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1. New London Group, “A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures,” in Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures, ed. Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis (London: Routledge, 2000), 9-38.

2. Henry Jenkins, “Playing Politics in Alphaville,” Technology Review (May 7, 2004), 06,294,p1.html.

3. Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (New York: New York University Press, 2006).

4. Josh McHugh, “The Firefox Explosion,” Wired Magazine 13.02 (February 2005),

5. Vanessa Bertozzi and Henry Jenkins, Young Artists (New York: Routledge, forthcoming).

6. Lenhart and Madden, Teen Content.

7. Sonia Livingstone, The Changing Nature and Uses of Media Literacy (working paper, London School of Economics, 2003), 15-16, (accessed September 2006).

8. Lisa Gitelman, Scripts, Grooves, and Writing Machines: Representing Technology in the Edison Era (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1999).

9. Jenkins, Convergence Culture.

10. James Paul Gee, Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling (New York: Routledge, 2004).

11. Rebecca W. Black, “Access and Affiliation: The Literacy and Composition Practices of English Language Learners in an Online Fanfiction Community,” Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 49, no. 2 (2005): 118-128; Rebecca W. Black, “Online Fanfiction: What Technology and Popular Culture Can Teach Us about Writing and Literacy Instruction” New Horizons for Learning Online Journal 11, no. 2 (Spring 2005).

12. Andrew Blau, “The Future of Independent Media,” Deeper News 10, no. 1 (2005): 3,

13. Lenhart and Madden, Teen Content.

14. David Buckingham, The Making of Citizens: Young People, News and Politics (London: Routledge, 2000), 218-219.

15. John C. Beck and Mitchell Wade, Got Game? How the Gamer Generation Is Reshaping Business Forever (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 2004).

16. Kaiser Family Foundation, Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year Olds (March 9, 2005), (accessed September 2006); Kaiser Family Foundation, The Effects of Electronic Media on Children Ages Zero to Six: A History of Research (January 2005), Research-Issue-Brief.pdf.

17. PBS Nightly News Hour, transcripts, November 22, 2005,

18. Ibid.

19. Sonia Livingstone and Magdalena Bober, UK Children Go Online (London: Economic and Social Research Council, 2005), 12,

20. Current legislation to block access to social networking software in schools and public libraries will further widen the participation gap.

21. Ellen Wartella, Barbara O’Keefe, and Ronda Scantlin, Children and Interactive Media: A Compendium of Current Research and Directions for the Future (New York: Markle Fou3ndation, 2000), 8,

22. Peter Lyman and others, “Literature Review: Digital-Mediated Experiences and Youth’s Informal Learning” (report, Exploratorium, San Francisco, 2005),

23. Manuel Castells, The Internet Galaxy: Reflections of the Internet, Business, and Society (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), quoted in Livingstone, Changing Nature.

24. Gee, Situated Language, 105.

25. Sherry Turkle, Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995), 70.

26. Ted Friedman, “Making Sense of Software: Computer Games and Interactive Textuality,” in Cybersociety, ed. Steven G. Jones (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1995).

27. Karen L. Schrier, “Revolutionizing History Education: Using Augmented Reality Games to Teach History” (master’s thesis, Comparative Media Studies Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005).

28. Kurt Squire, “Replaying History: Learning World History through Playing Civilization III” (PhD diss., Instructional Systems and Technology Department, Indiana University, 2004).

29. Renee Hobbs, “Deciding What to Believe in an Age of Information Abundance: Exploring Non-Fiction Television in Education,” Sacred Heart Review 42 (1999): 4-26,’s%20web%20site/Publications/Sacred%20Heart.htm (accessed September 2006).

30. Howard Gardner, interview with author, 2006; see also Peter Levine, “The Audience Problem,” in Digital Media and Youth Civic Engagement, ed. W. Lance Bennett (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, forthcoming).

31. Ellen Seiter, The Internet Playground: Children’s Access, Entertainment, and Mis-Education (London: Peter Lang, 2005): 38.

32. Ibid., 100.

33. Wendy Fischman, Becca Solomon, Deborah Greenspan, and Howard Gardner, Making Good: How Young People Cope with Moral Dilemmas at Work (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004).

34. Julian Dibbell, “A Rape in Cyberspace, or How an Evil Clown, a Haitian Trickster Spirit, Two Wizards, and a Cast of Dozens Turned a Database into a Society,” The Village Voice (December 21, 1993): 36-42; Henry Jenkins, “Playing Politics”; always_black, “Bow Nigger,” (2004), (accessed March 17, 2006).

