publisher colophon


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Table A.1

Organizations and Individuals Submitting Comments Prior to the NII WGIP Public Hearings in 1994



Steven J. Metalitz

Information Industry Association

Maria Pallante

National Writers Union

Stephen Haynes

West Publishing

Lisa Freeman

Association of American University Presses

Robert Oakley

on behalf of several library and educational associations

Joseph Cosgrove

no organization

Denise Bybee

International Society for Technology in Education

David Rothman

no organization

Arnold Lutzker, Michael Goldstein, David Pierce, and Richard Marks

American Association of Community Colleges

Fritz Attaway


Richard Ducey

National Association of Broadcasters

Edward Murphy

National Music Publishers Association

John Masten

New York Public Library

Fary Griswold

Infologic Software

Robert Kahn

Corporation for National Research Initiatives

Brad Cox

Center for Electronic Markets

Thomas Lemberg

Business Software Alliance and Alliance to Promote Software Innovation

Ronald Laurie

no organization

Ronald Palenske

Information Technology Association of America

Mark Traphagen

Association of Software Publishers

Brian Kahin

Interactive Multimedia Association

Gary Shapiro

Consumer Electronics Group of the Electronic Industries Association and the Home Recording Rights Coalition

Douglas Brotz

Adobe Systems Inc.

Frank Connolly

no organization

Nicholas Veliotes

Association of American Publishers

Andrew Oram

no organization

Greg Buell

no organization

Albert Teich

American Association for the Advancement of Science

Joseph Alen

Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.

Albert Henderson

no organization

Morton Gould and Fred Koenigsberg

American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers

Timothy King

John Wiley and Sons

Walter Biggs

no organization

Gregory Ahoronian

Source Translation and Optimization

David Roland

Roland Projects

Chad Huston

Schlumberger Laboratory for Computer Science

Simon Higgs

no organization

Bernard Sorkin

Time Warner

Jo Clare Peterman

no organization

Thomas Galvin

no organization

Alan Hodson

no organization

Martin Weiss

no organization

Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Villanova University

Kerric Harvey

no organization

Chuck Kolbenson

Summa Four

George Bynon

University of California at Davis Library

Cornelius Pings

Association of American Universities

Edward Valauskas

American Library Association

Benjamin Ivins

National Association of Broadcasters

Brian Kahin

Information Infrastructure Project

Gregory Ferenbach and Paula Jameson


Peter Choy

American Committee for Interoperable Systems

Carol Gottlieb, Arnold Lutzker, Martin Scorsese, Elliot Silverstein, and Robert Wise

Writers Guild of America, Artists Rights Foundation, Directors Guild of America

Daniel Brenner and Diane Burnstein

National Cable Television Association, Inc.

Lance Rose

Association of Shareware Professionals

Daniel Abraham

Graphic Artists Guild

committee members

Federal Networking Council Advisory Committee

Ronald Myrick

Intellectual Property Law Section of the American Bar Association

Rhett Dawson

Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association

R. S. Talab

no organization

Caron Hughes

Research Libraries Group Inc.

Christopher Hyun

Arts Management International

Michael Goldstein

Distance Learning Institutions

Christopher Hyun

New York County Lawyers Association and Committee on Communications and Entertainment Law

Andre Paul

Satellite Broadcasting and Communication Association

Theodor Nelson

Xanadu On-line Publishing

Joseph Clark

Video Discovery

Thomas Lee

no organization

Table A.2

Organizations and Individuals Submitting Comments after the Release of the Green Paper and for the IITF WGIP Public Hearings in Washington, DC, Los Angeles, and Chicago, 1994



Daniel Abraham

Graphic Arts Guild

Geoffrey Adams

British Copyright

Paul Aiken

Authors’ League

Joseph Alen

Copyright Clearance Center

Allen Arlow

Computer and Communications Industry Association

Diane Balestri

Princeton University

Chris Barlas

Working Group on Copyright and Technology, British Copyright Council

William Barlow and Robert Steinberg

Times Mirror Company

Alan Batie

no organization

Henry Baumann and Benjamin Ivins

National Association of Broadcasters

David Bender

Special Libraries Association

Marvin Berenon


Marilyn Bergman and Fred Koenigsberg

American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers

Geoffrey Berkin

no organization

Joe Jekovitz

Houghton Mifflin

John Berry

University of Illinois

Jame Bikoff

Nintendo of America

Carol Billings

American Association of Law Libraries

Kathleen Bloomberg and Jane Running

Illinois State Library

Cynthia Braddon


Lorin Brennan

American Film Marketing Association

Steven Ames Brown

Artists’ Rights

Thomas Bonetti

Celebrity Licensing Inc.

