publisher colophon

363Index

Abramowitz, Mimi: Where Are the Women?, 302

Academic freedom, 120–21, 142 n43, 201, 205

Active Worker’s Schools (New York), 52

Adesska, Florence, 33 n41

Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, The, 189–221, 230, 273; admission of men to, 200–204, 220 n26; and Bryn Mawr Summer School, 190–92, 197, 203; curriculum of, 191, 193, 194; educational philosophy of, 191, 194, 198–203; and feminism, 202–5; funding of, 190–91, 197–98, 200, 205; organization of, 190–91, 197–99, 200; programs and functions of, 189–90, 191–92, 194, 196–97, 199–200; publications of, 194–95, 200, 218 n11, 220 n25; and unions, 192, 200–202, 205

AFL-CIO, xvii, 297, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306

Algor, Marie, 124

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (ACWA), 52–53, 56, 166

America, Helen, 116

America Federation of Labor (AFL), 8, 201; and white-collar workers, 228, 229, 233–34, 240; and women, 49, 89, 93, 189; and WTUL Training School, 16, 33 n31

American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO), xvii, 297, 301, 302, 303, 304, 306

American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), 300–301

American Labor Education Service (ALES), 189, 201–2, 241. See also Affiliated Schools for Workers

American Legion, 267

Anderson, Mary, 7, 12, 18, 34 n47 and n49, 49, 114

Barbour, Marion, 235

Barnard Summer School, 190, 191–92, 193

Barron, Sara, 124, 144 n49

Beard, Mary, 128, 145 n69

Berkowitz, Edith: “We Shall Be Free,” 62

Berry, Margaret, 124

Black women, 12, 16, 264; at Bryn Mawr Summer School, 116, 125–26; in YWCA, 79–80, 88, 102–3, 105 n28. See also Race issue

Blanshard, Paul, 52

“Blue Triangle Houses” (YWCA), 78, 80

Blum, Emanuel, 120

Bonner, Miriam, 153

Bookman, Clarence, 255

Brandeis, Louis D., 40

Bread and roses, 6, 136, See also Social, cultural, and recreational activities

Brody, Doris, 202

Brookwood Labor College, 47, 48, 51, 53, 56, 87, 150, 338–39

Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, 229

Brown, Richard, 269

Brown, Thelma, 102

Bryn Mawr College, 304

Bryn Mawr Community Center, 114, 141 n20

Bryn Mawr Daisy: poems and essays from, 129–37

Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, 109–45; admission of men to, 192, 339–40; and Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 190–92, 197, 203; and black students, 116, 125–26; and communism and socialism, 120–22; curriculum of, 118–21; during Depression, 119–22; educational philosophy of, 109, 110–12, 115, 118–19, 128, 142 n35; faculty of, 109, 118, 120–21, 124–25, 126, 127; finances of, 112, 128, 139 n13; founding of, 110–14; impact of, 122–29; as model, 150, 227, 259, 273; and Seabrook farms strike, 122, 145 n69, 333; and social activism, 120–21, 122–24, 142 n43, 143 n48; students at, 87, 115–18, 121–24, 125–26, 141–44 n24–25, n43–44 and n48–49; and unions, 118, 120, 143 n44 and n48; and WTUL Training School, 35 n54, 109–45; and YWCA, 90–91, 118. See also Hudson Shore Labor School

Bucknell College, 233–34, 238

Burgess, Sarah, 131–32

Burns, Agnes, 26–29

Butcher, Debra, 316

Camp TERA (Camp Jane Addams), 258, 263, 266, 271

Career patterns of students, 195–96, 330; at Bryn Mawr Summer School, 122–25, 128–29, 143–44 n48–49; at Summer School for Office Workers, 233–34, 239; at WTUL Training School, 11, 20–21, 34 n53

Carnegie Corporation, 139 n13, 305

Carner, Lucy, 84–85, 86

Carrol, Marian V., 243–44

Carter, Jean, 199–200; This America, 195

Caspar, Bella, 13

Chicago Theological Seminary, 238

Christensen, Ethlyn, 96

Christian Socialism, 111

Christman, Elisabeth, 17, 228

CIO. See Congress of Industrial Organizations

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 255, 256–57

Class consciousness, 44; and office workers, 225–30, 236–37, 241, 249 n10; and Southern Summer School, 152–57, 167–68, 182 n2. See also Cross-class coalitions

