publisher colophon

179INDEX

Page numbers in italics refer to figures and tables.

activity cages, use of, 30, 31, 74

ADH (vasopressin) secretion, 55

adrenal glands

atropine and sweating, 109

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 35–37

domestication, effects of, 79, 79–81, 92–94, 94, 96

sodium and water regulation, 55–59, 56, 62–64, 133

Agassiz, Louis, 27

aging, Richter’s interest in biological basisof, 138

alcohol consumption and homeostasis, 71–73

American Philosophical Society, 22–23

Angell, J. R., 12

animal experimentation, concerns regarding, 12, 148n1 (chap. 4)

Aristotle, 27

art, medical (Richter-Malone collaboration on rat surgery book), 121–27, 123, 124, 125, 126

artisan in laboratory, Richter as, 116, 127–28

see also science and laboratory research, culture of

Aschoff, J., 40, 41, 45, 46

atropine and sweating, 109

bait shyness and taste aversion, 69–70, 80, 81–88, 87

Barelare, Bruno, 64, 66, 118, 119

Baron, Jon, xi

Barro Colorado research station, Panama, 101, 102, 114–15

Bartemeier, L. H., 105, 106

Beach, Frank, 134, 143

beavers, decerebration of, 107

behaviorism, 13, 27, 30, 52, 133–35, 147n2 (chap. 1)

Bernard, Claude

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 29, 147–48n1 (chap. 3)

influence on Richter, 2–3, 4, 10, 24, 135

ingestive behaviors, study of, 47, 48, 50, 54, 59, 148n2 (chap. 3)

laboratory notes of, 148n1 (epil.)

laboratory sensibility of Richter compared to, 120

Magendie as teacher of, 48, 78, 116

“big phenomena,” ix–xi

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 26–46

circadian clock, 38–42, 39, 75

clinical applications, 43, 45–46

endocrinology, behavioral, 34–37

fire, discovery of, 41–42

innovation in research practices, 30–33, 31

internally generated behaviors, 29–30

multiple clocks, existence of, 40–41, 45

peripheralist perspective, 33–34, 45

psychobiology and biological clocks, 28–29

shock-phase hypothesis and periodic phenomena, 42–43, 43

stomach contractions, 33–34

temperature, behavioral regulation of, 37–38

Blass, Eliot, xii, 162

Boyle, Robert, 116

Brady, Joe, 144

Brödel, Max, 121–22, 123

Brunner, Peg, 120

bulbocapnine, catalepsy induced by, 107

Bump, Jesse, 146

calcium homeostasis, 60–62, 61

Cannon, Walter

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 34, 44

influence on Richter, 2–3, 4, 10, 135

ingestive behaviors, study of, 47, 48–50, 55, 59, 60, 73–74

Richter as scientific figure compared to, 121, 129, 143, 146

voodoo death and effects of domestication, 89, 90, 92, 94, 96

“wisdom of the body,” 48–50, 117

Carmichel, Leonard, 23

Cartesian thought, 27

catalepsy induced by bulbocapnine, 107

catatonia, 43, 114

cats, study of, 111

Chapman, F. M., 114

chorda tympani nerve and salt taste, 59

chronobiology, 45

see also biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors

circadian clock, 38–42, 39, 75

clinical applications

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 43, 45–46

ingestive behaviors, 59, 62–64

military research on taste aversion and poisoning wild rats, 8–85, 95

neurobiological investigations, 101, 109

skin resistance, electrical measurement of, 109, 111, 112–14

Clisby, Kathryn, 82

clocks, biological. See biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors

clocks and locks, Richter’s youthful tinkering with, 8, 26

coatimundis, study of, 102, 103

cognitive behaviorism, 147n2 (chap. 1)

colleagues of Richter, 118–19

Columbia University, 33

Commonwealth Fund, 137

core concepts, Richter’s use of, 4–6, 142–43

Cross, Barbara Carberry, 120

Cushing, Harvey, 121

cyberconference on Richter, 145–46

Darwin, Charles

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 27, 41

domestication, on effects of, xv, 77–78, 93, 96

influence on Richter, 4, 5, 20–21, 135

ingestive behaviors, study of, 47, 50–51

instinct, 50–51

da Vinci, Leonardo, 122, 127

Davis, Clara, 53–54, 59, 67

decerebration, motor rigidity produced by, 105–6, 106, 107

Denny-Brown, Derek Ernst, 106

Denton, Derek, xiv, 141

deoxycorticosterone, 57, 58, 81, 133

dermometer, 110, 112, 115

Descartes, René, 27

design research, Richter’s resistance to, 136–37

determinism, 29

Dethier, V. G., 143

Dewey, John, 19–20, 147n2 (chap. 1)