Scott Busby

Kaye Cladwell

Software Industry Coalition

Alan Carey

Picture Agency Council of America

Peter Choy

American Committee for Interoperable Systems

Kenneth Crews

Indiana University Law School

Jeffrey Cunard

America Online, Compuserve, Delphi Internet Services, GE Information Services, Lexis Counsel Connect, Prodigy Services, Lance Rose and Associates, Ziff Communicaitons

Arthur Curley

American Library Association

David Curtis

Microsoft for Business Software Alliance and Alliance to Promote Software Innovation

Willam Daniels

Paul and Stuart

James Davis


Rhett Dawson, Robert Holleyman, and Emery Simon

Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Business Software Alliance, Alliance to Promote Software Innovation

Donna Demac

Institute for Learning Technology, Columbia University

Sarah Deutch

Bell Atlantic

John Dill

Mosby–Year Book

William Ellis


Gregory Ferenbach


Carl Fornaris and Robert Garrett

Submitted on behalf of the Office of the Commissioner of Baseball

Roy Freed

no organization

David Friedman

University of Chicago Law School

Laura Gassaway

University of North Carolina Law Library

Branko Gerovac and Richard Solomon


Jane Ginsburg

Columbia University

Professor Mitchell Golden

George Gross

Magazine Publishers of America

Czeslaw Grycz

University of California at Los Angeles

David Guttman

no organization

Colin Hadley

Copyright Licensing Agency

Trotter Hardy

Marshall-Whythe School of Law, College of William and Mary

Ann Harkins, Joe Waz, and Michele Woodward

Creative Incentive Coalition

Bruce Hayden

no organization

R. H. Hedgzi

no organization

Professor Lee Holloar

no organization

Linda Hopkins


Linda Hopkins

Subcommittee on Copyrights of the American Bar Association and the NII

Irving Horowitz

Transaction Publishers (also a professor at Rutgers University)

John Howard

no organization

James Claudia

Committee for America’s Copyright Community

Mary Brandt Jensen

University of South Dakota

Richard Johnson

River of Stars Software Development

Michael Joyce

Vassar College

Julia Kane and Martin Taschdjian

US West Inc.

Mahatma Kane-Jeeves

no organization

Menelaos Karamichalis

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology

Abraham Katz

United States Council for International Business

Kenneth Kaufman


John Kelly

Recording for the Blind

Charles Kerns

Stanford University

Jack King

Coalition for Consumers’ Picture Rights

Leila Kinney

College of Arts Association (CAA): Committee on Electronic Information

Donald Kiser

Grain Processing Corporations

Susan Kornfield

Bodman, Longley and Dahling

Ellen Kozak

Niles and Niles

Al Lauck

no organization

David Leibowitz


Mark Lemley and Neil Natanel

University of Texas School of Law

Susan Lesch


Howard Liberman

Primosphere Limited Partnership

Jessica Litman

Wayne State University

Lydia Pallas Loren

Bodman, Longley and Dahling

Nicholas Lowe

Performing Rights Society for Music, London

Arnold Lutzker

Artists’ Rights Foundation

Stuart Lynn

Commission on Preservation and Access

Michael Malone

Gryphon Software

Joe Mambertti

University of Chicago

Edward Massie

CCH Inc.

Gottfried Mayer-Kress

Center for Complex Systems Research, Beckman Institute

Philip McAleer

Maineville Products

Steven J. Metalitz

Information Industry Association

Theodore Miles

National Public Library

David Moran

Dow Jones and Company

Lynn Morgan

Association of Academic Health Sciences Library Directories and Medical Library Association

Edward Murphy

National Music Publishers Association

John Ogilvie

Madison and Metcalf

Charles Ossolla

American Society of Media Publishers

Michael J. Pierce and Kenneth Salomon

Dow, Lohnes and Albertson for a number of higher-education institutions

Mary Beth Peters

US Registrar of Copyrights

Marshall Phelps


Billy Barron Plano

James Popham

Association of Independent TV Stations

Anssi Porttikivi

F. E. Potts

ACS Publishing

Dr. Bojan Pretnar

Industrial Property Protection Office, Slovenia

John Rademacher

American Farm Bureau Association

Anita Rivas

Artists Manager

Pat Rogers

Nashville Songwriters Association International

Lance Rose

Association of Shareware Professionals

Victor Rosenberg

Personal Bibliographic Software, Inc.

