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NoTES 1. The Potential and Limitations of Career Ladders 1. Bernhardt et al. 2001. 2. Mishel, Bernstein, and Schmitt 1999· In September 2000 the Census Bureau defined the poverty level for a family of four as below $17,062. A survey of economists concurred that $25,000 is a more accurate amount to enable a family of four to fulfill basic needs (see Uchitelle 2001). 3· Osterman 1993; Leigh 1989. 4· In 1995 the General Accounting Office identified more than 160 federal jobtraining programs run by fifteen separate government agencies, putting pressure on Congress to consolidate the svstem. 5· Holzer and \Valier 2003. 6. See Kuttner 1997; Harrison and Bluestone 1988. 7· Freeman 1996. 8. See Harrison and Bhwstone 1988. Although considPrahlc methodological debate emerged over these and other findings, Karoly compared several methods of examining inequality in Lunily earnings and concluded that inec1uality had indeed increased siuce the late 1g6os (see Karoly 1993). See also Danzinger and Gottschalk 1993. 19-98. g. Inequality of wealth (net assets) also increased in the 1990s. See Wolff 1996. 10. Wright and Dwyer 2002. Using data from the Current Population Survey of the U.S. Census, Wright and Dwyer found that in the 1990s about 40 percent of total net job expansion came from the worst job quality deciles and the best job quality deciles. 11. Wright and Dwyer 2002. 12. Aspen Institute Domestic Strategy Group 2002. 13. Mishel, Bernstein, and Schmitt 1999. 14. Dalaker 2001, g. 15. Acs, Phillips, and !vicKenzie 20o1; Kazis and Miller 200:3, 21-44. 16. Meisenheimer 1998, 22-47. q. Mishcl, Bernstein, and Schmitt 1999. 18. Sylvestri 1993· 19. Dinardo, Fortin, and Lemieux 1996; Howell 1994; Freeman 1993; Danziger and Gottschalk 1994; Freeman and Medoff 1984. 206 NOTES TO PAGES 7-11 20. Bluestone and Harrison 1999· 21. Freeman 1996. Freeman identifies several other studies employing different methodologies and samples, and over different time periods, that produce almost identical findings. 22. Lafer 2002. 23. Mishel, Bernstein, and Boushey 2003. 24. See Bernhardt et al. 2001; Cappelli 1999; Cappelli et al. 1997; Diebold, Neumark, and Polsky 1997; Gittleman and Joyce 1996; Farber 1995; Rose 1995; Cappelli et al. 1997. 25. Mishel, Bernstein, and Allegretto 2004. 26. Wright and Dwyer 2002. 27. Bernhardt et al. 2001. The study compares two longitudinal samples of men over two fifteen-year periods, 1966 to 1981 and 1979 to 1994. 28. Schrammel 1998, 3--9· This study uses Current Population Survey data. 29. Duncan, Boisjoly and Smeeding 1995, 6. The cutoffs used were $11,521 in 1993 dollars for the poverty level and twice the poverty level, $23,042 for the middle class. 30. Duncan, Boisjoly and Smeeding 1995, 15. This is not to say that education doesn't matter. The income gap between workers with low and high levels of education has been increasing since the 196os, and education is still the best single predictor of income (Katz and Murphy 1992). According to the College Board, in 1997 the median annual household income by education level was as follows: Less than 9th grade High school graduate Associate degree Bachelor's degree or more Doctorate $16,154 $34.373 $48,604 $66,474 $84,100 But a disturbing finding of comparisons of the employment patterns of workers entering the labor market in the 1960s and 1980s is that education is not as much a predictor of wage growth as one would expect. In 2001 almost 35 percent oflow-wage workers had a high school diploma and close to 30 percent had completed some college (see Mitnik, Zeidenberg, and Dresser 2002). Higher levels of education are necessary, but no longer sufficient, to guarantee good earnings and patterns of steady advance-because of structural changes in the labor market (see Reich 1991). It is not surprising that people with only a high school education or less are more likely to be stuck in low-wage jobs. But it is surprising that 22 percent of low-wage workers with children have some postsecondary education. Workers with some college now have earnings less like college graduates and more like high school graduates (Bernhardt et al. 1999, 157). 31. Cappelli 1999, 63. 32. Piore and Sabel 1984. 33· Cappelli and O'Shaughnessy 1995. 34· See Harrison 1994. 35· Applebaum 1989. 36. Cappelli 1999, 7437 · Stone 2001, 51g-661. 38. For a review of this system, see Cappelli 1995, 563-602. 39· Conference Board 1997. 40. Stone 2004, 2001. 41. Pink 2001, 82. 42. Cappelli 1994, 94· 43· Benner...


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