Clay, Henry, 109

Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW), 290, 294, 295, 302, 303, 304–5, 306

Coeducationalization, 92, 157–58, 193–94, 200–204, 232, 235–36, 238, 339–40

Cohn, Fannia Mary, 9–10, 11, 31 n14, 114, 331; and ILGWU, 41–43, 44–47 passim, 48–51, 53–54

Coit, Eleanor, 94, 96, 336; and Affiliated Schools for Women Workers; 194, 196, 198, 200, 201, 202; and Summer School for Office Workers, 226, 228–29, 230, 231, 236–37, 240–41

Collins, Ruth, 129–30

Columbia University, 203

Communication Workers of America (CWA), 298–99

Communism, 42, 50–51, 120–22, 149; and office workers, 229, 231, 235

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 89, 93–94, 189–90, 192, 201; in the South, 155, 158, 165, 170; and white-collar workers, 228, 234, 240

Cook, Alice Hanson, 96, 124, 202; interview with, 328–41

Cornell University, 290, 291–92, 298, 301–2, 317–18

Coyle, Grace, 96, 226

Cross-class coalitions, xi–xvii, 39, 48, 56, 149–50, 338–39; at Bryn Mawr Summer School, 112, 115–16, 118, 125–27; and class tension, 9, 12, 19–20, 34 n52, 48–49, 81–83, 140 n17, 169; at WTUL Training School, 5, 8, 15, 31 n9, 339; at YWCA, 77, 79, 81–83, 94–95, 97, 99–102, 150

Crouch, Diamond, 102–3

Cummings, Frances, 229, 230

Curriculum, 340; of Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 191, 193, 194; of Bryn Mawr Summer School, 118–21; of current labor education programs, 292–93, 310, 336–37; of ILGWU, 44, 46, 55–56, 59–60; at she-she-she camps, 260–61, 264–66, 268–69, 278–79; of Southern Summer School, 151–52, 154; of Summer School for Office Workers, 231–32, 236, 237–38, 239–40; of WTUL Training School, 5–6, 8, 10, 11–14; of YWCA, 84–85, 94–95

Dana, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, 109

Derry, Kathleen, 13, 14

de Schweinitz, Dorothea, 268

Dewey, John, 119, 142 n35

Douglas, Paul, 13, 14, 109, 226

Dressner, Sadie, 118

Dubinsky, David, 53–54, 57

Dyche, John, 40

Edelman, John, 200

Educational philosophy, xv–xvi, 39, 54, 329–30, 332–34, 335–37, 340; of Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 191, 194, 198–203; of Bryn Mawr Summer School, 109, 110–12, 115, 118–19, 128, 142 n35; of current labor education programs, 291–92, 293, 294, 336–37; of ILGWU, 39, 41, 43–47, 54–57; of she-she-she camps, 257, 259, 260–62, 264, 269, 271–74, 278–79; of Southern Summer School, 152–57, 182 n2; of Summer School for Office Workers, 231–32, 234–36, 237–38, 239–42; of WTUL Training School, 5–6, 7, 17–21, 30 n4; of YWCA, 77–78, 83–84, 86, 336

Eliot, Laura, 31 n9

Ellickson, Katherine Pollak, 125. See also Pollak, Katherine

England, 111–12

Ether, Marie, 258–59

Europe, 58, 80–81, 111–12

Evans, Sara, 182 n2

Faculty, 333, 336–7, 340–41; at Bryn Mawr Summer School, 109, 118, 120–21, 124–25, 126, 127; at current labor education programs, 313–14; at ILGWU, 44; at she-she-she camps, 263–64, 270; at Southern Summer School, 152–53, 154–55; at Summer School for Office Workers, 232; at WTUL Training School, 10, 13

