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1. George Wither, A Collection of Emblèmes, Ancient and Moderne (1635), introduction by Rosemary Freeman; bibliographical notes by Charles S. Hensley (Columbia: Published for the Newberry Library by the University of South Carolina Press, 1975), 1: 19. I am grateful to Nancy Zey for bringing this reference to my attention.

ONE A Risky Gift

EPIGRAPH: Louis-Étienne Arcère, Histoire de la ville de La Rochelle et du pays d’Aulnis, 2 vols. (La Rochelle: René-Jacob Desbordes, 1756–57), 1: 345, 350. I am indebted to Marie-Aline Irvine for her help in reviewing my translations of certain passages in Arcère.

1. There are three excellent full length studies of the tour from political, social, and cultural perspectives, Pierre Champion, Catherine de Médicis présente à Charles IX son royaume (Paris: B. Grasset, 1937); Victor E. Graham and W. McAllister Johnson, The Royal Tour of France by Charles IX and Catherine de’ Medici: Festivals and Entries, 1564–6 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979); and esp. Jean Boutier, Alain Dewerpe, and Daniel Nordman, Un Tour de France royal: Le Voyage de Charles IX (1564–1566) (Paris: Aubier Montaigne, 1984), 61–63.

2. Still useful among the many general histories that are concerned with these well-known events placed within the overall political and social context of the sixteenth-century French wars of religion is J. H. M. Salmon, Society in Crisis: France in the Sixteenth Century (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1975), see esp. 146–95; see also R. G. Asch and A. M. Birke, eds., Princes, Patronage, and Nobility: The Court at the Beginning of the Modern Age, circa 1540–1650 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991). For the seventeenth-century context, see Ronald G. Asch, The Thirty Years War: The Holy Roman Empire and Europe, 1618–48 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997); William Beik, Absolutism and Society in Seventeenth-Century France: State Power and Provincial Aristocracy in Languedoc (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985); Nicolas Henshall, The Myth of Absolutism: Change and Continuity in Early Modern European Monarchy (London: Longman, 1992); and John A. Lynn, Giant of the Grand Siècle: The French Army, 1610–1715 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997). On the synthesis of religious and political discourse and the dialogical nature of confessional conflict that informed such events during the French Reformation, see Donald R. Kelley, The Beginning of Ideology: Consciousness and Society in the French Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981); see also Euan Cameron, The European Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), and International Calvinism, 1541–1715, ed. Menna Prestwich (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985). On the formation of political thought and practice and Calvinist theories of resistance—particularly in England and France—from the late thirteenth through the late sixteenth century, see Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought, vol. 2: The Age of Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), esp. 234–358; see also P. Collinson, The Religion of the Protestants: The Church in English Society 1559–1625 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).

3. See esp. Skinner, Foundations of Modern Political Thought, 2: 243–44.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Judith Pugh Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle: Tradition and Change in Early Modern Europe, 1500–1568 (Geneva: E. Droz, 1996), 114.

7. “Either by charter or by custom, the most important section of. . . a town’s inhabitants, those who bore the title of bourgeois of the place in question, formed a body that was endowed with a legal personality and was represented by a group of magistrates and municipal officers, le corps de ville, an organ that expressed its common will”; Roland Mousnier, The Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 1598–1789: Society and State, trans. Brian Pearce (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 564.

8. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 114; for the standard sixteenth-century local history of these events, see Amos Barbot, Histoire de La Rochelle depuis l’an 1199 jusques en 1575, ed. Denys d’Aussy, Archives historiques de la Saintonge et de l’Aunis 17 (1889): 200–203.

9. Barbot, Histoire de La Rochelle, 206–7, and Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 114.

10. The monastery of Sainte-Marguérite was the Oratorians “house” (including living quarters) in La Rochelle after their return from banishment in 1628. The community expanded the monastery after 1652, when they built “a few secondary structures” on the same site. See Louis Pérouas, Le Diocèse de La Rochelle de 1648 à 1724: Sociologie et pastorale (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1964), 191 n. 1.

11. The Congregation of the Oratory, or Oratorians, a secular teaching order of priests that did not follow monastic orders, had its origins in sixteenth-century Rome and then diffused to Paris. There was a “house” in La Rochelle—an offshoot of the Paris oratory—by the early seventeenth century. The Oratorians proliferated throughout France, where fifty-eight Oratorian houses were recorded by the late eighteenth century. Their “Cartesian” teaching methods were influential in the universities beginning in the late seventeenth century. See Paul and Marie-Louise Biver, Abbayes, monastères, et couvents de Paris, des origines à la fin du XVIIIe siècle (Paris: Éditions d’histoire et d’art, 1970), 495–514 (I am indebted to Ann W. Ramsey for this reference and for her insights into the Oratorian movement); and Mousnier, Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 343, 348–54, 714–15.

12. For an excellent study of the social effects of the catastrophic demographic reversal in La Rochelle after 1628, see Katherine Louise Milton Faust, “A Beleaguered Society: Protestant Families in La Rochelle, 1628–1685” (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1980); the most recent general study of Protestant demographic patterns in France in the seventeenth century is in Philip Benedict, The Huguenot Population of France, 1600–1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 81, pt. 5 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1991). The classical text for French international Protestantism in the North American context in general and La Rochelle / Aunis-Saintonge in particular remains Charles W. Baird, History of the Huguenot Emigration to America, 2 vols. (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1885). This has been augmented recently from a number of different perspectives by a greatly expanded bibliography on the subject, including Philip Benedict, Christ’s Churches Purely Reformed: A Social History of Calvinism (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2002), 121–292; Jon Butler, The Huguenots in America: A Refugee People in a New World Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983); J. F. Bosher, The Canada Merchants, 1713–1763 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); id., “Huguenot Merchants and the Protestant International in the Seventeenth Century,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 52 (January 1995): 77–102; David Ormrod, “The Atlantic Economy and the ‘Protestant Capitalist International,’ 1651–1775,” Historical Research 66 (1993): 197–207; and Neil D. Kamil, “Hidden in Plain Sight: Disappearance and Material Life in Colonial New York,” American Furniture, 1995, ed. Luke Beckerdite and William N. Hosley Jr. (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1995): 191–249.

13. Arcère, Histoire, p. xix.

14. Ibid., 1: dedication (unpaginated), v–vi.

15. On the “artisanal culture” of gloire perpetuated by the Bourbon court historians of the early modern period, see Orest A. Ranum, Artisans of Glory: Writers and Historical Thought in Seventeenth-Century France (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980).

16. Arcère, Histoire, 1: v.

17. Ibid., i.

18. Ibid., 1: xiv–xv. The “judicious and elegant author” was G.-H. Bougeant (1690–1743). Arcère cites vol. 3, p. 316, in Bougeant’s Histoire des guerres et des négociations quiprécéderent le Traité de Westphalie (1727).

19. Mousnier, Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 342–49, 353–55, 714–19. It is important to reiterate that the “Cartesian” movement within the French Oratorian order was a late seventeenth-century phenomenon and not always uniform. Under its founder Pierre de Berulle in 1602, the order was decidedly Christocentric and spiritually ardent, with particular communities displaying powerful mystical zeal at certain moments. Since the Oratorians were founded as small cells of secular priests, each cell might have a specific religious style or character and might respond idiosyncratically. In 1659, for example, Rochelais Oratorians such as Père de Launay were strongly associated with the Port-Royal movement; see Pérouas, Diocèse de La Rochelle, 261–62.

20. Mousnier, Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 354.

21. Pérouas, Diocèse de La Rochelle, 128.

22. Ibid., p. 240.

23. Arcère, Histoire, 1: xi. For the publication history of Barbot’s Histoire de La Rochelle see n. 28 below.

24. Arcère, Histoire, 1: vi.

25. Ibid., 1: xvi.

26. Ibid., 1: x.

27. Ibid., 1: xi.

28. A nineteenth-century edition of Barbot’s original unpublished manuscript is to be found in Amos Barbot, Histoire de La Rochelle: 1199–1575, publiée par M. Denys d’Aussy, 3 vols. (Paris: A. Picard; Saintes: Mme. Z. Mortreuil, 1886–90); see also Publications de la Société des archives historiques de la Saintonge et de l’Aunis, vols. 14, 17–18. Arcère probably used the original manuscript (2 folio volumes, 771 pages), which is in Barbot’s handwriting, although it also has a cover page dated 1732 that states that the manuscript was given to the Bibliothèque nationale that year (Fonds français no. 18,968), i.e., over twenty years before the publication of Arcère’s Histoire. Père Jaillot had a copy of Barbot’s manuscript transcribed—in 1732?—which may have served Arcère’s purposes, perhaps prompting the donation of the original manuscript to the B.N. The title page of the original manuscript reads “Histoire de La Rochelle depuis l’an 1199 jusques en 1575, par Amos Barbot, escritte de sa main. Originale.” Although the manuscript is undated, a tentative date of ca. 1613 is suggested in the introduction to the 1886 edition.

29. Arcère, Histoire, 1: xi. I assume “Caurian” refers to Philippe Cauriana, Histoire du siege de la Rochelle 1573, trans. Leopold-Gabriel Delayant (La Rochelle: A. Siret, 1856).

30. Abel Jouan, Recueil et discours du voyage du roy Charles IXde ce nom apersent regnant, ac-compagnedes choses dignes de memoire faictes en chacun endroit faisant sondit voyage en ses paiset provinces de Champaigne, Bourgoigne, Daulphine, Provence, Languedoc, Gascoigne, Baionne, et plusieurs autres lieux, suivant son retour depuis son partement de Paris jusques a son retour audit lieu, es annees mil cinq sens soixante quatre et soixante cinq. Faict et recueilly par l’un des serviteurs de sa Majeste (Paris: Jean Bonfons, 1566). The Recueil was also published at Lyon, Toulouse, and An-goulême in 1566, and at Lyon in 1567. These were all places the king visited during his tour. I have consulted the edition of Jouan included in Graham and Johnson, Royal Tour of France.

31. My translation from Boutier et al., Tour de France royal, 13–16.

32. Arcère, Histoire, 1: xvi.

33. Ibid., 1: xxii–xxiii.

34. Ibid., 1: 344.

35. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 344.

36. Ibid., 1: 345

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid. On the attempted coup d’état in 1563, see Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 115.

39. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 346

40. I have consulted the annotated edition of Jouan’s Recueil in Graham and McAllister, Royal Tour of France, 123.

41. Jouan, Recueil, 123.The most recent (and reliable) source for biographical data on Palissy’s journey and stay in Paris is Leonard N. Amico, Bernard Palissy: In Search of Earthly Paradise (Paris: Flammarion, 1996); see esp. 32–40.

42. Jouan, Recueil, 124.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid., 125.

45. For more on Montmorency’s role, see N. M. Southerland, “Anthoine de Bourbon, King of Navarre and the French Crisis of Authority,” in French Government and Society 1500–1850: Essays in Memory of Alfred Cobban, ed. J. F. Bosher (London: Athlone Press, 1973), 13. On the augmentation of military forces recruited when the tour reached heavily Protestant regions, see Boutier et al., Tour de France royal, 113–14.

46. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 348.

47. Ibid., 1: 346–47.

48. Quoted (my translation) in Boutier et al., Tour de France royal, 64; see also 65–69 for a provocative discussion of the allegory of Hercules and its emblematic function on the tour.

49. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 349.

50. On the presidial and the extension of royal courts during the Valois dynasty, see Salmon, Society in Crisis, 72–73.

51. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 349.

52. Michael P. Fitzsimmons, “Privilege and Polity in France, 1786–1791,” American Historical Review 92, no. 2 (April 6, 1982): 270.

53. David Parker, La Rochelle and the French Monarchy: Conflict and Order in Seventeenth-Century France (London: Royal Historical Society, 1980), 34–35. See also Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 19–30; and Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, MSS 7285–7286: “Privileges accordez aux habitans de . . . La Rochelle.” On the towns called communes and the rapid removal of their privileges by the state beginning in the early seventeenth-century, see Mousnier, Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 564–65.

54. Parker, La Rochelle and the French Monarchy, 7.

55. Arcère, Histoire, 1: xxiii–xxv.

56. Ibid.

57. On the politicization of La Rochelle’s Calvinist elites in the 1560s, see Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 113–52.

58. 1: Arcère, Histoire, 1: 347

59. Quoted in ibid., 1: 348.

60. Ibid., 1: 347–48

61. Graham and Johnson, Royal Tour of France, 8.

62. For an example of the fashionable form of an engraved silver and gold (parcel gilt) basin, almost certainly made by a Huguenot silversmith in London as an English royal gift celebrating dynastic history, see the extremely rare survival of an engraved commemorative basin (19 inches in diameter) and ewer, ca. 1567–68, currently in the collections of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (accession numbers: 1979. 261–262), and illustrated and discussed brilliantly in Ellenor M. Alcorn, “‘Some of the Kings of England Curiously Engraven’: An Elizabethan Ewer and Basin in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,” Journal of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 5 (1993): 66, fig. 1; see also 81, fig. 23, and 83, fig. 25. For Germanic examples that may have provided contemporary sources for French silversmiths in both London and La Rochelle, see ibid., 81, fig. 23, and the basin by the Nuremberg goldsmith Wenzel Jamnitzer, ca. 1550–60, now in the Louvre Museum, Paris, illustrated in Daniel Alcouffe et al., Les Objets d’art: Moyen Age et Renaissance (Paris: Réunion des Musées nationaux, 1993), 133.

63. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 350.

64. See esp. Graham and Johnson, Royal Tour of France, 12–66.

65. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 351.

66. Barbot, Histoire de La Rochelle, 17: 85–226; see also Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 115.

67. Barbot, 17: 225–26; Meyer, 115.

68. Of his many works on the subject of the anthropology of gifts, see esp. Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 190–93.

69. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 93–152.

70. Quoted in François de Vaux de Foletier, Le Siège de La Rochelle (1931; La Rochelle: Éditions Quartier Latin et Rupella, 1978), 148–51.

71. See Jean Petit, “Descartes et trois poètes au siège de La Rochelle,” Cahiers de l’Ouest, 42 (January–February 1958): 48–49.

72. C.-F. Menestrier, La Source glorieuse du sang de l’august maison de Bourbon (Paris, 1687).

73. Jean Troncon, L’Entrée triomphante de leurs majesties (Paris, 1622), n.p.; quoted in Jean-Marie Apostolides, Le Roi-Machine: Spectacle et politique au temps de Louis XIV (Paris: Minuit, 1981), 15.

74. “Relation du siège de La Rochelle sous le tres chrestian et invincible Roy Louis XIII,” in Archives curieuses de l’histoire de France (Paris, 1838), 37–137 (my translation).

75. For an excellent discussion of the désert experience, see Hillel Schwartz, The French Prophets: The History of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), 11–37.

76. Section epigraph from The Admirable Discourses of Bernard Palissy, trans. Aurele La Rocque (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957), 243. See chapter 10, n. 92, below for full citation of Palissy’s Discours admirables.

77. This story is well told and interpreted in Donald R. Kelley, The Beginning of Ideology: Consciousness and Society in the French Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 1–50 et passim; see also Carlos Eire, War Against the Idols: The Reformation of Worship From Erasmus to Calvin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 189–93; and Benedict, Christ’s Churches, 77–120.

78. See Schwartz, French Prophets, 11–37, 251–79.

79. For an inventory and detailed description of all the ceramic medallions discovered by archeologists in the latrines of Palissy’s house next to his workshop under the cour du Carous-sel, as well as the French and Italian bronze sources, see Jean-Robert Armogathe et al., Bernard Palissy, mythe et réalité (Saintes, Niort, and Agen, France: Coédition: Musées d’Agen, Niort, Saintes, 1990), 76–79, figs. 83–84. In addition to the ceramic medallion of Montmorency, others were recovered that depicted Isabelle of Portugal (wife of Charles V, 1526–39); three of Mary Stuart (queen of France in 1559, widow of François II in 1560); three of Henri II (king of France, 1547–59); two plaque fragments depicting Antoine de Bourbon (king of Navarre, 1555–63); Charles IX (king of France, 1560–74); Hippolyte de Gonzague (1535–63); Iosina de Matanca (?); two of Louis de Gonzague (son of Frederick II de Gonzague, duke of Mantua); and Philip II of Spain (r. 1556–98).

80. For a useful discussion of the ubiquity of the culture of patronage and its dominance of the politics and society of early modern France, see Sharon Kettering, Patrons, Brokers, and Clients in Seventeenth-Century France (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).

81. On the extensive scientific culture that supported gifts and gift giving, see Mario Biagi-oli, Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Age of Absolutism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993). Recent laboratory tests on Palissy’s glazes found on survivals from the Tuileries have been the basis for the reattribution of several objects formerly thought to have been made by Palissy to anonymous contemporaries, showing how influential and widespread his new artisanal paradigm had become in France by the 1570s. No doubt many of the potters in his gift factory learned their trade secrets from the master. See Isabelle Perrin, Les Techniques céramiques de Bernard Palissy, 2 vols. (Villeneuve d’Ascq: Presses universitaires du Septentrion, 2001).

82. This theme runs through a large body of Palissy’s work; it is encapsulated in James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1990).

83. For more on display of ceramic medallions worn near the heart as emblems of loyalty during the Renaissance, including a group of terra-cotta medallions associated with the patronage of Cosimo de’ Medici that were gilded to resemble precious medal, see Arne R. Flaten, “Identity and the Display of metaglie in Renaissance and Baroque Europe,” Word and Image 19, nos. 1 and 2 (January–June 2003): 61, fig. 1, and 65, n. 25.

TWO 1. Except where otherwise indicated, the edition of Palissy’s Recepte véritable (La Rochelle: Barthélemy Berton, 1563) from which I quote is that found in Oeuvres complètes de Bernard Palissy, ed. Paul-Antoine Cap (Paris: J.-J. Dubochet, 1844; reprint with an avant-propos by Jean Orcel, Paris: A. Blanchard, 1961). Recepte, or recette, can have multiple meanings in this context. I have settled loosely on “recipe,” inasmuch as it corresponds to the recettes de métier, or “tricks of the trade,” that were the artisanal contribution to the “Book of Secrets” tradition, popular during the early modern period. However, given Palissy’s dual purpose of settling debts in print with both old enemies and old friends in the Recepte véritable, the receipt (as in the collection of a debt) may also be considered active.

2. Berton’s press published several dramatic pamphlets by La Rochelle writers on the royal siege of 1572–73 under the command of the duc d’Anjou, the first of several the fortress withstood prior to succumbing in 1627–28. After Berton’s death, his interest in the publishing house was inherited by his widow Françoise Pierres (probably the daughter of Jean Pierres, who was sieur de la Jarne in Saintonge and lieutenant general of La Rochelle). Françoise Pierres Berton formed a partnership with Jean Portau that lasted from 1573 to 1589. See E. Droz, L’Imprimerie à La Rochelle, vol. 1: Barthélemy Berton, 1563–1573; vol. 3: La Veuve Berton et Jean Portau, 1573–1589, Travaux d’humanisme et Renaissance, 34 (Geneva: E. Droz, 1960).

3. Evidence suggests that Palissy was known in Limoges and familiar to the town’s artisans. See Leonard N. Amico, Bernard Palissy: In Search of Earthly Paradise (Paris: Flammarion, 1996), 16.

4. The specifics of Paul Berton’s punishment remain unclear. Droz, Barthélemy Berton, 10–12. On Lyon’s printers and heterodoxy, see the two seminal essays by Natalie Zemon Davis, “Printing and the People,” and “The Sacred and the Body Social in Lyon,” in her Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1975).

5. Randle Cotgrave, A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues [hereafter, Cotgrave’s Dictionarie] (London, 1611; reprinted Amsterdam: Da Capo Press, 1971) defines Pons as: “Ponts. The name of a Towne in Saintonge, called so of the many Bridges about it.”

6. Alexandre Crottet, Histoire des églises réformées de Pons, Gemozac et Mortagne en Saintonge, précédée d’une notice étendue sur l’établissement de la réforme dans cette province, l’Aunis et l’Angoumois (Bordeaux: A. Castillon, 1841), 101–11; on Louis XIII’s southern campaign of 1620—21, see A. Lloyd Moote, Louis XIII, the Just (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 112–36.