diabetes and ingestive behaviors, 55, 57, 62–64

Dieke, Sally, 84, 118, 119

domestication, effects of, 77–98

adrenal glands, 79, 79–81, 92–94, 94, 96

Darwin on, xv, 77–78, 93, 96

early experiments in, 79–80

gonadal organs, 93, 94, 96

instinct and, 51

learned behavior, taste aversion as, 87–88

Lorenz on, 133

organ weights, 94

pituitary gland, 94

rats as study animals, 78–79

reproductive capacity, 93, 96

Richter’s conclusions regarding, 93–98

sodium self-regulation, 80–81

spontaneous running, 94

taste aversion and bait shyness, 80, 81–88

temperamental variance, 78, 88–89, 95

tongue size, 85

voodoo death, 89–93

Donaldson, Henry H., 12, 78, 96

Dresden Technische Hochschule, 7, 9

Dunlap, Knight, 13, 52

Eaton, B. C., 112

Eckert, John, 118

Eckman, M., 120

ecological perspective, 75, 76

Edwards, Jonathan, 23

electrical measurement of skin resistance, 108–14, 110

electromyogram (EMG), use of, 107, 108

Emlen, J. T., Jr., 84

endocrinology, behavioral, 34–37

“energies of men” (William James), 89

engineering

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, design of, 29

Richter’s tendency to think like an engineer, 1, 6, 136

Richter’s training in, 8–9

Epstein, Alan, x, xi, xiii

esthetic sensibility, origins of, 127–28

ethological perspective, 6, 75, 76, 134, 135

evolution, Richter’s views on, 41–42, 93, 96–98

Evvard, J. M., 53, 74

experimental design, Richter’s resistance to, 136–37

fear and hopelessness, sudden death from (voodoo death), 89–93

feces ingestion by rats, 65

Fechner, Gustav Theodor, 109

fire, circadian clock and discovery of, 41–42

Fleischmann, Walter, 62–64

Flexner, Abraham, and Flexner Report, 3, 147nn12 (intro.)

Flexner, Louis, 147n2 (intro.)

Flexner, Simon, 23, 147n2 (intro.)

Fontaine, M., 133

food choice. See ingestive behaviors

Franklin, Benjamin, 23

Freud, Sigmund, 9, 15, 28, 76

Galison, P., 117, 146

galvanometer, 109

Gantt, W. H., 92

Gerecke, U., 40, 41

Germany, Richter’s connection to, 7, 8

Gilman, Daniel Coit, 2

Gjessing, L. R., 43

gonadal organs

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 35, 36

domestication, effects of, 93, 94, 96

toxins and taste aversion, 84

grant writing, Richter’s views on, 128, 136

grasp reflex, 99–101, 100, 104–8, 106, 114

Greenacre, Phyllis, 8

Grill, Harvey, xi

gustatory system and oral cavity

domesticated vs. wild rats, 85

ingestive behaviors affected by changes in, 58–59

Richter-Malone collaboration on rat surgery book, 122, 123, 124

stomach contractions, Richter’s theories

regarding, 33–34, 49, 53, 131

see also ingestive behaviors

Guttmacher, A. F., 35

habit and instinct, 51

Haldane, J., 133

Hall, C. E., 80

Hall, Emmett, 85

Halsted, William, 2, 121

Hamilton Street Club, 23

Harrington, Anne, 148n3 (chap. 3)

Hartman, Carl, 35, 119

Harvard University, 7, 9–10, 11

Harvey, William, 48

Hawkes, Douglas, 119

Head, Sir Henry, 106, 109

Hebb, Donald, 76

hedonic attraction, 76

Henderson, L. J., 10, 147n1 (chap. 1)