Fairchild, Mildred, 122

Fancy Leather Goods Workers, 39, 52

Faxon, Mrs. Henry D., 31 n9

Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), 198–99; and she-she-she camps, 255, 259–67, 270

Feminism, 49, 54, 202–5, 235, 272, 330–32, 334; social, 109–10, 138 n5, 139 n7, 202–3, 260; working-class, 168–69

Finances: of Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 190–91, 197–98, 200, 205; of Brookwood Labor School, 338–39; of Bryn Mawr Summer School, 112, 128, 139 n13; of current labor education programs, 292, 293, 299, 302, 303, 305, 306; of ILGWU, 41; for she-she-she camps, 255, 257, 259, 261, 262, 268, 269–71, 282 n37; of WTUL Training School, 6–7, 8, 11–12, 14–16, 20, 33 n31

Fitzpatrick, John, 234

Ford Foundation, 201, 292

Frankfurter, Estelle, 109

Franklin, Stella, 31 n9

Fredgant, Sara, 124, 144 n49

Friedman, Mollie, 56

Friedmann, Ernestine, 84, 95–96, 193, 199, 202, 262, 341

Fryman, Patsy, 307

Fulton, Margaret, 116

Funding. See Finances

Furriers’ Union, 39, 52

Gastonia strike, 175–77

Gauthier, Rita, 207–8

Gersh, Harry, 266

Gildersleeve, Dean Virginia C., 193

Gilmore, Marguerite, 125; interview with, 327–41

Goins, Irene, 12

Gold, Theresa, 196

Golden, Clinton, 200

Gompers, Samuel, 43

Goodman, Sadie, 99–101

Goodrich, Carter, 200

Graduate Department of Social Economy and Social Research (Bryn Mawr), 113, 140 n17

Green, William, 49, 89, 233

Guigno, Louise, 196

Haber, William: Unemployment, a Problem of Insecurity, 195

Hagood, Margaret Jarmon: Mothers of the South, 160

Haigwood, Ruby, 116

Hand, Frances Fincke (Mrs. Learned), 122

Haray, Margaret, 16–17, 34 n43

Hardie, Kier, 53

Hardman, J. B. S., 52, 72 n32

Harrison, J. F. C., 111–12

Health care, 15, 33 n34, 59, 263, 267

Hearst newpapers, 267

Heath, Venus M., 67–69

Hendrix, Bertha, 175–77

Hendrix, Leona B, 242

Henry, Alice 10

Herbst, Alma 96

Herstein, Lillian, 124, 126

Hewes, Amy, 109, 119, 120, 124, 195

Hill, Helen, 18

Hochman, Julius, 53

Honour, Margaret, 124

Hopkins, Harry, 198, 255, 257, 259, 260–61

Huberman, Elizabeth Lyle, 124, 127–28, 129

Huberman, Leo, 154–55

Hudson Shore Labor School, 192, 208, 339–40; publications from 205–17; “These Are The Words We Said”, 205–8. See also Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers

Huntzinger, Leona, 63–64

ILGWU. See International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union

Indiana University, 303

Industrial War Service Centers (YWCA), 78–79

Institute for Women and Work (Cornell), 298, 301–2, 306; publications of, 301–2

Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations (ILIR). See University of Michigan

International Congress of Working Women, 81

International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) Education Department, 39–74; curriculum at, 44, 46, 55–56, 59–60; education philosophy of, 39–41, 43–47, 54–57; founding of, 39, 40–42; after 1935 reorganization, 53–56; and social activism, 39, 45–47, 51, 54–55; and socialism, 42, 46, 50–51; and spiritual needs, 43–46, 55; during twenties, 49–52

International Union of Electrical Workers HUE), 290–91

James, Williams 256

Jones, Brownie Lee, 96

Jones, Dottie, 319–20

Jones, Mary Harris (Mother), 177–82

Kaiser, Clara, 232, 236

Kazcor, Josephine, 197

Kemp, Marjorie, 16

Kennan, Ellen, 120

Kingsbury, Susan M., 91, 113, 114, 192

Kirkland, Lane, 297

Klebe, Henrietta, 233

Kohn, Barbara: interview with, 309–15

Kornbluh, Joyce L.: interview by, 309–15

Kosovicz, Mary, 130–31

Kyrk, Hazel, 124

Labor drama, 156–57, 199, 232–33, 265, 330, 335; examples of, 177–82, 208–17, 244–48, 274–75