7. Bernard Palissy, Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 1: xvi.

8. Droz, Barthélemy Berton, 22.

9. See Emmanuel Rodocanchi, Une Protectrice de la Reforme en Italie et en France: Renée de France, duchesse de Ferrare (Paris, 1896;Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1970); and anon., Some Memorials of Renée de France, Duchess of Ferrara (London, 1859); for a discussion of the surviving architecture and interiors of the court, see Loredana Olivato, Il palazzo di Renata di Francia (Ferrara, Italy: Corbo, 1997).

10. John Martin, Venice’s Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 44–45.

11. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 18.

12. Crottet, Histoire des églises réformées, 82–86. Marie de Monchenu was unsympathetic to the Protestant cause, unlike her fervent predecessor, and her influence over Antoine prompted de Bèze to insult Marie, as “l’une des plus diffamées desmoiselles de France.”

13. Bernard Palissy, The Admirable Discourses, trans. Aurele La Rocque (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957), 24–5.

14. Théodore de Bèze, Histoire ecclésiastique (1559), 1: bk. 2; quoted in Palissy, Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: xvii.

15. Ibid., xx.

16. The short Latin title of 1536 was Institutio christianae religionis; for its publication history, see Jean Calvin, On the Christian Faith: Selections from the Institutes, Commentaries, and Tracts, ed. John T. McNeill (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957), vii–viii.

17. Palissy, Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: xx–xxii.

18. Jean-Daniel Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, martyr huguenot (1557) (Geneva: University of Geneva, 1957), 9–41; and Droz, Barthélemy Berton, 22.

19. The first book by Yves Rouspeau published by Berton was entitled Traitte de la Preparation à la Saincte Cene de Nostre Seul Sauveur et Redempteur Jesus Christ, Propre pour tous ceux qui veulent dignement s’approcher a sa saincte Table du Seigneur, Plus un Dialogue contenant les poincts principaux, que ceux qui veulent recevour la Cene, doivent savoir & entendre (La Rochelle: Barthélmy Berton, 1563).

20. Architecture, et ordonnance de la grotte rustique de Monseigneur le duc de Montmorancy, pair, & connestable de France (La Rochelle: Barthélmy Berton, 1563). See Droz, Barthélemy Berton, 14–15, 22–25.

21. The full text can be found in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 232, doc. XII.

22. See Droz, Barthélemy Berton, 24–25. The full text of the contract of September 3, 1563, is available in the original document at La Rochelle (ADCM, 3E 2148); it has also been reprinted in G. Musset, “La ‘Recette veritable’ de Bernard Palissy,” Recueil de la Commission des arts and monuments de la Charente-Inferieure 17 (1906): 319–21, and in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 230–31.

23. An abridged copy of this inventory is in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 231, doc. VIII.

24. Ibid., 238, doc. XL.

25. See Martin Luther, “Treatise on Christian Liberty” (The Freedom of a Christian), in Martin Luther: Selections from His Writings, ed. John Dillenberger (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1961), 53, 58–63, 67–69. The classic formulation of the medieval tradition of man’s “twofold nature” can be found in Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King’s Two Bodies: A Study in Medieval Political Theology (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1957).

26. Oeuvres complètes de Théodore Agrippa d’Aubigné, ed. Eugène Réaume, François de Caussade, , and A. Legouëz, 6 vols. (Paris: Alphonse Lemerre, 1873–92), 6: 248, and also 1: 56, 2: 526, 3: 432, 4: 201. For biographical information on Agrippa’s multiple roles during the civil war era, see Jacques Bailbé, Agrippa d’Aubigné, poète des “Tragiques” (Caen: Association des publications de la Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines de l’Université de Caen, 1968), iii–102; Cotgrave’s Dictionarie.

27. See Esther Cohen, “The Animated Pain of the Body,” American Historical Review 105 (February 2000): 36–68.

28. For influential recent work on this subject, see Judith Perkins, The Suffering Self: Pain and Narrative Representation in the Early Christian Era (New York: Routledge, 1995), and Brent D. Shaw, “Body/Power/Identity: Passions of the Martyrs,” Journal of Early Christianity 4 (1996): 269–312. For a classic overview of the subject, see Gerhard Oestreich, Neostoicism and the Early Modern State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); for studies of the intimate relationship between Neostoicism, art, and the representation of warfare and politics in England and on the Continent during the early modern era, see Andrew E. Shifflett, Stoicism, Politics, and Literature in the Age of Milton: War and Peace Reconciled (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), and David G. Halsted, Poetry and Politics in the Silesian Baroque: Neo-Stoicism in the Work of Christophorus Colerus and His Circle (Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 1996).

29. Norbert Elias, The Civilizing Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations, trans. Edmund Jephcott, 2 vols. (Oxford: B. Blackwell, 1978).

30. See esp. Philippe Ariès, Western Attitudes Toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present, trans. Patricia M. Ranum (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), 1–14.

31. Paul Seaver finds persuasive evidence of deep religious motivations behind the London wood turner Nehemiah Wallington’s personal despair, leading to what appear to have been multiple suicide attempts. There is implicit evidence that the turner’s family and guild may have had an informal social safety net in place for Wallington, suggesting that suicide was not unexpected in Puritan London. See Paul S. Seaver, Wallington’s World: A Puritan Artisan in Seventeenth-Century London (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1985).

32. Winthrop Papers, vol. 1:1498–1628 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 161–64, 193.

33. Luther, Treatise on Christian Liberty, 66.

34. Ibid., 53. On Menocchio, see Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980).

35. Luther, Treatise on Christian Liberty, 70–71.

36. Caroline Walker Bynum, Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (New York: Zone Books, 1992), 182.

37. Luther, Treatise on Christian Liberty, 67–8.

38. Ibid., 53, 67.

39. Ibid., 60, 58.

40. For a clear discussion of the function of astral bodies in Neoplatonic theology and their implications for Paracelsian science, see Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and the Word.: The Didactic Origins of Chemistry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 27–29, and passim.

41. See Harold Bloom, The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), A Map of Misreading (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), and Agon: Towards a Theory of Revisionism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).

42. For a trenchant critique of modern historians’ attempts to reconstruct authorial intentionality from the past, see Nancy S. Struever, Theory as Practice: Ethical Inquiry in the Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992), x–xii.

43. Frank Kermode, The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1967).

44. Ernest Dupuy, Bernard Palissy: L’Homme, l’artiste, le savant, l’écrivain (1894; rev. ed., 1902; reprint of rev. ed., Geneva: Slatkine, 1970), 17–18; Cotgrave’s Dictionarie defines pourtrait generally as “A pourtrait, image, picture, counterfeit, or draught of” virtually anything. The verb pourtraire meant “To pourtray, draw, delineate, paint, counterfeit.”

45. Luther, Treatise on Christian Liberty, 84–85.

46. Palissy, Recepte véritable, 113–14. Translations of the Recepte are my own except where otherwise noted.

47. J. R. Hale, “To Fortify or Not to Fortify? Machiavelli’s Contribution to a Renaissance Debate,” in H. C. Davis et al., eds., Essays in Honour of John Humphreys Whitfield: Presented to Him on His Retirement from the Serena Chair of Italian at the University of Birmingham (London: St. George’s Press, 1975), 99–100. On changes in the technology and tactics of siege warfare in response to the effective use of gunpowder against fortified walls, especially in late fifteenth-century France and Italy, see Ivy A. Corfis and Michael Wolfe, The Medieval City Under Siege (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1995), 227–75.

48. Quoted in Hale, “To Fortify or Not to Fortify,” 100–101.

49. Ibid., 101.

50. See chapter 12 below.

51. Quoted in Hale, “To Fortify or Not to Fortify,” 103–4.

52. Here, a play on words, translated from garnisons, hence also garrisons.

53. Théodore Agrippa d’Aubigné, Oeuvres, ed. Henri Weber et al. (Paris: Gallimard, 1969), 36–37, lines 659–72.

54. Oeuvres complètes de Théodore Agrippa d’Aubigné, ed. Réaume et al., 2 (1877): 351. D’Aubigné’s source and didactic intention in this dramatic bit of apocrypha—very much a part of a large, interesting, and relatively unexplored apocryphal tradition in Huguenot historiography of the civil wars—is clarified in his “Confession du sieur de Sancy” (in ibid., 3: 350), where the protagonist declares: “Voyez l’imprudence de ce belistre; vous diriez qu’il aurait lu as vers de Seneque, Qui mori scit cogi necit, on ne peut contraindre celui qui sait mourir.” When D’Aubigné’s dying Palissy paraphrases Seneca in L’Histoire, d’Aubigné is forging a didactic link between Stoic death and the Huguenot ideal of Christian martyrdom. A second, competing martyrological narrative exists of Palissy’s last days in the Bastille. This one, an almost exact contemporary to that of d’Aubigny, was written by Pierre de L’Estoile, who signed the privilege to publish the Discours admirables in 1580. It is far more elaborate, containing lengthy interviews. For copies of two documents (ca. 1589–90), related to L’Estoile’s narrative, see Amico, Bernard Palissy, 237–38, docs. XXXVIII and XL. The second document (1590) contains elements in common with d’Aubigny’s narrative; the first plays on Palissy’s mastery of fire. Threatened by an inquisitor with the stake, L’Estoile’s Palissy responds, “Monsieur, do you presume that I am afraid of this fiery material? No, no, I am much more fearful of the Eternal fire, which was prepared by the Devil and his Angels.”

55. John Calvin, On the Christian Faith: Selections from the Institutes, Commentaries, and Tracts, ed. John T. McNeill (New York: Bobbs-Merrill), 31.

56. Hale, “To Fortify or Not to Fortify?” 116.

57. Palissy, Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 138–39.

58. The maintenance and constant expansion of La Rochelle’s walls during the building boom of the late sixteenth century to meet the perceived military threat to religious and economic autonomy was an enormous financial strain on the city’s economy. One example of this strain was the La Rochelle Consistory’s inability to raise the funds to complete the Grand Temple in less than twenty-four years.

59. Palissy, Recepte véritable, 114. For images of du Cerceau’s two plans, see Amico, Bernard Palissy, 184, figs. 167–8.

60. Cotgrave’s Dictionarie

61. Palissy, Recepte véritable, 114.

62. For the classic period text on the life of the compagnon, albeit highly embellished by its autobiographer and protagonist and written exactly two centuries later (1764) than the Recepte, see Jacques-Louis Ménétra, Journal of My Life, ed. Daniel Roche, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986).

