazine, 167

Rose, Dale, 199n16

Rothman, David, 38–39, 45–46

Royalties, 18, 86

Russia

Drink or Die (DoD) group and, 87

ElcomSoft and, 64–66, 71–82

legal issues and, 81–82

Sklyarov case and, 65–83, 157–158

Safari, 176

Samuelson, Pamela

Corley case and, 106t, 109–110, 122t

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DCMA) and, 55, 57–58, 200n12, 202n8

digital rights organizations and, 154t, 188t

Green Paper and, 200n12

legal issues and, 28, 55, 57–58, 106t, 109–110, 122t, 187t–188t, 200n12, 202n8, 202n10

White Paper and, 55

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP) hearings and, 187t

Samuelson Law, Technology, and Public Policy Clinic, 188t

San Jose Mercury News, The, 104

Sarovar.org, 141–142

Schneier, Bruce, 112–113

Schumann, Robert W., 103

Sclove, Richard, 12

Second takers, 168

Sega Enterprise Ltd. v. MAPHIA, 33–34

Self-policing, 143, 146–148, 206n19

Sit-ins, 171, 198n8

Situated user, 44

Sklyarov case, 3, 85, 91, 104, 202n4

activists and, 63, 68–71, 82

Adobe and, 62–72, 76, 81–83, 155, 157–158

anticircumvention provisions and, 72, 85, 160

content-specific regulation and, 74–76

copyright and, 63, 65–73

court system and, 72–82

distribution and, 81

dropped charges and, 72–73

eBooks and, 63–83

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 68–73, 83, 155, 157–160, 203n8

fair use and, 68–69, 72–73

First Amendment and, 67, 74, 77–78, 202n7, 203n9

free speech and, 67–69, 72, 77–78, 81–83, 155

hacking and, 65–70, 82–83

innovation and, 67–68, 83, 157

Internet and, 65–72

licensing and, 81–82

media coverage of, 67, 69

plea bargaining and, 73

reverse engineering and, 81

Russian law and, 81–82

transformative nature of, 66–72

US Constitution and, 67–68, 74, 77–78

US Justice Department and, 72–73, 155, 157

Slashdot.org, 67

Social movement organizations (SMOs), 8, 10, 68, 95, 153–155, 162, 171–173

Sony Corp of America v. Universal City Studios Inc., 34, 36, 109

SourceForge, 131, 134, 141, 168

Speed Ripper, 87

Speth, James, 131–132

Stallman, Richard, 55–56, 116

Stanford Center for Internet and Society, 57, 190t

Steganography, 49, 157t

Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), 179

Students for Free Culture, 193t

Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD), 124

Tabling Database, 168, 170

TeamCom LLC, 110

Technological protection measures (TPMs), 199n15

Technology

access control and, 35, 46, 48, 52–54, 105, 110, 134, 201n17

Advanced eBook Processor (AEBPR) case and, 64–66, 68, 71, 76, 83, 127, 150, 171

anticircumvention provisions and, 35–37 (see also anticircumvention provisions)

central role of, 177

click-through agreements and, 5, 88, 90, 128

consumer hype and, 17

Content Scrambling System (CSS) and, 85–87 (see also Content Scrambling System (CSS))

copy control, 12, 26, 28, 52–53, 58, 86, 99, 102, 105, 134, 155, 202n9

design effects and, 8–9

distribution and, 7–8, 52

DVDs and, 80, 203n4 (see also DVDs)

end-user license agreement (EULA) and, 14, 54, 127–131, 144, 205n2

enforcement, 10–12, 23, 26, 45–50, 57–58, 128–130

hackers and, 17 (see also Hackers)

HTML (hypertext markup language) and, 104

innovation and, 4 (see also Innovation)

lingering, 11

Macrovision, 87, 203n1

as opportunity of digital rights, 177

peer-to-peer, 34, 44, 123–124, 131, 143–147, 160, 164–167, 170, 172, 198n12, 201n6, 204nn7–8

Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds and, 170

resistance through, 12–13, 198n14

strong democracy and, 12

Super Video Compact Disc (SVCD) and, 124

torrent, 18, 124, 169t, 170, 192t

user agency and, 13–15

VCRs and, 22, 34, 87

Video Compact Disk (VCD) and, 124

Telecommunications Act, 35, 201n15

Telecommunications Policy committee, 20

Term limits, 19

Terms of service agreement (TOSA), 127–129, 131, 137, 205n2

Torrent technology, 18, 124, 169t, 170, 192t

Toshiba, 85

Touretsky, David, 3, 80

Corley case and, 106–110, 115, 119, 123

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 106–109, 115, 119, 123

futility of banning DeCSS and, 119

Gallery of CSS De-Scramblers and, 106–107, 119

hacker ethic and, 119

politics and, 107–108

Trade secrets, 88, 90–94, 202n5

Transmission

broadcast flag and, 156t

Copyright Act and, 200n9

defining, 31

first-sale doctrine and, 29–33 (see also First-sale doctrine)