Labor education, current, 56, 287–323, 336–37; curriculum of, 292–93, 310, 336–37; educational philosophy of, 291–92, 293, 294, 336–37; funding for, 292, 293, 299, 302, 303, 305, 306; and labor union programs, 290–91, 297–301, 306–8; and union-university cooperation, 296–97, 298, 299, 303, 305; and university programs, 290, 291–93, 301–3

Labor education, history of, 31 n5, 39, 47–50, 56, 110, 288–90, 296, 327

Labor unions: and current education programs, 290–91, 296–301, 303, 306–8; and efforts to organize women, xvii–xviii, 5, 49, 93–94, 288; in garment industry 39–40, 52, 58; in the South, 149–50, 164–66; and white-collar workers, 228–30, 233–34, 237–42, 300; and women activists, xvii–xviii, 89–90, 149–50, 164–66, 169–70, 303, 309–10, 337–38; and women’s education, 39, 54, 87; and women’s issues, 290–91, 297, 306–8, 334; and workers’ education, 8, 87, 139 n13, 150, 333. See also individual unions

Lake Forest College, 238

La Zar, Jennie, 65–67

Legislative efforts, xvii, 5, 77–78, 81–83, 87

Leonard, Louise, 92, 170. See also McLaren, Louise Leonard

Lerner, Anita Marburg, 124

Lerner, Max, 200

Le Sueur, Meridel, 255–56

Lewinson, Jean Flexner 125, 127

Life and Labor, 10; articles from, 21–29, 57–69

Lindeman, Eduard, 200

Lipschitz, Dora, 13

Lockwood, Helen Drusilla, 124

Loud, Oliver, 124

Lucia, Carmen, 123–24, 128–29, 144 n49, 197

McAvoy, Ann, 205–6

McDonald, Lois, 85, 86, 96; and Southern Summer School, 150, 154, 196, 200, 202

McDonald, Marie, 59

McIntosh, Millicent Carey, 124, 140 n17

McLaren, Louise Leonard, 95, 96; and Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 190, 196, 199, 202; and Southern Summer School, 150, 152–53, 157–58, 169. See also Leonard, Louise

Maniloff, Sylvia, xviii

Mansbridge, Albert, 111, 141 n20

Marriage: and careers, 11, 16–17, 34 n43, 167

Martin, Prestonia Mann: Prohibiting Poverty, 257

Mayer, Helen, 116

Men: admitted to womens’ education programs, 92, 157–58, 193–94, 200–204, 232, 235–36, 238, 339–40

Merriam, Ida Craven, 125

Michigan State University, 293

Michigan Summer School for Women Workers, 311–14

Mitchell, Broadus, 120, 124, 154

Mittelstadt, Louisa, 8–9, 11, 31 n10

Monroe, Edna, 98–99

Moscicki, Helen, 205

Muskiwinni Foundation, 302

Muste, A. J., 51, 109

National Conference of Industrial Women (YWCA), 81–82, 83, 104 n21

National Congress of Neighborhood Women (New York), 303–4

National Consumers League (NCL), 109

National Recovery Act (NRA), 53, 120–21, 200

National Women’s Trade Union League (NWTUL or WTUL) Training School for Women Organizers, 5–35, 48–49; accomplishments of, 20–21; curriculum of, 5–6, 8, 10, 11–14; educational philosophy of, 5–6, 7, 17–21, 30 n4; faculty at, 10, 13; fieldwork at, 6, 10–12, 14, 17–19; finances of, 6–7, 8, 11–12, 14–16, 20, 33 n31; founding of, 6–8, 30 n1, 31 n9; and health care, 15, 33 n34; as model, 7, 109, 150; and other women’s organizations, 114–15, 141 n22, 193, 228, 257; scholarships to, 7–8, 15–17, 33 n31; social, cultural, and recreational activities of, 6, 15; and social activism, 7, 14, 17–19; and socialism, 9–10; students at, 8–10, 11, 16, 20–21, 26–29, 33 n41, 34 n53, 86–87