35. Bertram C. Bruce, “Diversity and Critical Social Engagement: How Changing Technologies Enable New Modes of Literacy in Changing Circumstances,” in Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World, ed. Donna E. Alvermann (New York: Peter Lang, 2002).

36. New Media Consortium, A Global Imperative: The Report of the 21st Century Literacy Summit (New Media Consortium, 2005), 8.

37. Black, “Access and Affiliation”; Jenkins, Convergence Culture.

38. New Media Consortium, Global Imperative.

39. New London Group, “A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies,” 9.

40. Mary Louise Pratt, “Arts of the Contact Zone,” Profession 91 (1991): 33-40.

41. Ibid., 34.

42. Henry Jenkins, “Fun vs. Engagement: The Case of the Zoobinis,” Confessions of an Aca-Fan (June 23, 2006),

43. James P. Gee, What Video Games Can Teach Us about Literacy and Learning (New York: Palgrave-McMillan, 2003).

44. Henry Jenkins, “Buy These Problems Because They’re Fun to Solve! A Conversation with Will Wright,” Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 52 nos. 1 and 2 (2005): 21.

45. Squire, “Replaying History.”

46. Seth Kahan, “John Seely Brown” (February 10, 2003),

47. Eric Klopfer, personal correspondence with author.

48. Ian Bogost, “Procedural Literacy: Problem Solving with Programming, Systems and Play,” Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 52 nos. 1 and 2 (2005): 36.

49. Andy Clark, Natural-Born Cyborgs: Minds, Technologies, and the Future of Human Intelligence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 160.

50. Ibid.

51. James Paul Gee, Video Games, 55.

52. Russell Francis, “Towards a Theory of a Games Based Pedagogy” (paper presented at the Innovating e-Learning 2006: Transforming Learning Experiences, JISC Online Conference, United Kingdom, 2006).

53. Ibid.

54. Shelby A. Wolf and Shirley B. Heath, The Braid of Literature: Children’s Worlds of Reading (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).

55. Anne Haas Dyson, Writing Superheroes: Contemporary Childhood, Popular Culture, and Classroom Literacy (New York: The Teachers College Press, 1997).

56. Susannah Stern, “Growing Up Online,” Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 52 nos. 1 and 2 (2005): 57.

57. Bertozzi and Jenkins, Young Artists.

58. David Williamson Shaffer, “Epistemic Frames for Epistemic Games,” Computers and Education (2005),

59. For more information, see

60. Lenhart and Madden, Teen Content.

61. Henry Jenkins, “The MIT Games Literacy Workshop,” Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy 52 nos. 1 and 2 (2005): 37-40.

62. Jenkins, “Fun vs. Engagement.”

63. Ibid.

64. Ibid.

65. Alan D. Baddeley, Essentials of Human Memory (East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press, 1999).

66. John Seely Brown, “Growing Up Digital: How the Web Changes Work, Education, and the Ways People Learn,” Change (March/April 2000): 10-20, (accessed September 2006).

67. Henry Jenkins, “Video Game Virtue,” Technology Review Online (August 1, 2003),

68. Gunther Kress, Literacy in the New Media Age (New York: Routledge, 2003).

69. Thom Hartmann, Attention Deficit Disorder: A Different Perception (New York: Gill & MacMillan, 1999).

70. Mark Glassman, “Maroon 5 Makes Room on the IPod for Schoolwork,” New York Times, December 9, 2004, (accessed May 2009).

71. Andy Clark, Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997).

72. Clark, Natural-Born Cyborgs.

73. Roy Pea, “Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education,” in Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, ed. Gavriel Salomon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 50.

74. David Williamson Shaffer and James J. Kaput, “Mathematics and Virtual Culture: An Evolutionary Perspective on Technology and Mathematics,” Educational Studies in Mathematics 37 (1999): 97-119.

75. Clark, Natural-Born Cyborgs.

76. Gee, Video Games.

77. Eric Klopfer and Kurt Squire, “Environmental Detectives: The Development of an Augmented Reality Platform for Environmental Simulations,” Educational Technology Research and Development 56 no. 2 (April 2008): 203-228.

78. Henry Jenkins, “Look, Listen, Walk,” Technology Review Online (April 2, 2004),,294,p1.html.

79. Schrier, “Revolutionizing History Education.”

80. David Hatfield and David Williamson Shaffer, “Press Play: Designing an Epistemic Game Engine for Journalism,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Learning Sciences (New York: ACM Press, 2006), 236-242.

81. Philip Bell and William Winn, “Distributed Cognition, by Nature and by Design,” in Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments, ed. David H. Jonassen & Susan M. Land (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000), 123-145.