63. Luther’s “hidden and revealed” dialectic may also be at work here. Note the relationships to the Neoplatonic theology of Palissy’s near contemporary and co-religionist Moise Amyraut. Both Palissy and Amyraut were denounced by Huguenot scholastics for devaluing the covenant of laws. Both were committed to the covenant of grace that fueled their adherence to the Neoplatonic doctrine of the animate soul’s triumph over corrupted flesh, and both paraphrase 2 Corinthians as an authority for the primacy of inner strength that identified with the humility of Christ’s suffering. See Brian G. Armstrong, Calvinism and the Amyraut Heresy: Protestant Scholasticism and Humanism in Seventeenth-Century France (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1969), 148–49.

64. Problems in the beleaguered “nature-culture opposition” as formulated by Noam Chomsky and Claude Lévi-Strauss have not generated much interest on the part of anthropologists or historians since the critique of structuralism in the late 1970s, esp. by Bourdieu in Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 27–32. Structuralist logic, supported by a hermetic reading of Chomsky’s mentalist linguistics and leavened by E. P. Thompson on the English working class, has endured among some folklorists whose subject is American artisanry and material culture. Others have turned recently to the fluid strategies inspired by literary and cultural interpretation. For examples of both approaches in the work of one influential scholar, see Robert Blair St. George, “‘Set Thine House in Order’: The Domestication of the Yeomanry in Seventeenth-Century New England,” in Jonathan L. Fairbanks and Robert F. Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, vol. 2: Mentality and Environment (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1982), 159–88, and Robert Blair St. George, Conversing by Signs: Poetics of Implication in Colonial New England Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998).

65. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 132–33.

66. Geerat J. Vermeij, A Natural History of Shells (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993), 13, 83. The specimen in Palissy’s “De la ville de forteresse” was probably the common snail—a member of the largest molluscan class called the Gastropoda. This class possesses a univalve shell with a spiral posterior and has an anterior opening covered by a door (operculum) in times of danger.

67. Cotgrave’s Dictionarie, s.vv. “Limace,” “Limaçonner.”

68. For illustrated examples, see Peter Kenny, “Flat Gates, Draw Bars, Twists and Urns: New York’s Distinctive, Early Baroque Oval Tables with Falling Leaves,” American Furniture, 1994, ed. Luke Beckerdite (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1994): 113, figs. 11–13; for evidence of unmediated transmission to New World by French artisans, see Jean Palardy, The Early Furniture of French Canada (Toronto: Macmillan, 1963), 269, fig. 366.

69. Vermeij, Natural History of Shells, 11–13, 40–41; for a diagram of the gastropod shell, see 13, fig. 2.2; for images of shells glazed inside and out, see plates 1–21.

70. Ibid., 4, 32, 61. Vermeij reminds us that “ecology” is derived from the Greek oikos, meaning house.

71. Ibid., 95.

72. Ibid., 99.

73. Ibid., 83, 99–147.

74. Ambroise Paré, On Monsters and Marvels, trans. Janis L. Pallister (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 91.

75. Amico, Bernard Palissy, 185.

76. In this context, if the snake in the basin referred to one particular iconographical meaning inferred by Palissy (which I am not suggesting), it may have been “wisdom” rather than the devil, the former a meaning from the Latin anguis. The root ang (or angu) commonly appears in Latin words referring to angles, corners, or narrow physical spaces, all specific to Palissy’s pour-trait of the fortress town, as well as snakes. In astronomy, the snake appears in the constellation Draco.

77. Calvin, On the Christian Faith, 37–38.

78. Such as the one depicted by Lucas Cranach the Elder, in a wing panel of the Wittenberg Altar (1547), in the Stadtkirch, Wittenberg; panel reproduced in Oskar Thulin, Die Lutherstadt Wittenberg und ihre reformatorischen Gedenkstatten (Berlin: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 1968), fig. 30.

79. Carl C. Christensen, Art and the Reformation in Germany (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1979), 158–59.

80. A platter with a salamander turning back toward his own tail attributed to Palissy or his workshop is reproduced in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 114, fig. 98.

81. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 2.16, trans. D. W. Robertson Jr. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1958), 50–51, as quoted in Lorraine Daston and Katharine Park, Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750 (New York : Zone Books, 2001), 40–41.

82. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 133.

83. Palissy, Recepte véritable, 115, 120.

84. I am thinking here especially of Victor Turner, Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1974), and id. and Edith Turner, Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978); Process, Performance and Pilgrimage: A Study in Comparative Symbology (New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 1979); and The Drama of Affliction: A Study of Religious Processes among the Ndembu of Zambia (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981). The term “limen” was introduced by Arnold van Gennep in The Rites of Passage (1908), trans. Monika B. Vizedom and Gabrielle L. Caffe (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960); see also id., Manuel du folklore français contemporain, 7 vols. (Paris: Picard, 1938–58).

85. See esp. Caroline Walker Bynum, “Women’s Stories, Women’s Symbols: A Critique of Victor Turner’s Theory of Liminality,” in Anthropology and the Study of Religion, ed. Robert L. Moore and Frank E. Reynolds (Chicago: Center for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1984), 105–24.

86. Turner and Turner, Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture, 249–250.

87. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 133.

88. Ibid., 1: 135–36.

89. The mollusk Purpurellus was found off West Africa in the sixteenth century, though it also has a Mediterranean fossil record; see Vermeij, Natural History of Shells, 171. Cotgrave’s Dictionarie translates pourpre as “the Purple Shellfish.”

90. Industrie is also defined in Cotgrave’s Dictionarie as “diligence; vigilancie; active care-fullnesse; indeavor; aptnesse unto, readinesse in, any thing.”

91. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 136.

92. Ibid., 136–37.

93. Ibid. 137.

94. Ibid. This is suggestive of a level of access to Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings after Vitruvius.

95. Ibid., 137–38.

96. Jean-Robert Armogathe et al., Bernard Palissy, mythe et réalité (Saintes, Niort, and Agen, France: Coédition: Musées d’Agen, Niort, Saintes, 1990), 38.

97. Amico, Bernard Palissy, 235, doc. XXIX (my translation unless otherwise noted).

98. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 138.

99. Ibid.

100. Ibid.

101. Ibid., 139.

102. Ibid., 140.

103. Ibid.

104. Ibid.

105. Ibid., 141.

106. Ibid.

THREE 1. Jean Calvin, Excuse de Jehan Calvin, à messieurs les Nicodemites, sur la complaincte qu’ilz font de sa trop grand’ rigueur (Zurich: Zentralbibliothek, 1544), in Three French Treatises, ed. Francis M. Higman (London: Athlone Press of the University of London, 1970), 131–53.

2. Ibid., 42–43.

3. No place of publication is given for any of the three editions of Crespin’s Actes (subsequently Histoire des Martyrs). The actual title of John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs (1563), first published in Latin at Basle in 1554 as Rerum in ecclesia gestarum . . . commentarii, is Actes and Monuments of Matters Most Speciall and Memorable, Happening in the Church, with an Vniuersall History of the Same. Wherein Is Set Forth At Large the Whole Race and Course of the Church, from the Primitiue Age to These Latter Times of Ours, with the Bloudy Times, Horrible Troubles, and Great Persecutions, Against the True Martyrs of Christ, Sought and Wrought As Well by Heathen Emperours, As Now Lately Practised by Romish Prelates, Especially in This Realme of England and Scotland. Tieleman Janszoon van Bracht, or Braght (1625–64), wrote Martyrer Spiegel (1660), translated by Joseph F. Sohm as The Bloody Theater: Or, Martyr’s Mirror of the Defenseless Christians Who Baptized Only Upon Confession of Faith, and Who Suffered and Died for the Testimony of Jesus, Their Saviour, from the Time of Christ to the Year . . 1660: Compiled from Various Authentic Chronicles, Memorials and Testimonies (7th ed., Scottdale, Pa.: Mennonite Publishing House, 1964). On the relative ineffectiveness of martyrologies as tools for discipline in the countryside, see Euan Cameron, The Reformation of the Heretics: The Waldenses of the Alps, 1480–1580 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), 224; see also Robert Kingdon, Myths about the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacres, 1572–1576 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988), on martyrdom and witness; and Natalie Z. Davis, “The Rites of Violence,” in Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1975), 152–87.

4. Calvin, Excuse de Jehan Calvin, à messieurs les Nicodemites, 147–48.

5. Ibid., 135, 137.

6. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, ed. John T. McNeill (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), 1: 56–58; Calvin constructs this argument in cha. 5 sec. 5, around a long excerpt from Vergil’s Aeneid (6: 724–30).

7. Ibid., 54.

8. Ibid., 51.

9. Calvin, Excuse de Jehan Calvin, à messieurs les Nicodemites, 139.

10. Ibid., 150.

11. Martin Luther, Treatise on Christian Liberty, 45.

12. Calvin, Excuse de Jehan Calvin, à messieurs les Nicodemites, 132.; the 1558 edition lacks all the quotations.

13. Gerrard Winstanley, Fire in the bush: The spirit burning, not consuming but purging mankinde, or, the great battell of God Almighty between Michaell, the seed of life, and the great red dragon, the curse fought within the spirit of man: with severall other declarations of the power of life (London: Giles Calvert, 1650); see also John Rogers, The Matter of Revolution: Science, Poetry and Politics in the Age of Milton (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1996).

14. On Palissy and Agen, see H. Patry, “L’Origine de Bernard Palissy,” 370–72; and Leonard N. Amico, Bernard Palissy: In Search of Earthly Paradise (Paris: Flammarion, 1996), 13–14; a number of pirogue monoxyle have been excavated from the Charente River bottom where they sank carrying pottery to Atlantic ships for export; see esp. Jean Chapelot, ed., Potiers de Saintonge: Huit siècles d’artisanat rural: Musée national des arts et traditions populaires, 22 novembre 1975–1er mars 1976, exhibition catalogue (Paris: Éditions des Musées nationaux, 1975), 110–13; and Jean Chapelot and Eric Rieth, Navigation et milieu fluvial au XIe s.: L’Épave d’Orlac (Charente-Maritime), Documents d’archéologie française, no 48 (Paris: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, 1995).