National Youth Administration (NYA), 255, 267–72

Nelson, Anne, 292

New Deal: and Bryn Mawr Summer School, 120–22; and unionism, 53, 165; and women, 202, 255–56, 259–61, 267–68, 271–72; and workers’ education, 195, 198. See also She-she-she camps

Nine to Five, 306

Nine to Five: The National Association of Working Women, 290, 294–95, 299–300, 304

Nixon, H. C., 155

Nord Elizabeth, 123–24, 126, 128–29, 144 n49

Northwestern University, 194, 238

Oberlin College, 194, 200, 238, 264

O’Connor, Julia, 12, 13

Ohio State University, 302–3

Olson, Helen, 274–75

O’Neill, William L., 138 n5

Opportunity School, 264

O’Reilly, Leonora, 31 n9

Palmer, Gladys, 124; The Industrial Experience of Women Workers at the Summer Schools, 1928–1930, 195; The Scrapbook of the American Labor Movement, 195

Pancoast, Elinor, 227, 239

Pell, Orlie, 232, 235–36, 238

Pells, Richard H., 156

Perkins, Frances 258

Pesotta, Rose, 124

Peterson, Esther, 125, 129; interview with, 328–40

Phoebe Anna Thorne School (Bryn Mawr), 113, 140 n17

Pieper, Doris, 233–34

Pollak, Katherine: Your Job and Your Pay, 195. See also Ellickson, Katherine Pollak

Powell, Myrtle, 235

Poyntz, Juliet Stuart, 41–42, 43–47 passim, 57–61, 70 n8

Price, Mildred, 195

Program on Women and Work (POWW, University of Michigan), 293, 301, 319

“Proctocol of Peace,” 40

Race issue, 16, 149, 151, 206, 288, 312, 320, 332

Rand School, 40–41

Ransdell, Hollace, 156, 177

Rich, Lynnette, 319, 320–22

Richman, Lena, 109

Robins, Margaret Dreier, 7, 9, 10, 12, 15, 33 n34

Robinson, Dolly Lowther, 124, 144 n49

Robkin, Polly, 153

Rockefeller Foundation, 198, 200, 301

Rodolfo, Sophie Schmidt, 129

Rogin, Larry, 296; interview with, 328–38

Roosevelt, Eleanor, 257–58, 260, 261, 270–71, 272

Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 256

Russell, Alys, 111

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 303

Rutz, Henry, 200–201

Sapos, David, 51, 52, 114

Saunders, Laurance, 109

Schlesinger, Benjamin, 40

Scholarships, 7–8, 15–17, 33 n31, 49, 91–92, 151

Scott, Anne F., 185 n46

Scott, Frances E., 242–43

Scott, Melinda, 11, 31 n9

Seabrook Farms strike, 122, 145 n69

Segal, Bonnie, 124, 144 n49

Selden, Helen Schuldenfreid, 129

Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 299–300, 304

Sex-role definitions; and educational training, 17–19, 84, 264–65; and marriage and career, 11, 16–17, 34 n43, 167; Southern, 158, 160–61, 166, 167–69, 185 n46

Sexual harassment, 21, 312–13

She-she-she camps, 255–83; accomplishments of 267, 273–74; closing of, 271–73; community reaction to, 266–67, 270, 272; curriculum of, 260–61, 264–66, 268–69, 278–79; educational philosophy of, 257, 259, 260–62, 264, 269, 271–74, 278–79; essays from, 274–79; establishment of, 259–61, 281 n19; under FERA, 255, 259–67, 270; funding for, 255, 257, 259, 261, 262, 268, 269–71, 282 n37; government resistance to, 259–61, 267–68, 269–72; under NYA, 255, 267–72; recruitment for, 268, 270; social life at, 266; staff of, 263–64, 270; students at, 262–63, 264, 266, 268; vocational training at, 263, 266, 268–69