Cynthia Russo

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

David Rothman

no organization

Richard Koman

Individual Consumer Rights, O’Reilly Publishers

Arthur Rubin

no organization

John-Willy Rudolph

Kopinor–the Reproduction Rights Organization of Norway

William Ryan


Arthur Sackler

Time Warner

Pamela Samuelson

University of Pittsburg

James Schatz

West Publishing

Gary Shapiro

Home Recording Rights Coalition

David Shirley

Pennsylvania State University

Dick Shoemaker

National PC Users Group

Victor Siber


Robert Simons

International Intellectual Property Alliance

Bill Sohl

no organization

Janet Staiger

Society for Cinema Studies

Randall Stempler

Infosafe Systems

August Steinhilber

National School Boards Association

John Sturm

Newspaper Association of America

Christine Sundt

no organization

John Sutton

Heller Ehrman White and McAuliffe

Janice Tanne

American Society of Journalists

Walter Thompson

Vanderbilt University

Mark Traphagen

Software Publishers Association

Scott Turow

Authors’ League

John Vaughn

Association of American Universities

Edward J. Valauskas

American Library Association

Nicholas Veliotes

Association of American Publishers

Wim Vestappen

Vevam (Netherlands)

Walt Wahnsiedler

no organization

Priscilla Walter

Gardner, Carter and Douglas

Sandra Walker

Visual Resources Association

Ginger Warbis


Daniel Warren

Newsletter Publishers Association

Duane Webster

Association of Research Libraries

Gloria Werner

Association of Research Libraries

Sarah Wiant

Washington and Lee School of Law library

Joshua Yeidel

Learning Systems

Ronald Yin

Limbach and Limbach

Toyomaro Yoshida

Institute of Intellectual Property

Table A.3

Digital Rights Movement Organizations, Mission Statements, and Classification


Mission Statement


Creative Commons

“To build a layer of reasonable, flexible copyright in the face of increasingly restrictive default rules” (Creative Commons 2005).

nongovernmental organization (NGO)

Free Software Foundation (FSF)

“Dedicated to promoting computer users’ rights to use, study, copy, modify, and redistribute computer programs. The FSF promotes the development and use of free software, particularly the GNU operating system, used widely in its GNU/Linux variant” (FSF 2005).


Samuelson Law, Technology, and Public Policy Clinic at the Berkeley Boalt School of Law

“The clinic aims to serve as the public’s voice in legal and regulatory disputes presently dominated by lobbyists and the government. The Clinic takes on projects in many fields relating to the public interest in technology. Areas we are currently focusing on include: Copyright, Digital Rights Management, Free Speech, Open Source and Privacy” (Samuelson Law, Technology, and Public Policy Clinic 2005).

law school

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)

“When our freedoms in the networked world come under attack, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is the first line of defense. EFF broke new ground when it was founded in 1990—well before the Internet was on most people’s radar—and continues to confront cutting-edge issues defending free speech, privacy, innovation, and consumer rights today. From the beginning, EFF has championed the public interest in every critical battle affecting digital rights. Blending the expertise of lawyers, policy analysts, activists, and technologists, EFF achieves significant victories on behalf of consumers and the general public. EFF fights for freedom primarily in the courts, bringing and defending lawsuits even when that means taking on the US government or large corporations. By mobilizing more than 50,000 concerned citizens through our Action Center, EFF beats back bad legislation. In addition to advising policymakers, EFF educates the press and public. Sometimes just defending technologies isn’t enough, so EFF also supports the development of freedom-enhancing inventions” (EFF 2005).


Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC)

“Advocates: Prohibiting prior censorship of on-line communication; Requiring that laws restricting the content of on-line speech distinguish between the liability of content providers and the liability of data carriers; Insisting that on-line free expression not be restricted by indirect means such as excessively restrictive governmental or private controls over computer hardware or software, telecommunications infrastructure, or other essential components of the Internet; Including citizens in the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) development process from countries that are currently unstable economically, have insufficient infrastructure, or lack sophisticated technology; Prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status; Ensuring that personal information generated on the GII for one purpose is not used for an unrelated purpose or disclosed without the person’s informed consent and enabling individuals to review personal information on the internet [sic] and to correct inaccurate information” (GILC 2005).


Lawrence Lessig Blog

Blog that reports on news concerning digital copyright and the work of Creative Commons.


Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)

“EPIC was established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values” (EPIC 2005).



“Explore[s] the nexus of legal rulings, Capitol Hill policy-making, technical standards development, and technological innovation that creates—and will recreate—the networked world as we know it. Among the topics we’ll touch on: intellectual property conflicts, technical architecture and innovation, the evolution of copyright, private vs. public interests in Net policy-making, lobbying and the law, and more” (Copyfight 2005).