Hilgard, Ernest, 21

Hines, M., 107, 119

Holmes, F. L., xiii

Holt, E. B., 9

Holt, Emmett, 119

Holt, L. E., Jr., 64, 66

homeostasis, 47

see also internal milieu, self-regulation of

hopelessness, sudden death from (voodoo death), 89–93

Hughes, C. W., 91

Hume, David, 27

hypothalamus and circadian clock, 40, 44

ingestive behaviors, 47–76

alcohol consumption and homeostasis, 71–73

Bernard, Claude on, 47, 48, 50, 54, 59, 147–48n1 (chap. 3), 148n2 (chap. 3), 148n1 (epil.)

calcium homeostasis, 60–62, 61

Cannon, Walter on, 47, 48–50, 55, 59, 60, 73–74

clinical applications of, 59, 62–64

diabetes, 55, 57, 62–64

feces ingestion, 65

general conditions, self-selection studies

under, 65–69

importance of Richter’s contributions to

study of, 143–44

innate choice and self-selection, 47, 53–54, 65–69, 74–76

instinct, role of, 50–53, 76, 148n3 (chap. 3)

learned behaviors, failure of Richter to

take into account, 69–70

limitations of Richter’s research on, 69–70, 74–76

McCollum’s core diet, 54–55, 60, 66

oral cavity and gustatory system, effect of

changes in, 58–59

pancreatic function, 48, 62–64, 63, 148n2 (chap. 3)

pregnancy and lactation, 65–69, 68

social cues affecting, 70

stomach contractions, Richter’s theories

regarding, 33–34, 49, 53

taste aversion and bait shyness, 69–70, 80, 81–88, 87

thiamine and vitamin B1 deficiency, 64–65

water and sodium regulation, 55–59, 56

innate behavior

biological clocks (see biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors)

ingestive behaviors, innate choice, and self-selection, 47, 53–54, 65–69, 74–76

Richter’s beliefs regarding, 131–32

Tinbergen, work of, 134

instinct

ingestive behaviors and, 50–53, 76, 148n3 (chap. 3)

international conference on instinctive behavior, Richter at, 129–36

Nazi eugenics and concept of, 133

internal milieu, self-regulation of

biological clocks (see biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors)

dissertation of Richter on, 13

influences on Richter regarding, 3

ingestion (see ingestive behaviors)

temperature, behavioral regulation of, 37–38

Jackson, Hughlings, 99

James, William

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 27, 41

early influences on Richter, 5, 9, 10, 15, 19–20

“energies of men,” 89

instinct, 51

neurobiological investigations, 99

Jefferson, Thomas, 23

Johns Hopkins University

closing of Richter’s laboratory, 141–42, 143–44

culture of research and freedom of inquiry at, 2–4

extramarital affairs, policy regarding, 15, 18, 72

Phipps Clinic, 2, 10–11, 15–19, 118–20

Richter at, 10–14, 140

Kant, Immanuel, 27, 136

Kehoe, Marjorie, 145

Keiner, Christine, 146

Kennedy, Gordon, 90

Kinder, Elaine, 37, 119, 131

kinkajous, study of, 102, 103

Klein, M., 133

Krebs, Hans, 148n1 (epil.)

laboratory, closing of Richter’s, 141–42, 143–44

laboratory research culture. See science and

laboratory research, culture of

laboratory sensibility of Richter, ixx, 4–6, 24–25, 116–18

archived laboratory notebooks, xiv, 1, 142

artisan approach, 116, 127–28

community of inquirers (students, colleagues, and staff), 117, 118–20

Malone, Paul, collaboration with, 121–27, 123, 124, 125, 126

playfulness, role of, 121

structure of laboratory, 117, 129

lactation. See reproductive process

Lamarckian transmission, 51, 77

Lamberg, Lynne, 146

Langworthy, O., 119

lard, diabetic ingesting, 62–64

Lashley, Karl, 13, 21, 34, 52–53, 76, 103, 121, 135, 143

Latour, B., 117

learned behavior

habit and instinct, relationship between, 51

instinct, link to, 135

Richter’s lack of interest in, 69–70, 74–76, 131–32

taste aversion as, 87–88

Tinbergen, work of, 134

learned helplessness, 91

Lehrman, Daniel, 130–34

Levine, Maurice, 113

Liddell, E. G. T., 106

Lindsey, Donald, 21

long-delay learning and food choice, 69–70

Lorenz, Konrad, 129–31, 133–35, 143

Ludwig, Carl, 121

Lynch, J. J., 91

macaques, study of, 107–8, 111

MacLean, Alice, 58–59

Magendie, François, 48, 78, 116

Malone, Paul, 121–27, 123, 124, 125, 126

Mayer, Jean, ix

McCall, Nancy, 141–42, 145

McCollum, E. V., 32, 54–55, 60, 66, 84

McHugh, Paul, xiii, xiv, 140, 144, 145

McKhann, Guy, 138

Mead, George Herbert, 147n2 (chap. 1)