Shoemaker, Alice, 96, 193, 199, 202, 204, 229

Silverbrook, Nettie, 287

Simms, Florence, 77, 78–83 passim, 95

Smith, Alexia, 17

Smith, Hannah Whitall Pearsall, 111

Smith, Hilda (“Jane”) Worthington, 124–25, 219 n19, 327, 332–33, 335, 336, 338; and Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 190, 192, 193, 196, 198–99, 203; and Bryn Mawr Summer School, 110, 113–14, 118, 124–25, 128, 142 n43; and she-she-she camps, 255, 257, 259–63, 268–72

Smithsonian Institute, 299

Snyder, Eleanor: Job Histories of Women Workers at the Summer Schools, 1931–34 and 1938, 195

Social, cultural, and recreational activities: at Bryn Mawr Summer School, 120; at ILGWU, 43–46, 55; at WTUL Training School, 6, 15; at YWCA, 78, 90, 97

Social activism, xvi, 39, 52–57; and Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 201; and Bryn Mawr Summer School, 120–21, 122–24, 142 n43, 143 n48; and ILGWU, 39, 45–47, 51, 54–55; and Southern Summer School, 154; and WTUL Training School, 7, 14, 17–19; and YWCA, 77, 85, 95, 150

Social feminism, 109–10, 138 n5, 139 n7, 202–3, 260

Socialism, 235; and Bryn Mawr Summer School, 120–22; and ILGWU, 42, 46, 50–51; and WTUL Training School, 9–10; and YWCA, 82–83, 95

Social unionism, 43

Southern Summer School for Women Workers in Industry, 92, 149–86, 190, 192, 193, 332; accomplishments of, 169–71; admission of men to, 157–58, 193, 339; curriculum of, 151–52, 154; educational philosophy of, 152–57, 182 n2; essays from, 171–82; faculty at, 152–53, 154–55; founding of, 150–51; and labor drama, 156–57, 177–82; and race, 151, 332; and student expression, 155–57; students at, 87, 151, 158–59, 165–71; and transition from agriculture to industry, 160–62, 166–67, 173–74, 184 n26; and unions 150, 164–66, 169–70

Southern Tenant Farmer’s Union (STFU), 159

Southern United States, 79, 92–93, 149–51, 164–66

Speer, Mrs. Robert, 114

Spencer, Jennie, 87–90; “My Transition,” 90

Starr, Helen Norton, 51

Starr, Mark, 53–54, 55–56, 57, 124, 200

Stenographers, Typists, Bookkeepers and Assistants Union, 229, 234

Stolberg, Benjamin, 54

Strikes, 7, 10–11, 40, 49, 89, 133–35; coal, 177–82; Gastonia, 175–77; Seabrook Farms, 122, 145 n69, 333; Southern textile, 164–65, 179, 172–73, 185 n39

Student-industrial movement (YWCA), 83, 97, 99–102

Students, 86–87, 329–30; at Bryn Mawr Summer School, 87, 115–18, 121–24, 125–26, 141–44 n24–25, n43–44 and n48–49; at she-she-she camps, 262–63, 264, 266, 268; at Southern Summer School, 87, 151, 158–59, 165–71; at Summer School for Office Workers, 233–34, 239; at WTUL Training School, 8–10, 11, 16, 20, 26–29, 33 n41, 86–87; at YWCA, 86–87

Suffrage (vote), 26, 104 n14, 110, 112

Sullivan, Rose, 12

Summer School for Office Workers, 192, 193–94, 200, 225–51, 264; accomplishments of, 241–42; admission of men to, 194, 200, 232, 235–36, 238; and class consciousness, 225–30, 236–37, 241, 249 n10; compared to other schools, 225, 227–28, 231; curriculum of, 231–32, 236, 237–38, 239–40; educational philosophy of, 231–32, 234–36, 237–38, 239–42; fees for, 231; letters from, 242–44; and other women’s organizations, 288–29, 238; recruitment for, 231, 233, 238; students at, 233–34, 239; and unions, 228–30, 233–34, 237–42