Green Paper and, 29–30

as immediate fixation and, 29–32

legal issues of copying and, 29–30

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 22, 29

shifting technology and, 176

Traphagen, Mark, 22

TunesBrowser, 132

2600 magazine, 97–98, 103–105, 115–119

2600: The Hacker Quarterly (Web site), 97, 102, 108

Unbutu, 176

United States

Americans with Disabilities Act and, 8

Constitution and, 18–19, 26, 43, 58, 68, 73–77, 81, 91, 98, 101, 176, 189t–190t, 192t, 197n4

copyright law and, 5, 7, 10, 18–20, 48, 51, 198n9, 204n8

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and, 66–67, 69, 71, 87

United States v. Dmitry Sklyarov, 65–66, 202n4, 203n8

United States v. ElcomSoft, 74, 76, 78, 81–82, 202n4, 202n7, 203nn9–10

United States v. LaMacchia, 49

Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 91, 100, 103–123, 198n10. See also Corley case

Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 92, 99, 102

US Congress, 196t

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 18, 28, 32, 51, 58, 68, 73, 76–77, 82, 105, 109, 122, 202n7

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, 173

Macrovision and, 203n1

US copyright law and, 18

White Paper and, 39

US Constitution, 176, 197n4

Bunner case and, 91

Corley case and, 98, 101

digital rights organizations and, 189t–190t, 192t

First Amendment and, 67, 74, 77–78, 88, 91–92, 104, 107–109, 117, 122, 189t, 191t, 198n10, 202n7, 203n9, 204n3

intellectual property and, 18–19, 43, 58

policy and, 18–19, 26

Sklyarov case and, 68, 73–77, 81

Usenet, 39

User agency, 61, 175–179

Bunner case and, 88–95

Corley case and, 97–123

digital rights movement and, 41–50, 55–58, 155, 160, 164, 170–171

ElcomSoft and, 64–66, 71–82

iTunes and, 127–151

policy and, 17, 20–23, 27–28, 33–34, 37–39

power of, 14

Reimerdes case and, 97–102

situated user and, 44

Sklyarov case and, 65–83

technology and, 13–15

US Justice Department, 72–73, 155, 157

US Title 17, 51

VA Linux, 113

VCR industry, 22, 34, 87, 203n1

VHS, 87, 203n1

Video Compact Disc (VCD), 124

Videogames, 34, 54

VideoLan Client (VLC)

digital rights management (DRM) and, 206n15

Hocevar and, 137

iTunes and, 137–138, 141, 143, 145, 149t, 176, 206n12, 206nn14–15

Johansen and, 137

Wagner, David, 109

Washington Post, 82

Watermarking, 49, 157t

Wayne State University Law School, 43

West, Kanye, 167

White, David, 132

White Album (Beatles), 165

White Paper, 32, 37

access control and, 48–49

anticircumvention provisions and, 50–51

average citizens and, 42

Boyle and, 57

creativity and, 43–44, 46

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 50

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and, 32, 41, 46–51, 55–58, 201n5

fair use and, 50, 58–59, 200n13

final draft and, 46

hackers and, 50

increasing criminal liability and, 49–50

legal protections and, 48–51

libraries and, 41–44

licensing and, 58

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 39, 48–51, 55, 57–58

No Electronic Theft (NET) Act and, 48, 201n5

open-source/free-software movement and, 49

Samuelson and, 202n8

technological protection measures and, 48–50

testimony/hearings for, 41–44

US Congress and, 39

Wi-Fi File Sharing, 170

Winamp, 135, 141, 147, 176

Windows Media Player, 135

Windows OS

Decrypt Content Scrambling System (DeCSS) and, 3, 87–88, 102, 120–121

iTunes and, 132–140, 143, 146

meaning of technology and, 176

QuickTime and, 134

Winner, Langdon, 11–12, 178

Wired, 67, 166, 168

Work-arounds, 8, 17, 50, 62, 132, 176, 205n7

Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights (WGIP), 175

Copyright Act of 1976 and, 28–37, 200n9

copyright amendments and, 20–21

Corley case and, 110

fair use and, 29, 34, 42

first-sale doctrine and, 44

Green Paper and, 21, 28 (see also Green Paper)

hearing notices and, 21–22

increasing criminal liability and, 49–50

Information Policy Committee and, 20

National Information Infrastructure (NII) and, 20–53, 57–58, 181t

patents and, 20

policymaking process and, 20–39

public hearings of, 21–27, 41–44, 181t–187t

situated user concept and, 44

White Paper and, 32, 37, 41 (see also White Paper)

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 51, 74, 157t, 197n2

World Trade Organization (WTO), 74

World Wide Web, 4, 18, 21–28. See also Internet; National Information Infrastructure (NII)

X-ing, 88, 90

ZDNet, 67

Zeller, Bill, 133

Zittrain, Jonathan, 166

Previous Chapter

References

Additional Information

ISBN
9780262305334
Related ISBN
9780262017954
MARC Record
OCLC
1053419019
Launched on MUSE
2018-09-19
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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