medical illustration (Richter-Malone collaboration

on rat surgery book), 121–27, 123, 124, 125, 126

Mendel, L. B., 53, 74

mental illness

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 43

skin resistance, electrical measurement of, 113–14

Meyer, Adolf

alcohol consumption and homeostasis, concerns about Richter’s work on, 71–73

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 28, 30, 44

developmental observations of Lashley and Watson, support for, 103

early influence on Richter, 4, 5, 14–21, 25

galvanometer, purchase and use of, 109

hygienic components of experimentation on wild rats, 148n2 (chap. 4)

ingestive behaviors, 47

neurobiological investigations, 99

Panama, Richter’s research trips to, 99, 101

rats introduced as laboratory animals in America by, 16, 78

Richter as scientific figure compared to, 129, 146

Richter’s paper on, 142

Rockefeller Foundation, 137

skin resistance, electrical measurement of, 101

whole-body emphasis of, 15, 16

military research

electrical measurement of skin resistance in World War II soldiers, 112–13

taste aversion and poisoning wild rats, 83–85, 95

Miller, N., 137, 144

Mix, Lisa, 145, 146

Molloy, Agnes, 120

monkeys, study of, 101, 103

Moran, Timothy, xiii, 1, 142, 144–45

Morgan, Clifford, 143

Morris, Desmond, 130

Mosier, David, 81, 119

motor rigidity created by decerebration, 105–6, 106, 107

multiple-cage activity method, 30, 31, 74

narcolepsy, 111

National Academy of Sciences, 23

National Council on Alcoholism, 137

National Institutes of Health, 137

National Research Council, 44, 45, 73–74, 101, 136, 137

National Science Foundation, 137

nature vs. nurture controversy, 133–34

see also innate behavior; instinct; learned behavior

Nazi ideology and concept of instinct, 133

nest-building activities of rats, 37–38, 38

neurobiological investigations, 99–115

clinical applications, 101

grasp reflex, 99–101, 100, 104–8, 106, 114

skin resistance, 108–14, 110

sucking as self-stimulation, 103

Nobel Prize, Richter’s nomination for, 143

novelty in food choice, learned wariness of, 69–70, 80, 81–88, 87

nutritional choice. See ingestive behaviors

objective vs. subjective schools of psychology, 27

O’Connor, Ardis, 120, 142

oral cavity. See gustatory system and oral cavity; ingestive behaviors

organs, effect of domestication on, 94

see also specific organs

Ormsbee, R. A., 95

Osborne, T. B., 53, 74

Osler, William, 2

Panama, Richter’s research trips to, 99, 101–3, 102, 114–15

sloth, grasp reflex in, 99, 104–8, 106

sucking as self-stimulation, 103

pancreatic function and ingestive behaviors, 48, 62–64, 63, 148n2 (chap. 3)

parathyroid gland

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 37, 43

calcium homeostasis, 60–62, 61

toxins and taste aversion, 84

Park, E. A., 140

Passano Award, 144

Pavlov, I. P., 54, 120, 121, 148n2 (chap. 3)

Peirce, Benjamin, 2

Peirce, Charles S., 2, 19–20, 23, 117, 136, 137, 142

periodic phenomena, 42–43, 43

peripheralist perspective, 33–34, 45

Perry, R. B., 10

Pfaffmann, Carl, 23, 143

Phipps Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 2, 10–11, 15–19, 118–20