Sweet Briar College 93, 151, 193

Sweezy, Susan Shepherd, 124, 127

Tentler, Leslie, 117

Textile Workers’ Organizing Committee (TWOC), 165, 337

Thomas, Martha Carey, 110–14, 118, 140 n14–17, 192

Thompson, W. 0., 120–21

Tindall, Susan, 318

Tippett, Tom, 87–88

Trade Union Women’s Studies, 292–93

Training School for Women Organizers. See National Women’s Trade Union League

Tsang, Betty, xviii, 316–17

Tuve, Rosamund, 124

Unions. See Labor unions

Union Women’s Alliance to Gain Equality (Union WAGE, California), 303

United Auto Workers (UAW), 290–91

United Cloth Hat and Cap Makers, 39, 52

United Labor Education Committee (New York), 39

United Office and Professional Workers of America (UOPWA), 234

Unity Centers, 41, 45, 59–60

Unity House, 44–45, 56–57, 58–61

University and College Labor Education Association (UCLEA), 303, 316

University of Alabama, in Birmingham 302

University of California, 302–3

University of Chicago, 10, 12–14, 238

University of Connecticut, 303

University of Kentucky, 303

University of Maine, 303

University of Michigan, 290, 291, 293, 301, 309–15, 319

University of Oregon, 303

University of Wisconsin, 92, 190, 191, 192–93

Van Kleeck, Mary, 196

Vineyard Shore Workers’ School, 87, 192, 193

Vocational training, 263, 266, 268–69, 337

Voice, The (Southern School for Women Workers, Austin, Texas), 316–17

Walker, Amy, 31 n9

Ware, Caroline, 124, 125, 154, 183 n9

Ware, Susan, 138 n5, 202

Warne, Colston, 122, 124, 125

Watts Glen, 298

Weed, Helena 256

White-Collar Workshops, 236, 240–41

Whitehead, Myrtle, 8–9, 11, 32 n20

Williams, Aubrey, 260

Williams, Constance, 125

Williamson, Margaret, 228–29

Wisconsin Summer School for Woman Workers, 92, 190, 191, 192–93

Wolfson, Theresa, 51, 124, 196, 232, 233

Women: in the home, 29, 136; in the labor force, 5, 288–89; and New Deal, 202, 255–56, 259–61, 267–68, 271–72; unemployed, 255–56, 259–60, 263, 274–75. See also Labor unions

Women Employed (Chicago), 303

Women’s Bureau (Department of Labor), 7, 195, 229

Women’s Trade Union League. See National Women’s Trade Union League

Woodward, Ellen, 259, 260

Worker’s education. See Labor education

Worker’s Education Association (England), 111

Worker’s Education Bureau, 3940, 48, 56

Worker’s University at Washington Irving High School (New York), 41, 46

Working conditions, 22–26, 63–69, 129–35, 162–64, 171–75, 276–77, 319; stretch-outs and speed-ups, 164, 172–73, 185 n39

Workplace Hustle, 298

Works Progress Administration (WPA), 195, 336, 340. See also New Deal

WTUL. See National Women’s Trade Union League

Wylie, Laura, 126–27

Young Woman’s Christian Association (YWCA) Industrial Programs, 77–106, 257; accomplishments of, 86–87, 88, 90, 96; and black women, 79–80, 88, 102–3, 105 n28; curriculum of, 84–85, 94–95; educational philosophy of, 77–78, 83–84, 86, 335; Industrial Clubs of, 77–78, 80, 84, 85, 86, 87–88, 92, 96; and labor unions, 81–83, 93–94, 169; and other women’s organizations, 80, 84, 90–93, 95–96, 150–51, 192–94, 202; publications of, 97–103; and recruitment for summer schools, 90–93, 115, 231, 233; and religion, 78, 82–83, 84, 94; secretaries and staff of, 77, 84, 94–96, 118, 124, 150, 193–94, 226, 335; and social activism, 77, 85, 95, 150; social and recreational activities of, 78, 90, 97, 120; summer conferences of, 85–86, 87–88

Ziegler, Philip, 229–30.

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781439917923
MARC Record
OCLC
1048888238
Pages
363-372
Launched on MUSE
2018-08-23
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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