15. Ernest Dupuy, Bernard Palissy: L’Homme, l’artiste, le savant, l’écrivain (1894; rev. ed., 1902; reprint of rev. ed., Geneva: Slatkine, 1970), 13; Amico, Bernard Palissy, 13–14.

16. Amico, Bernard Palissy, 13.

17. See Jan Craeybeckx, Un Grand Commerce d’importation: Les Vins de France aux anciens Pays-Bas, XIIIe-XVIe siècle (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1958).

18. Dupuy, Bernard Palissy, 17; on Menetra’s travels in the glass trade with his compagnons, see his personal account in Jacques-Louis Ménétra, Journal of My Life, ed. Daniel Roche, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986); Palissy quote in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 16.

19. A reproduction of a typical pourtrait may be seen in Inventaire général des monuments et des richesses artistiques de la France, Ile de Ré: Inventaire topographique (Paris: Ministère de la culture, Direction du patrimoine, 1979), 443, fig. 459; on the technology of glass painting, see Barbara Butts, Lee Hendrix, et al., Painting on Light: Drawings and Stained Glass in the age of Dürer and Holbein (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum; St. Louis, Mo.: St. Louis Art Museum, 2000), 57–65.

20. Quoted in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 16.

21. Dupuy, Bernard Palissy, 17–19. François I formally signed the edict establishing the gabelle in 1542; Palissy is thought to have been employed beginning sometime after May 1543.

22. Dupuy, Bernard Palissy, 18–19; Amico, Bernard Palissy, 18–19, speculates on various dates for the ceramic glaze experiments.

23. Cameron, Reformation of the Heretics, 224.

24. John Martin, Venice’s Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 125–46.

25. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 1: 115–16.

26. Jean Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. Ford Lewis Battles (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1960), 2 vols., 1: 72. Palissy knew the Institutes in Hamelin’s edition, distributed in Saintonge by colporters.

27. For theoretical and methodological discussions of these problems, see Jon R. Snyder, Writing the Scene of Speaking: Theories of Dialogue in the Late Italian Renaissance (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989); Michel de Certeau, “L’Ethnographie, l’oralité, ou l’espace de l’autre: Léry,” in id., L’Ecriture de l’histoire (Paris: Gallimard, 1975), 215–48; and Walter J. Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London: Methuen, 1982).

28. Frances A. Yates, The Art of Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1966); Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early Modern Europe (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980); and Natalie Z. Davis, “Printing and the People,” in her Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1975).

29. Jean-Daniel Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, martyr huguenot (1557) (Geneva: University of Geneva, 1957), 11.

30. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 115–17. Palissy leaves the names anonymous in the Recepte and calls Robert “Robin,” probably for reasons of security. The names of the monks and their orders have been identified by Henri Patry and Nathaniel Weis in “Frère Nicolle Maurel, apostat celestin, dit le predicant,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 61 (1912): 193–203.

31. Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, 13–15; Alexandre Crottet, Histoire des églises réformées de Pons, Gemozac et Mortagne en Saintonge, précédée d’une notice étendue sur l’établissement de la réforme dans cette province, l’Aunis et l’Angoumois (Bordeaux: A. Castillon, 1841), 16.

32. LA BIBLE, Qui est toute la saincte Escriture, en laquelle sont contenuz. le vieil Testament, & le Nouveau, translatez en Francois, & reueuz: le vieil selon Hebrieu, & le nouveau selon le Grec (Geneva: Philibert Hamelin, 1552). The 1552 edition of the Bible is in five volumes (“petit in-12°”), and the 1556 edition in two volumes (“petit in-quarto”). Most of the runs were intended for distribution in war-torn Saintonge, so surviving copies are rare. Copies of each edition are to be found in the Bibliothèque de Geneve (incomplete) and the library of the Société Protestante in Paris (complete).

33. Several copies of the Oraisons are available in libraries. Hamelin’s edition of L’Institution is also located in the Société Protestante and was not attributed to his press until 1902. See also Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, 35.

34. Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, 17–24.

35. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 120.

36. Crottet, Histoire des églises réformées, 16–25.

37. Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, 30–31.

38. Ibid., 38; Palissy, Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 120–21.

39. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 120–21; Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, 38–41; order of the parlement of Bordeaux, April 12, 1557, in Archives départementales de la Gironde (Bordeaux). Hamelin was made to run the gauntlet, sealed in a pit for eight days with heavy leg irons dangling from his feet, and publicly tortured in unspecified ways on the day of his execution.

40. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 121; the provost marshal was the local informer, judge, and executioner combined in rural France, a hated and feared figure for Saintongeais Huguenots during the civil wars.

41. Ibid., 121–22.

42. Ibid., 114.

43. Ibid., 124

44. Ibid., 120–23; Sauvin, Philibert Hamelin, 38.

45. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 124.

46. Ibid., 126.

47. Dupuy, Bernard Palissy, 30–35.

48. Or “lords of particular jurisdictions.”

49. Quoted in Dupuy, Bernard Palissy, 34–35.

50. The warrant of 1558 was dated September 25, Archives départementales de la Gironde (Bordeaux), 1B 195, fol. 177; see H. Patry, “Un Mandat d’arrêté du Parlement de Guyenne contre Bernard Palissy et les premiers fideles des eglises de Saintes et de Saint-Jean d’Angély (1558),” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 51 (1902): 77–78, and Amico, Bernard Palissy, 229, doc. II.

51. Archives départementales de la Gironde (Bordeaux), 1B 256, fol. 146; see H. Patry, “La Captivite de Bernard Palissy pendant la premiere guerre de religion,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 69 (1920): 21–25; and Amico, Bernard Palissy, 229–30, docs. IV—V.

52. Foremost among the royal officials whom Palissy claimed supported his release, along with Montmorency in 1563, was Guy de Jarnac, governor of La Rochelle, whose support for the monarchical faction was paramount during the visit of Charles IX two years hence. This may be a signal of Palissy’s removal to Paris to work for Catherine de Médicis as early as 1563. For a discussion of Palissy’s prison letter, see Amico, Bernard Palissy, 32.

53. Quoted in Dupuy, Bernard Palissy, 35; see also 62.

54. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 127.

55. Ibid., 127–28.

56. Ibid., 129.

57. Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Talcott Parsons (New York: Scribner, 1950). My reading of Weber has been deepened by Alexandra Owen, Magic and Modernity: Occultism and the Culture of Enchantment in Fin-de-Siècle Britain (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, forthcoming), particularly chapter 7, “Magic and the Ambiguities of Modernity” (I am grateful to Professor Owen for the opportunity to read her book in manuscript); see also Guenther Roth and Wolfgang Schluchter, Max Weber’s Vision of History: Ethics and Methods (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979); Donald N. Levine, “Rationality and Freedom: Weber and Beyond,” Sociological Inquiry 51, no. 1 (1981): 5–25; Rogers Brubaker, The Limits of Rationality: An Essay on the Social and Moral Thought of Max Weber (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1984); and Scott Lash and Sam Whimsler, eds., Max Weber, Rationality and Modernity (London: Allen & Unwin, 1987).

58. Victor Turner and Edith Turner, Image and Pilgrimage in Christian Culture: Anthropological Perspectives (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), 249–50.

59. Caroline Walker Bynum, “The Body of Christ in the Later Middle Ages: A Reply to Leo Steinberg,” Renaissance Quarterly 39, no. 3 (Autumn 1986): 435; see also id., “Women’s Stories, Women’s Symbols: A Critique of Victor Turner’s Theory of Liminality,” in Anthropology and the Study of Religion, ed. Robert L. Moore and Frank E. Reynolds (Chicago: Center for the Scientific Study of Religion, 1984), 105–24.

60. Martin Luther, “Treatise on Christian Liberty” (The Freedom of a Christian), in Martin Luther: Selections from His Writings, ed. John Dillenberger (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1961), 56, 64.

61. Salut defies simple translation in this context. In the sixteenth century, according to Cot-grave’s Dictionarie, salut meant not only “salutations” but also “health” and “safety” as well. Given my argument above, and that of the poem to follow, this greeting should be understood as having multiple meanings.

62. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 10.

63. Secret de l’histoire naturelle contenant les merveilles et choses memorables du monde [Secret of Natural History Containing the Marvels and Memorable Things of the World] (Paris: Jehan Kerver, n.d., but probably ca. 1580–1600); Bibliothèque nationale, Paris, MS Fr. 22791, fol. 60 verso; image also reproduced in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 182–83, fig. 165. However, Amico’s interpretation of the image was limited to a few lines and his intention was to use it merely as an illustration of shells qua fortresses. My interest here is to interpret the image as part of a larger historical problem.

64. “Qui omnia secum portat, non indiget alieno auxilio,” as translated in Pamela H. Smith, The Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), 52.

FOUR 1. Étienne Trocmé, “L’Eglise reformée de La Rochelle jusqu’en 1628,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 98 (July–September 1952), 133 (hereafter cited as ERLR). See also id., “De Gouverneur à l’intendant: L’Autonomie rochelaise de Charles IX à Louis XIII,” in Recueil de travaux offert à M. Clovis Brunel, membre de l’Institut, directeur honnoraire de l’Ecole des chartes, par ses amis, collègues et élèves (Paris: Société de l’École des chartes, 1955), 1: 616–32, and id., “Reflexions sur le separatisme rochelais,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 122 (July–September 1976): 203–10; More recent work on pre-1628 La Rochelle is found in Judith Pugh Meyer, “La Rochelle and the Failure of the French Reformation,” Sixteenth Century Journal 15, no. 2 (1984): 169–83; id., “The Success of the French Reformation: The Case of La Rochelle,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 84 (1993): 242–75; id., Reformation in La Rochelle: Tradition and Change in Early Modern Europe, 1500–1568 (Geneva: E. Droz, 1996); David Parker, La Rochelle and the French Monarchy: Conflict and Order in Seventeenth-Century France (London: Royal Historical Society, 1980); and Kevin C. Robbins, City on the Ocean Sea, La Rochelle, 1530–1650: Urban Society, Religion, and Politics on the French Atlantic Frontier (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997).

2. ERLR, 133–34.

3. Resources at the Archives départementales de la Charente Maritime, Archives municipales, and Bibliothèque municipale, La Rochelle, and the Bibliothèque nationale and Archives nationales, Paris, currently available for La Rochelle for the period 1550–1628, are inventoried in Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 165–67.