Berkman Center for Internet and Society at the Harvard Law School

Dedicated to providing assistance in digital copyright cases.

law school

Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT)

“The Center for Democracy and Technology works to promote democratic values and constitutional liberties in the digital age. With expertise in law, technology, and policy, CDT seeks practical solutions to enhance free expression and privacy in global communications technologies. CDT is dedicated to building consensus among all parties interested in the future of the Internet and other new communications media” (CDT 2005).


Public Knowledge

“Public Knowledge is a group of lawyers, technologists, lobbyists, academics, volunteers and activists dedicated to fortifying and defending a vibrant information commons. Our first priority is to stop any bad legislation from passing—laws we think would slow technology innovation, pick market winners, shrink the public domain, or prevent fair use” (Public Knowledge 2005).


Center for Internet and Society (CIS) at the Stanford Law School

“The Center for Internet and Society (CIS) is a public interest technology law and policy program at Stanford Law School and a part of [the] Law, Science and Technology Program at Stanford Law School. The CIS brings together scholars, academics, legislators, students, programmers, security researchers, and scientists to study the interaction of new technologies and the law and to examine how the synergy between the two can either promote or harm public goods like free speech, privacy, public commons, diversity, and scientific inquiry. The CIS strives as well to improve both technology and law, encouraging decision makers to design both as a means to further democratic values” (CIS 2005).


Chilling Effects: Cease-and-Desist Clearinghouse

“A joint project of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Harvard, Stanford, Berkeley, University of San Francisco, University of Maine, George Washington School of Law, and Santa Clara University School of Law clinics. Chilling Effects aims to help understand the protections that the First Amendment and intellectual property laws give to online activities. We are excited about the new opportunities the Internet offers individuals to express their views, parody politicians, celebrate their favorite movie stars, or criticize businesses. But we’ve noticed that not everyone feels the same way. Anecdotal evidence suggests that some individuals and corporations are using intellectual property and other laws to silence other online users. Chilling Effects encourages respect for intellectual property law, while frowning on its misuse to ‘chill’ legitimate activity. The website offers background material and explanations of the law for people whose websites deal with topics such as Fan Fiction, Copyright [and so on]” (Chilling Effects 2005).


Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)

“CPSR is a global organization promoting the responsible use of computer technology. CPSR educates policymakers and the public on a wide range of issues. CPSR has incubated numerous projects such as the Public Sphere Project, EPIC (the Electronic Privacy Information Center), the 21st Century Project, the Civil Society Project, and the CFP (Computers, Freedom & Privacy) Conference. Originally founded by U.S. computer scientists, CPSR now has members in over 30 countries on six continents” (CPSR 2005).


American Libraries Association

“The Digital Age presents new challenges to fundamental copyright doctrines that are legal cornerstones of library services. Libraries are leaders in trying to maintain a balance of power between copyright holders and users, in keeping with the fundamental principles outlined in the Constitution and carefully crafted over the past 200 years. Libraries are perceived as a voice for the public good and our participation is often sought in ‘friend of the court’ briefs in important intellectual property cases. Our involvement extends to the international copyright arena where we also follow the treaties to which the U.S. is a signatory and which could influence the development of copyright changes at home” (American Libraries Association 2005).


Downhill Battle

“Downhill Battle is a non-profit organization working to break the major label monopoly of the record industry and put control back in the hands of musicians and fans. Downhill Battle is a collaborative project and we work with musicians, music fans, artists, and designers around the world. There is a core group of people working full-time, based in Worcester, MA. We see an unprecedented opportunity to create a decentralized music business and a level playing field for independent musicians and labels. We’re doing everything we can to make that happen. Software development—done strategically—is probably the most effective way to change culture in a positive direction right now. We’re especially looking for Python help and Win32 and OS X specific help. Check out Downhill Battle Labs, Blog Torrent, and Participatory Culture Foundation” (Downhill Battle 2005a).