Pierone, H., 133

pituitary gland

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 35

ingestive behaviors, 55

Richter-Malone collaboration on rat surgery book, 122, 125

poisons and taste aversion, 81–88

pragmatism, 15, 19–21, 23, 25, 147n2 (chap. 1)

pregnancy. See reproductive process

procaine and skin resistance, 112

psychobiology

biological clocks and, 28–29

inception of, 28

psychogalvanic reflexes, 108–14, 110

psychology as new science, 26–28

“psychotic” behavior of rats in response to poisoning, 85, 86

rats

biting behavior, 83, 84

cartoon about Richter’s work with, 97, 98

domesticated vs. wild, 78–79 (see also domestication, effects of)

feces, ingestion of, 65

hygienic components of experimentation

on wild rats, 148n2 (chap. 4)

immobilization, effect of, 90–91

Magendie’s seminal work with, 48, 78

Meyer’s introduction of rats as laboratory animals in America, 16, 78

nest-building activities, 37–38, 38

Richter depicted as, 75, 76, 121

Richter’s defense of use of, 12

Richter’s dissertation on, 13

Richter’s innovative research practices with, 30–33, 31

surgery on (see surgery on rats)

umbrella, injection device created from, 140

water, forced to swim in, 90, 91

whiskers, effect of trimming, 90–91

reflexes and instinct, 51

reproductive process

biological clocks and spontaneous behavior, 35, 36

domestication, benefits of, 93, 96

ingestive behaviors, effect of pregnancy and lactation on, 65–69, 68

see also gonadal organs

Rescoria, Robert A., 137

research culture. See science and laboratory research, culture of

riboflavin, 65

Rice, Katherine, 57, 118, 119

Richter, Curt

birth, childhood and youth, 7–8, 11

children of, 22

clocks and locks, youthful tinkering with, 8, 26

closing of laboratory, 141–42, 143–44

core concepts, use of, 4–6, 142–43

cyberconference on, 145–46

death of, xiii, 138

dedications to, 144

dissertation, 13–14, 71

divorce, 8

early influences and career, 14–21, 25

education, 2, 8–13

evolution, views on, 41–42, 93, 96–98

first paper published by, 108

freedom, conception of, 97–98, 136–37

Germany, connections to, 7, 8

grant writing, views on, 128, 136

importance as scientist, 121, 129, 143–44, 146

influence of, 138–41, 143–44, 146

laboratory sensibility of. See laboratory sensibility of Richter

loner nature of, 118

marriages, 8, 22, 140

Nobel Prize nomination, 143

obituary of, 14, 46, 143

parents of, 7–8

philosophical approach to science, 129–37

photographs of, ii, 11, 75, 139

playful nature of, 75, 76, 121

publications of, 142, 162–77

sports interests of, 8

stubbornness and tenacity of, 141–42

theoretical contributions of, x, 116, 129, 132, 146

war service of, 10

Richter, Leslie, 140, 162

Richter tube, 75

Robinson, Bob, 144

Rockefeller Foundation, 137

Roe, Anne, Richter’s interview with, xiv, 21–23, 127

Rogers, P. V., 79, 80

Roosevelt, Theodore, 114–15

Rorschach tests taken by Richter, 21, 22

Rozin, Paul, xiii, xiv, 65, 88, 135, 138, 141

running, spontaneous, 94

Rusak, Benjamin, 42

Sabini, John, xi

salt ingestion, self-regulation of, 55–59, 56, 80–81, 131–33, 143

schizophrenia, 43, 114

Schmidt, L., 119

Schnierla, T. C., 130, 131

Schull, Jon, 138, 139

science and laboratory research, culture of

American Philosophical Society, 23

American pragmatism, 19–21, 23

Johns Hopkins University, culture of research at, 2–4

Richter’s laboratory sensibility (see laboratory sensibility of Richter)

Richter’s philosophical approach to science, 129–37

Richter’s resistance to design research and experimental design, 136–37

Watson, J. B., influence of, 12–13

SCN (suprachiasmatic region) and circadian clock, 40, 44

self-preservation, Richter’s interest in concept

of, 47–48

self-regulation of internal milieu. See internal

milieu, self-regulation of

self-stimulation, 103

Selye, Hans, 96–97

Sherrington, Charles, 4, 106, 113

shock-phase hypothesis, 42–43, 43

shyness, 88–89

sickness, avoidance of foods producing, 69–70, 80, 81–88, 87

Simpson, George Gaylord, 21, 22–23

Skinner, B. F., 21, 52

skin resistance, electrical measurement of, 108–14, 110

clinical applications, 109, 111, 112–14

dermometer and galvanometer, 109, 110, 112, 115

mental illness, study of, 113–14

Meyer’s technique inherited by Richter, 101

Richter’s early interest in, 14

sleep studies, 108–9, 111

sweating, neural control of, 109

World War II soldiers, clinical assessment of, 112–13

sleep studies

regulatory mechanisms, 40

skin resistance, 108–9, 111

sloth, grasp reflex in, 99, 104–8, 106

Smiley, W., 8, 9

Smith, G., 32, 73

social cues and ingestive behaviors, 70

social wariness, temperament, and domestication, 88–89

sodium ingestion, self-regulation of, 55–59, 56, 80–81, 131–33

Spinoza, Baruch, 47

spontaneous behaviors, 26

see also biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors; ingestive behaviors; instinct; internal milieu, self-regulation of