4. ERLR, 135–36. Meyer has mined La Rochelle’s notarial registers to good effect; see her Reformation in La Rochelle, appendix D, 164–65. As Arcère discovered in 1756, Amos Barbot’s history still remains a most useful resource for archival material.

5. ERLR, 137–38.

6. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 139; see also Mark Greenglass, The French Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), 48–50.

7. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 141.

8. Ibid., 138–44.

9. Étienne Trocmé and Marcel Delafosse, Le Commerce rochelais de la fin du XVe siècle au debut du XVIIe (Paris: A Colin, 1952); and Marcel Delafosse and Claude Laveau, Le Commerce du sel de Brouage aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Paris: A Colin, 1960).

10. Arcère, Histoire, 1: 310.

11. Étienne Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628: État sanitaire des Rochelais et des assiegéants, mortalité, morbidité” (M.D. thesis, Université de Bordeaux II, June 26, 1979), 5.

12. ERLR, 137–38; see also Nathanaël Weiss, La Chambre ardente: Étude sur la liberté de conscience en France sous François Ier et Henri II (Paris: Fischbacher, 1889), 1–50; Paul Louis and Georges Musset, Un Parlement au petit pied: Le Présidial de La Rochelle, étude historique (La Rochelle, 1878).

13. ERLR, 137.

14. Philip Benedict, Rouen During the Wars of Religion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 49.

15. In addition to the Aunis, the provinces of Champagne, Brie, Ile de France, Picardie, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Angoumois, Beauce, Orléanais, Sologne, Berry, Nivernais, Lyonnais, Morvan, Forez, Auvergne, Bourbonnais, and Mâconnais were also included in the domain of Paris. Weiss, Chambre ardente, lxxii–lxxiii.

16. Ibid., lxviii. Blois in particular was targeted by the parlement of Paris as a center of Huguenot recruitment in the mid sixteenth century.

17. See chapter 1, pp. 39–40.

18. Weiss, Chambre ardente, lxxiii–lxxiv. Weiss includes transcripts of all surviving procès recorded in Paris of heretics transported there from the provinces, among them several from Au-nis-Saintonge; a general discussion of the structure of parlements may be found in Roland E. Mousnier, The Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 1598–1789: Society and State, trans. Brian Pierce (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 160–63, 278–79, 388, 431–42, and 609–27.

19. François Vaux de Foletier, Le Siège de La Rochelle (1931; La Rochelle: Éditions Quartier Latin et Rupella, 1978), 166.

20. Louis Pérouas, Le Diocèse de La Rochelle de 1648 à 1724: Sociologie et pastorale (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1964), 81.

21. Ibid., 96.

22. Ibid., 86.

23. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 141.

24. Kevin C. Robbins, City on the Ocean Sea, 107–427; on Toulouse, see Robert A. Schneider, Public Life in Toulouse 1463–1789 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989).

25. ERLR, 187–93.

26. Ibid., 191.

27. Leonard N. Amico, Bernard Palissy: In Search of Earthly Paradise (Paris: Flammarion, 1996), 229, docs. II, IV, V; 236–37 docs. XXXV–XXXIX.

28. Ibid., 232–36, docs. XVI, XXIII–XXIV, XXVI, XXX–XXXII.

29. During his years in Sedan, Palissy’s presence in La Rochelle can be documented only once, when he attended the baptism of Jehan, son of his daughter Margerite Palissy and Pierre Morysseau, in the Temple Sainte-Yon on April 17, 1575; ibid., 234, doc. XXI.

30. Epigraph to this section from Claude Lévi-Strauss, Tristes tropiques, trans. John and Doreen Weightman (New York: Pocket Books, 1977), 76, 34.

31. ERLR, 167; on Pierre Richier, see Olivier Reverdin, Quatorze calvinistes chez les Top-inambous: Histoire d’une mission genevoise au Brésil, 1556–1558 (Geneva: E. Droz, 1957), and Frank Lestringant, “Calvinistes et cannibales: Les Écrits Protestants sur le Brésil français 1555–1560,” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français, 1–2 (1980): 9–26, 167–92; for the edition of Léry I use in the analysis to follow, see Jean de Léry, History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Otherwise Called America: Containing the Navigation and the Remarkable Things Seen on the Sea by the Author; the Behavior of Villegagnon in that Country; the Customs and Strange Ways of Life of the Various Savages; Together with the Description of Various Animals, Trees, Plants, and Other Singular Things Completely Unknown over Here, trans. Janet Whatley (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992).

32. Frank Lestringant, “The Philosopher’s Breviary: Jean de Léry in the Enlightenment,” in New World Encounters, ed. Stephen Greenblatt (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 129.

33. Especially in Tristes tropiques, and The Savage Mind.. In regard to Léry’s influence on the anthropologist’s earliest work on Brazil, it is noteworthy that Lévi-Strauss devoted much of the latter portion of his career to an anthropology of artisanal culture, specifically potters and pottery; see Claude Lévi-Strauss, The Jealous Potter, trans. Benedicte Chorier (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).

34. Paolo Rossi, Philosophy, Technology and the Arts in the Early Modern Era (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), 1–2, et passim; an overview of historians of science who investigate the circularity of learned and artisanal culture as fundamental to early modern epistemological inquiry would include Edgar Zilsel, “The Sociological Roots of Science,” American Journal of Sociology 47 (1941–42): 544–62; Walter E. Houghton Jr., “The History of Trades: Its Relation to Seventeenth-Century Thought,” in Philip P. Weiner and Aaron Noland, eds., Roots of Scientific Thought: A Cultural Perspective (New York: Basic Books, 1957), 354–81; J. A. Bennett, “The Mechanics’ Philosophy and the Mechanical Philosophy,” History of Science 14 (1986): 1–28; Alexander Keller, “Mathematics, Mechanics and the Origins of the Culture of Mathematical Invention,” Minerva, 23 (1985): 348–61; Lisa Jardine, Francis Bacon: Discovery and the Art of Discourse (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 17–58; Pamela O. Long, “The Contribution of Architectural Writers to a ‘scientific’ Outlook in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries,” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 15, no. 2 (1985): 265–98; R. Hooykaas, Humanisme, science et reforme: Pierre de la Ramée (1515–1572) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1958); William Eamon, “Technology as Magic in the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance,” Janus 70, nos. 3–4 (1983): 171–212; and Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and the Word.: The Didactic Origins of Chemistry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975).

35. Jean de Léry, Histoire Memorable de la Ville de Sancerre contenant les Entreprises, Assaux et autres efforts des assiegans: les resistances, faits magnanimes, la famine extreme et delivrance notable des assiegez Le nombre des coups de Canons oar journees distngyuees. Le catalogues des morts et blesses a la guerre, sont a la fin du livre. Le tout fidelement recueilly sur le lieu, par JEAN DE LÉRY (Rouen: Richard Petit, 1573); I have used the account given in Géralde Nakam, Au lendemain de la Saint-Barthélemy: Guerre civile et famine (Paris: Éditions Anthropos, 1975).

36. See Janet Whatley’s strong archival evidence for Léry’s status as a practicing shoemaker in Léry, History of a Voyage, 225, nn. 2, 4, and xvi.

37. Nakam, Au lendemain de la Saint-Barthélemy, 68.

38. For Theodore de Bry, see his fourteen-volume Grands voyages (Frankfurt, 1590–1634); for Urbain Chauveton, Histoire nouvelle du Nouveau Monde: Contenant en somme ce que les Hespag-nols ont fait jusqu’apresent aux Indes Occidentales, et le rude traitement qu’ils font a ces povrespeuples-la (Geneva, 1579). Marcel Bataillon introduced the notion of a “Huguenot corpus on America,” see his “L’Amiral et les ‘nouveux horizons’ français,” in Actes du colloque “L’Amiral de Coligny et son temps” (Paris, 24–28 octobre 1972) (Paris: Société de l’histoire du Protestantisme Français, 1974), 41–52; on Calvin’s role in Brazil, see Léry, History of a Voyage, 41–45, and David S. Lovejoy, Religious Enthusiasm in the New World: Heresy to Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985), 6–8.

39. See Frank Lestringant, Le Huguenot et le sauvage: L’Amérique et la controverse coloniale en France, au temps des guerres de religion (1555–1589) (Paris: Aux Amateurs de livres / Klincksieck, 1990); and id., “Philosopher’s Breviary, 127–28.

40. Donald R. Kelley, The Beginning of Ideology: Consciousness and Society in the French Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 64; for alternative views of the origins of Protestant and Catholic Reformations of the sixteenth century, see John Bossy, Christianity in the West, 1400–1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 89–171.

41. Kelley, Beginning of Ideology, 64.

42. Léry, History of a Voyage, 53.

43. Ibid.; see also Charles W. Baird, History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1885), 1: 63–77 (hereafter cited as Baird); for a general discussion of the context of Coligny’s colonization program, see Charles-André Julien, Les voyages de découverte et les premiers établissements (Xve-XVIe siècles) (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1948).

44. See the medal in Tessa Murdock et al., The Quiet Conquest: The Huguenots, 1685–1985 (London: Museum of London, 1985), 30, fig. 13.

45. It is well known that the peopling of New France had a significant Calvinist component. For example, for an excellent discussion of the role played by the Rochelais Huguenot mercantile community in the society and economy of New France, see J. F. Bosher, The Canada Merchants, 1713–1763 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987); for insights into Calvinist culture among the largely Saintongeais “peasantry” in New France, see Leslie Choquette, Frenchmen into Peasants: Modernity and Tradition in the Peopling of French Canada (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1997), 129–36.

46. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 29–35. Marl (marne in French) is a naturally occurring fertilizer composed of clay and calcium carbonate applied to lime-deficient soils. Bernard Palissy, The Admirable Discourses of Bernard Palissy, trans. Aurele La Rocque (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957), 204–32 (204 quoted).

47. Léry, History of a Voyage, 35.

48. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 154–55.

49. Léry, History of a Voyage, 51–52.

50. Richard J. Tuttle, “Against Fortifications: The Defense of Renaissance Bologna,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 41, no.1 (March 1982): 189–201; see also Ivy A. Corfis and Michael Wolfe, The Medieval City Under Siege (Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell Press, 1995).