82. David Williamson Shaffer and Katherine A. Clinton, “Tool-forthoughts: Reexamining Thinking in the Digital Age,” Mind, Culture, and Activity 13 no. 4 (2006): 283-300,

83. Robert P. Yagelski, “Computers, Literacy, and Being: Teaching with Technology for a Sustainable Future,”

84. Pierre Lévy, Collective Intelligence: Man’s Emerging World in Cyberspace (New York: Perseus, 2000).

85. Jane McGonigal, “This Is Not a Game: Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play,” Digital Arts & Culture 2003 Conference Proceedings (2003),

86. Jenkins, Convergence Culture.

87. McGonigal, “Not a Game,” 7.

88. Cory Doctorow, “Digital Utopia and Its Flaws,” Neofiles 1 no. 15 (2005) (accessed September 2006).

89. Ryan Singel, “A Disaster Map ‘Wiki’ is Born,” Wired News (2005),,68743-0.html.

90. Sally Atwood, “Education Arcade: MIT Researchers Are Creating Academically Driven Computer Games That Rival Commercial Products and Make Learning Fun,” Technology Review (June 12, 2004),

91. See

92. Jim Giles, “Internet Encyclopaedias Go Head to Head,” Nature 438 (December 15, 2005): 900-901,

93. John Seigenthaler, “A False Wikipedia ‘Biography.’” USAToday, November 29, 2005, Op-ed,

94. Dan Gillmor, We the Media... (New York: O’Reilly Media, 2004).

95. Jeff Share, Tessa Jolls, and Elizabeth Thoman, Five Key Questions That Can Change the World (San Francisco: Center for Media Literacy, 2005), 182.

96. David Buckingham, “The Media Literacy of Children and Young People: A Review of the Literature” (report, Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media, Institute of Education, University of London, 2005), 22, (accessed September 2006).

97. Keri Facer, John Furlong, Ruth Furlong, and Rosamund Sutherland, ScreenPlay: Children and Computing in the Home (London: Routledge Falmer, 2003), quoted in Buckingham, “Media Literacy,” 18.

98. Jenkins, Convergence Culture.

99. David Buckingham and Julian Sefton-Green, “Structure, Agency, and Pedagogy in Children’s Media Culture,” in Pikachu’s Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokémon, ed. Joseph Tobin (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004), 22.

100. Mizuko Ito, “Technologies of the Childhood Imagination: Yugioh, Media Mixes, and Everyday Cultural Production,” in Network/Netplay: Structures of Participation in Digital Culture, ed. Joe Karaganis and Natalie Jeremijenko (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005).

101. Kress, Literacy in the New Media Age.

102. Ibid.

103. New Media Consortium, Global Imperative.

104. James Daly, “Life on the Screen,” Edutopia (2004), (accessedSeptember 2006).

105. See

106. Jenkins, “Fun vs. Engagement.”

107. Bernie Dodge, “Some Thoughts about Webquests,” 1997, (accessed September 2006).

108. James Suroweicki, “The Wisdom of Crowds: Q & A with James Suroweicki,” New York: Random House Web site, 2004, (accessed Sep tember 2006).

109. Kathleen Guinee and Maya B. Eagleton, “Spinning Straw into Gold: Transforming Information into Knowledge during Web-based Research,” English Journal 95 no. 4 (2006).

110. Bertozzi and Jenkins, Young Artists.

111. See Noel Jenkins, “San Francisco: Visualizing a Safer City,” Juicy Geography 2006,

112. Bobbi Barbour, “DollFacePunk in the News,” 2006,

113. See

114. Suroweicki, “The Wisdom of Crowds”; Lévy, Collective Intelligence.

115. James Fishkin and Robert C. Lushkin, “Experimenting with a Democratic Ideal: Deliberative Polling and Public Opinion” (paper, Swiss Chair’s Conference on Deliberation, the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, May 21-22, 2004),

116. Gilberte Furstenberg, The Cultura Project (Washington, DC: National Capital Language Resource Center Culture Club, 2004), (accessed September 2006).

117. Jenkins, Convergence Culture.

118. Quoted in Barry Duncan, “Media Literacy: Essential Survival Skills for the New Millennium,” Orbit Magazine 35 no. 2 (2005),

119. Share, Jolls, and Thoman, Five Key Questions.

120. Livingstone and Bober, UK Children.

121. Bill Ivey and Steven J. Tepper, “Cultural Renaissance or Cultural Divide?” Chronicle of Higher Education 52 (May 19, 2006).

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