spontaneous running, 94

staff of Richter’s laboratory, 118–19

Starling, Ernest, 48, 148n2 (chap. 3)

Stellar, Eliot, ix, x, xi, xiii, xiv, 118, 135, 140, 143

Stephans, Friedrich K., 144

Stevens, Stanley Smith, 21

stomach contractions, Richter’s theories regarding, 33–34, 49, 53, 131

“straphanging,” 85, 86

Stricker, Edward, 144

students of Richter, 118–19

subjective vs. objective schools of psychology, 27

sucking as self-stimulation, 103

sudden death, fear, and hopelessness (voodoo death), 89–93

suprachiasmatic region (SCN) and circadian clock, 40, 44

surgery on rats

Malone-Richter collaboration, 121–27, 123, 124, 125, 126

Richter’s laboratory staff participating in, 120

Richter’s pride in surgical abilities, 128

Surling, Dr. (Walter Reed Army Medical Center), 113

suspicion regarding new foods. See taste

aversion and bait shyness

sweating, neural control of, 109

see also skin resistance, electrical measurement of

sympathetic nervous system and skin resistance, 108–14, 110

taste aversion and bait shyness, 69–70, 80, 81–88, 87

taste thresholds for toxic substances, 82–83

Teitelbaum, Philip, ix, x

temperamental variance in wild and domesticated

states, 78, 88–89, 95

temperature, behavioral regulation of, 37–38

theory, Richter’s contributions to, x, 116, 129, 132, 146

thiamine and vitamin B1 deficiency, 64–65

Thorpe, W. H., 134

thyroid gland

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 37, 43

toxins and taste aversion, 84

Tinbergen, Niko, 134, 135, 143

Titchener, Edward, 15, 27

Todes, Daniel, xiii, 120, 145

tongue size of domesticated vs. wild rats, 85

toxins and taste aversion, 81–88

tropism vs. vitalism, 28

umbrella, device for injecting rats created from, 140

United States

military research: electrical measurement of skin resistance in World War II soldiers, 112–13

taste aversion and poisoning wild rats, 83–85, 95

pragmatism, American, 19–21, 23

respect for culture of science in, 4

vasopressin (ADH) secretion, 55

vitalism vs. tropism, 28

vitamin B1 deficiency and thiamine, 64–65

Von Frisch, K., 130, 133

voodoo death, 89–93

Wada, T., 131

Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 113

Wang, G. H., 35, 119

water and sodium regulation, 55–59, 56

Watson, John B.

behaviorism of, 13, 30, 52, 147n2 (chap. 1)

biological clocks and spontaneous behaviors, 29–30

developmental observation techniques, 103

extramarital affair, firing due to, 15, 72

grasp reflex, 99–101

influence on Richter, 10–16, 18

instinct, 52

Richter as scientific figure compared to, 129, 143

Wever, R., 40, 41, 46

Whitethorn, Dr. (Johns Hopkins Hospital), 18

wild vs. domesticated animals. See domestication, effects of

Wilkins, Lawson, 59

Wirth, J., 146

“wisdom of the body” (Walter Cannon), 48–50, 117

Wolf, George, xi, xiii

Woodruff, B. G., 112

Woolgar, S., 117

World War I, 9, 10, 109

World War II, 83, 95, 109, 112–13, 131, 133

Wundt, Wilhelm, 15

Yerkes, Robert, 5, 10, 16, 28, 78

Young, P. T., 143

zoologist, Richter’s self-identification as, 6

Zucker, Irving, 46

Previous Chapter

The Works of Curt Richter

Additional Information

ISBN
9781421427652
Related ISBN
9781421429373
MARC Record
OCLC
1048234544
Pages
179-188
Launched on MUSE
2018-08-15
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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