Students for Free Culture

“ is a diverse, non-partisan group of students and young people who are working to get their peers involved in the free culture movement. Launched in April 2004 at Swarthmore College, has helped establish student groups at colleges and universities across the United States. Today, chapters exist at nine colleges, from Maine to California, with many more getting started around the world. Named after the book Free Culture by Stanford University law professor Lawrence Lessig, is part of a growing movement, with roots in the free software / open source community, media activists, creative artists and writers, and civil libertarians. Groups with which has collaborated include Creative Commons, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, Public Knowledge, and Downhill Battle. has four major functions: 1. Creating and providing resources for our chapters and for the general public 2. Outreach to youth and students 3. Networking with other people, companies and organizations in the free culture movement 4. Issue advocacy on behalf of our members” (Students for Free Culture 2005).

grassroots organization in transition to NGO

Privacy Rights Clearinghouse

“Privacy Rights Clearinghouse (PRC) is a nonprofit consumer organization with a two-part mission—consumer information and consumer advocacy. The PRC’s goals are to: 1. Raise consumers’ awareness of how technology affects personal privacy. 2. Empower consumers to take action to control their own personal information by providing practical tips on privacy protection. 3. Respond to specific privacy-related complaints from consumers, intercede on their behalf, and, when appropriate, refer them to the proper organizations for further assistance. 4. Document the nature of consumers’ complaints and questions about privacy in reports, testimony, and speeches and make them available to policy makers, industry representatives, consumer advocates, and the media. 5. Advocate for consumers’ privacy rights in local, state, and federal public policy proceedings, including legislative testimony, regulatory agency hearings, task forces, and study commissions as well as conferences and workshops” (PRC 2005).


Digital Future Coalition (DFC)

“Digital Future Coalition (DFC) is committed to striking an appropriate balance in law and public policy between protecting intellectual property and affording public access to it. The DFC is the result of a unique collaboration of many of the nation’s leading non-profit educational, scholarly, library, and consumer groups, together with major commercial trade associations representing leaders in the consumer electronics, telecommunications, computer, and network access industries. Some key issues and proposals: Fair Use—Temporary Copies—First Sale—Preemption—Distance Learning—Library Exemptions—Anti-Circumvention and Copyright Management Information” (DFC 2005).


Participatory Culture Foundation/Get Democracy

“Television is the defining medium of our culture. There’s now an opportunity to create a television culture that is fluid, diverse, exciting, and beautiful. Built by people working together. * Get Democracy is developed by the Participatory Culture Foundation. * We’re based in Worcester, Massachusetts.
* We’re a not-for-profit organization (501c3 pending).
* We think it’s a problem that a small number of corporations control mass media.
* We think free, open-source, open standards internet [sic] TV is our best shot at a solution” (Participatory Culture, 2005).


Future of Music Coalition (FMC)

“The Future of Music Coalition is a not-for-profit collaboration between members of the music, technology, public policy and intellectual property law communities. The FMC seeks to educate the media, policymakers, and the public about music / technology issues, while also bringing together diverse voices in an effort to come up with creative solutions to some of the challenges in this space. The FMC also aims to identify and promote innovative business models that will help musicians and citizens to benefit from new technologies.
The FMC actualizes its mission through a number of activities. First, we organize public discussion of issues that impact musicians and the public at large, making sure to include a variety of voices in the conversation. Second, we submit testimony, publish articles and speak on panels to make sure the creators’ experience is heard. Third, we encourage musicians and citizens to publicly document their experiences on the FMC website. Finally, we generate original research on historic trends and issues of import to the public to more completely illuminate the mechanics of the music industry” (FMC 2005).


Our Media

“Ourmedia is a global community and learning center where you can gain visibility for your works of personal media. We’ll host your media forever—for free. Video blogs, photo albums, home movies, podcasting, digital art, documentary journalism, home-brew political ads, music videos, audio interviews, digital storytelling, children’s tales, Flash animations, student films, mash-ups—all kinds of digital works have begun to flourish as the Internet rises up alongside big media as a place where we’ll gather to inform, entertain and astound each other” (Our Media 2005).

NGO-Grass Roots

America Association of Law Libraries

“Working with its Copyright Committee, AALL monitors many legislative, political and judicial developments that affect domestic and international copyright law.” (AALL 2005)


Home Recording Rights Coalition (HRRC)

“HRRC works in Washington, D.C. to protect your right to buy and use audio and video recorders, players, and PCs. Through this site, we provide current information about consumer home recording in the digital age—‘hot’ topics; past, present, and future congressional activity; FCC [Federal Communications Commission] proceedings; and litigation” (HRRC 2005).

industry/consumer coalition

Association for Computing Machinery

Largest computer professional association in America. “ACM interacts with US government organizations, the computing community, and the public on public policies affecting information technology. Supported by the ACM Office of Public Policy, USACM seeks to inform the U.S. government about policies that impact the computing community and the public. It also identifies significant technical and public policy issues; monitors information on relevant U.S. government activities; and responds to requests for information and technical expertise from U.S. government agencies and departments” (ACM 2005).


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