51. Léry, History of a Voyage, 52.

52. Ibid.

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid., 50.

55. Ibid.

56. Ibid., 50, 53.

57. Ibid., 51.

58. Ibid., xx–xxi.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid., xlvi.

61. Ibid., xlvii.

62. Ibid.

63. ERLR, 140; see also Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 5.

64. E. Droz, L’Imprimerie à La Rochelle, vol. 1: Barthélemy Berton, 1563–1573, Travaux d’humanisme et Renaissance, 34 (Geneva: E. Droz, 1960), 22–24; Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 96–98, 116, 141.

65. Yves Rouspeau, Traitté de la préparation à la saincte Cène de Nostre seul Sauveur et Rédempteur Jésus Christ. . . plus un Dialogue contenant lespoinctsprincipaux que ceux qui veulent recevoir la Cène doivent savoir et entendre (La Rochelle: Barthélemy Berton, [1563]), preface; and Droz, Barthélemy Berton, 24.

66. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 142; see Barbara B. Diefendorf, Beneath the Cross: Catholics and Huguenots in Sixteenth-Century Paris (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 30–35; and Virginia Reinburg, “Popular Prayers in Late Medieval and Reformation France” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1985).

67. ERLR, 138.

68. Meyer, “La Rochelle and the Failure of the French Reformation,” 171–83.

69. Meyer, Reformation in La Rochelle, 142–43.

70. ERLR, 151.

71. Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 5.

72. Catholic services were held at Sainte-Marguérite, next to the place du Château, in January 1571–September 1572, September 1576–December 1576, December 1577–1585, August 1599–May 1621, January 1624–Spring 1625, and Spring 1626–late September 1627.

73. ERLR, 139.

74. Benedict, Rouen During the Wars of Religion, 140–45; Robbins, City on the Ocean Sea, 287–92.

75. Heretics were still executed in La Rochelle as late as 1534.

76. ERLR, 144.

77. Ibid., 138.

78. Ibid., 142. Catholic numbers estimated from attendance at Sainte-Marguérite. For population figures, see Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 152; for a more conservative tally of La Rochelle’s population before and after 1628, see Philip Benedict, The Huguenot Population of France, 1600–1685: The Demographic Fate and Customs of a Religious Minority, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 81, pt. 5 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1991), 51.

79. Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 52–53. Between November and March 1627, 1,500 Catholics, “strangers,” and “rich” evacuated the fortress. In addition, 250 sailors were accepted into the king’s protection to serve in the royal navy, and 50 inhabitants escaped. For lower figures, see Benedict, Huguenot Population of France, 1600–1685, 51. Benedict counts La Rochelle’s total population at 17,000 in 1610, and places the death toll in the siege at “close to 10,000 people.” He does not cite the city census taken by Jean Godefroy in 1627 or Guibert’s “La Rochelle en 1628,” however.

80. Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 45–55.

81. Ibid., 45; Trocmé and Delafosse, Commerce Rochelais, 116–25.

82. Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 57.

83. Pierre Mervault, Le Journal des Choses les plus memorables qui se sont passe au dernier siege de La Rochelle (Rouen: J. Lucces, 1671), 312, 576, 577, 582; see also Arcère, Histoire, 1: 614, as quoted in Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 58. Guibert argues that the Rochelais were suffering from “hypoprotidemie, hypoglycemia, hypolipemia et acedocetose et des modifications des compartiments corporels.”

84. Vaux de Foletier, Siège de La Rochelle, 270.

85. Ariès, Western Attitudes Towards Death, 39–46. Transi may be understood as bodily purgatory, hence as the liminal state par excellence.

86. Armand-Jean du Plessis, duc de Richelieu, The Political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu, trans. Henry Bertram Hill (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1961), 91.

87. For the most detailed description of cannibalism within the family in besieged Sancerre, see Léry’s account of Simon and Eugènie Potard and their daughter in Nakam, Au lendemain de la Saint-Barthélemy, 290–96. That La Rochelle’s was a seafaring culture is significant as well, since cannibalism was traditionally overlooked in cases of shipwreck.

88. As quoted in Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 46.

89. See Nakam, Au lendemain de la Saint-Barthélemy, esp. 290–96.

90. Ibid., 295.

91. Léry, History of a Voyage, ch. 25: “How the Americans Treat their Prisoners of War and the Ceremonies They Observe Both in Killing and in Eating Them,” 122–33.

92. Ibid., 131–33.

93. Nakam, Au lendemain de la Saint-Barthélemy, 136–38. See also Gérard Defaux, “Un Cannibale en haut de chausses: Montaigne, la différence et la logique de l’identité,” Modern Language Notes 97, no. 4 (May 1982): 919–57.

94. Nakam, Au lendemain de la Saint-Barthélemy, 136–38.

95. On ordeal and purification, see Henry Charles Lea, The Ordeal (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1973).

96. Lionel Rothkrug, “The ‘odour of sanctity,’ and the Hebrew Origin of Christian Relic Veneration,” Historical Reflections / Reflexions historiques 8, no. 2 (Summer 1981): esp. 112–16.

97. Quoted in ibid., 113.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid., 114–15.

100. On Sancerre, see Léry, Memorable History, ch. 10.

101. Léry, History of a Voyage, 132.

102. Winthrop Papers, vol. 1: 1498–1628 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 359–60.

103. Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 49.

104. Guibert is convincing in his assertion there was no evidence of plague in La Rochelle prior to 1628. After the capitulation, however, disease was carried into the fortress by the conquering army, which was afflicted, as was Louis XIII himself, from the very beginning of the siege. See “La Rochelle en 1628,” 70.

105. Ibid., 16. This category of “gentleman-merchant” included banquiers, changeurs, armateurs, titulaires, bourgeois, negociants, corsaires, and artisans parvenus (artisans who rose to bourgeois status, escaping the stigma of manual labor).

106. Guibert, “La Rochelle en 1628,” 75.

107. See Robbins, City on the Ocean Sea; also J. G. Clark, La Rochelle and the Atlantic Economy, esp. ch. 1 on the Rochelais economy and the relationship of intendants and merchants to municipal and central government; chs. 35 on dynastic merchant families and kinship; and p. 45, table 3.1, on the statistically predominant position of port families among important Rochelais families in the eighteenth century. For a case study of one such family, see Robert Forster, Merchants, Landlords, Magistrates: The Depont Family in Eighteenth-Century France (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980). On the evolution of La Rochelle’s Huguenot population after 1628, see Pérouas, Diocèse de La Rochelle, appendix, 475.

108. Katherine Louise Milton Faust, “A Beleaguered Society: Protestant Families in La Rochelle, 1628–1685” (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern University, 1980), 114–24.

109. Ibid., 10–20; Benedict, Huguenot Population of France, 51.

110. Faust, “Beleaguered Society,” 13–14.

111. Joseph Bergin, Cardinal Richelieu: Power and the Pursuit of Wealth (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985), 46–61; see also id., The Rise of Richelieu (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1991), vii–115. Compare Bergin’s analysis of Richelieu’s financial interests with an early anecdotal treatment of the same in Aldous Huxley, Grey Eminence (New York: Harper & Row, 1941), 164–77.

112. Bergin, Cardinal Richelieu, 55, 58.

113. Ibid., 59–60.

114. Ibid., 64.

115. Ibid., 61–2, 66.

116. Faust, “Beleaguered Society,” 143–363.

117. Elie Brakenhoffer quoted in ibid., 237, 244; Philippe Vincent, Paraphrase sur les Lamentations du Prophète Jérémie (La Rochelle: Jean Chuppin, 1646), 7.

118. Classically, the word “parasite,” from the Greek parasitos, means “one who eats at the table of another, hence one who lives at another’s expense by flattery or diversion” (Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.); biologically, it means “an organism living in or on another living organism, obtaining from it part or all of its organic nutriment, and commonly exhibiting some degree of adaptive structural modification” (Webster’s New World Dictionary, s.v.). And in seventeenth-century French, according to Cotgrave’s Dictionarie, it meant: “a trencher-friend, or bellie-friend, a smell-feast, and buffoone at feasts; a clawback, flatterer, soother, smoother for good chear sake.”

119. ERLR, 147–49.

120. Ibid., 97. Synods were held at Jarnac (1560); La Rochelle (1562); Saint-Jean d’Angély (1563); Châteauneuf-s/Char (1570); Ligneres (1572); La Rochefoucauld (1581); Taillebourg (1591); La Rochelle (1592); Saint-Jean d’Angély (1593); Pons (1594); La Rochelle (1597); Saint-Jean d’Angély (1598); Pons (1599); Saujon (1600); Jarnac-Charente (1601); Taillebourg (1602); Saint-Jean d’Angély (1604 and 1605); and Pons (1606).

121. Ibid., 148.

122. Ibid., 146. Amos Barbot’s Histoire de La Rochelle (Saintes, 1886), 1: 359, claims 76,000 persons—three times La Rochelle’s population in 1627—flooded into the fortress after the Huguenot defeat at Moncontour in 1562.

123. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 122–23.

124. Archives départementales de la Gironde (Bordeaux), 1B 195, fol. 177, reprinted in Amico, Bernard Palissy, 229, doc. II. There was no record that Palissy was arrested in 1558 as were other members named in his group. Perhaps Montmorency or Pons also gave Palissy noble protection then, as well as in 1563?

125. See chapter 15, n. 44 . Guillemete’s surname was probably Bodet, like her son’s. “Patronne” undoubtedly referred to her status as owner of The Noble Vine.

126. Léry, History of a Voyage, 135.

127. Ibid., 134–35.

FIVE Scenes of Reading

EPIGRAPH: Hans Jakob Christoph von Grimmelshausen, The Adventures of Simplicius Simplicissimus (1668), trans. and ed. George Schulz-Behrend (Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1993), ch. 18, “Simplicius Takes His First Leap into the World, and Has Bad Luck,” 28.

1. Hohenheim himself probably coined the name “Paracelsus” (“Beyond Celsus”) by appending the Greek prefix para to the name of the patrician Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus (ca. 1st century A.D.), whose reputation as one of the foremost medical writers in Latin was reestablished during the Renaissance when his De medicina—a medical treatise that contained chapters on agriculture, military strategy and fortifications, rhetoric, philosophy, and law—was published in 1478. This book was translated into vernacular editions for use as the standard medical textbook in the university lecture halls that Paracelsus would reject in print as inadequate. He thereby also claimed symbolically to be a superior teacher outside the lecture hall than his illustrious predecessor, by using his own books to supplement the great Book of Nature and confirm the centrality of experience over ancient and scholastic precedents.

2. For a lucid analysis of the significance of the Paracelsian movement in the early modern period, see H. R. Trevor-Roper, “The Paracelsian Movement,” in id., Renaissance Essays (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985), 149–99.

3. See Wayne Shumaker, The Occult Science in the Renaissance: A Study in Intellectual Patterns (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 16, 53, 202–5; see also Walter Pagel, Paracelsus: An Introduction to Philosophical Medicine in the Era of the Renaissance (Basel: Karger, 1982); Paul Oscar Kristeller, The Philosophy of Marsilio Ficino, trans. Virginia Conant (New York: Columbia University Press, 1943); Ardis B. Collins, The Secular as Sacred: Platonism and Thomism in Marsilio Ficino’s Platonic Philosophy (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1974); André Chastel, Marsile Ficin et l’art (Geneve: E. Droz, 1954); on Ficino in sixteenth-century France, André-Jean Festugière, La Philosophie de l’amour de Marsile Ficin et son influence sur la littérature française au XVIe siècle (Paris: J. Vrin, 1941); and Jean Dagens, “Hérmetisme et Cabale en France de Lefèvre d’Etaples à Bossuet,” in Revue de Littérature comparée, no. 1 ( January–March 1961): 5–16.

4. Paul Oskar Kristeller, The Philosophy of Marsilio Ficino (New York: Columbia University Press, 1943), 203–40.

5. John Bossy, Christianity in the West, 1400–1700 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985), 108.

6. Nigel Hiscock, The Wise Master Builder: Platonic Geometry in Plans of Medieval Abbeys and Cathedrals (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2000), 274.

7. Ibid., 97–101, 274–75.

8. Trevor-Roper, “Paracelsian Movement,” 156. For the classic discussion of this doctrine as practiced by early modern alchemists, see Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and The Word: The Didactic Origins of Chemistry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 22–57.

9. Trevor-Roper, “Paracelsian Movement,” 156.

10. Charles Webster, From Paracelsus to Newton: Magic and the Making of Modern Science (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 3–4.

11. Kurt Goldammer, Paracelsus: Natur und Offenbarung (Hanover: Theodor Oppermann, 1953), and “Paracelsische Eschatologie,” Nova Acta Paracelsica 6 (1952): 68–102; see also Trevor-Roper, “Paracelsian Movement,” 156–57.

12. Webster, From Paracelsus to Newton, 15–17, 21, 24–29.

13. On Joachim and the wide diffusion of his prophesies, see Marjorie Reeves, The Influence of Prophesy in the Later Middle Ages: A Study in Joachimism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969), and Bossy, Christianity in the West, 107; on the influence of Joachimism on the adepts, see Frances A. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1978), 35; and Trevor-Roper, “Paracelsian Movement,” 157; on prophesy among the Paracelsians, see Webster, From Paracelsus to Newton, 15–47.

14. On the status of the operator and the relation between operators and philosophers, see William R. Newman, Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994), xi–xiv; on smallness and purity, see 160–69.

15. Hannaway, Chemists and the Word, 6–7.

16. See D. P. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magicfrom Ficino to Campanella (London: Warburg Institute, 1958), “Paracelsus and Jacques Gohory,” 96–106.

17. Ibid., 97.

18. Ibid., 96 and 105.

19. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 100.

20. Alexandre de La Tourette, Bref discours des admirable vertus de l’orpotable: auquel sont traictez les principaux fondemens de la medicine, l’origine & cause de toutes maladies, & quels sont les medicamens plus propres a leur guerison, & a la conservation de la santehumaine. . . Avec une apologie de la tres utile science d’Alchimie, tant contre ceux qui la blasment, qu’aussi contre les faulsaires, larrons & trompeurs qui en abusent . . . (Lyon, 1575); for further discussion, see Wallace Kirsop, “The Legend of Bernard Palissy,” Ambix 9, no. 3 (October 1961): 148, an article that extends Walker’s research on Gohory into a convincing analysis of Palissy’s association with Gohory’s scientific community.

21. Jacques Gohory, Discours responsif a celuy d’Alexandre de la Tourete, sur les secrets de l’art Chymique & confection de l’Orpotable, faict en la defense de la Philosophie & Medecin antique, contra la nouvelle Paracelsique (Paris, 1575). For the definition of “chymistry” as “the total of chemical/ alchemical terminology and theory as it existed in early modern Europe,” see William R. Newman, Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994), xii–xiii.

22. Kirsop, “Legend of Bernard Palissy,” 148; Kirsop argues that Palissy would have been aware of all the works by Paracelsus and his followers available in Paris in the mid to late sixteenth century, as well as the work of other medieval and modern alchemists, through his access to Gohory’s community.

23. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 23–24.

24. Ibid., 81.

25. Ibid.

26. Pagel, Paracelsus, 241–71.

27. Newman, Gehennical Fire, 93–94.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid., 94–95

30. Ibid., 95–99.

31. See Frances Yates, “The Art of Ramon Lull: An Approach to It Through Lull’s Theory of the Elements,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 17, no. 1–2 (1954): 115; and Mark D. Johnston, “The Reception of Lullian Art, 1450–1530,” Sixteenth Century Journal 12, no. 1 (1981), 31–48.

32. Kirsop, “Legend of Bernard Palissy,” 147.

33. Ibid.; Newman, Gehennical Fire, 103. The original work is Jean de (de Valenciennes) La Fontaine, Jean de Meung, Jean Clopinel, dit, De la transformation métallique, trois anciens tractez en rithme françoise, asçavoir: la Fontaine des amoureux de science, autheur: J. de La Fontaine; les Remonstrances de Nature à l’alchymiste errant, avec la Response dudit alchy., par J. de Meung; ensemble un tracté de son Romant de la Rose concernant ledict art; le Sommaire philosophique de N. Flamel, avec la défense d’iceluy art et des honestes personages qui y vaquent . . . (Paris: G. Guillard & A. Warancore, 1561).

34. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic, 99–101; and Kirsop, “Legend of Bernard Palissy,” 149.

35. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic, 100.

36. Ambroise Paré, On Monsters and Marvels (1573), trans. Janis L. Pallister (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), xv–xxxii.

37. Ambroise Paré, Journies in Diverse Places, trans. S. Paget, in Scientific Papers: Physiology, Medicine, Surgery, Geology, vol. 38 (New York: Collier, 1910).

38. Paré, On Monsters and Marvels, 3.

39. Ibid., 3–4.

40. For examples of monstrosity created out of lack of self-discipline and immorality, see esp. ibid., 74–84 (chs. 21–26).

41. Ibid., xxvi–xxvii; Jean Céard, La Nature et les prodiges: L’Insolite au 16e siècle, en France (Geneva: E. Droz, 1977), 290–320; see also Katharine Park and Lorraine F. Daston, “Unnatural Conceptions: The Study of Monsters in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century France and England,” Past and Present, no. 92 (August 1981): 21–54; and Lorraine F. Daston and Katharine Park, Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750 (New York: Zone Books, 1998).

42. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 154–155; Oeuvres complètes de Bernard Palissy, ed. Paul-Antoine Cap (Paris: J.-J. Dubochet, 1844; reprint with an avant-propos by Jean Orcel, Paris: A. Blanchard, 1961), 271; and Paré, On Monsters and Marvels, xxiii.

43. Thomas C. Allbut, “Palissy, Bacon, and the Revival of Natural Science,” in Proceedings of the British Academy (London: Oxford University Press, 1913–1914), 224–47.

44. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat, Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 1: 11–12, 13–14.

45. Ibid., 19.

46. On the relation between Washington and Cincinnatus, see Garry Wills, Cincinnatus: George Washington and the Enlightenment (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1984); on Agricola and his influence, see William Emerton Heitland, Agricola: A Study of Agriculture and Rustic Life in the Greco-Roman World from the Point of View of Labor (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1921); Cotton Mather, Agricola. Or, the Religious Husbandman: The main intentions of religion, served in the business and language of husbandry; and commended therefore by a number of ministers to be entertained in the families of the countrey (Boston: D. Henchman, 1727); Samuel Fisher, Rusticus ad Academicos, or the Country correcting the Clergy (London, 1660); John Robertson, Rusticus ad Clericum, or, the Plow-Man rebuking the Priest (Aberdeen?, 1694); and Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967).

47. On the relation between Cato and Addison, see Julie K. Ellison, Cato’s Tears and the Making of Anglo-American Emotion (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).

48. Bernard Palissy, The Admirable Discourses of Bernard Palissy, trans. Aurele La Rocque (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957), 113–14; Paracelsus: Selected Writings, ed. Jolande Jacobi, trans. Norbert Guterman, Bollingen ser. 28 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1958). On Paracelsians and the primacy of experience, see Hannaway, Chemists and the Word, 4, 59–62. See also n. 1 above on the name “Paracelsus.”

49. See n. 1 above.

50. John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, trans. Ford Lewis Battles, ed. John T. McNeill (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), 1: 52.

51. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 10–13.

52. Ibid., 113–14.

53. On English skepticism, see Barbara J. Shapiro, A Culture of Fact: England, 1550–1720 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000), 1–7. On the book trade in France in the sixteenth century, see E. Droz, L’Imprimerie à La Rochelle, vol. 1: Barthélemy Berton, 1563–1573, Travaux d’humanisme et Renaissance, 34 (Geneva: E. Droz, 1960); Lucien Febvre and H. J. Martin, L’Apparition du livre (Paris, 1958); Annie Parent, Les Métiers du livre à Paris au XVIe siècle (1535–1560 (Geneve: E. Droz, 1974); David T. Pottinger, The French Book Trade in the Ancien Regime, 1500–1791 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958); Natalie Z. Davis, “Printing and the People,” in Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1975), 189–206; and Robert Darnton, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982).

54. Désert territory is well mapped and defined in similar terms for Protestant culture in southeastern France in two excellent and now classic studies: Philippe Joutard, La Légende des Camisards: Une Sensibilité au passé (Paris: Gallimard, 1977); and Hillel Schwartz, The French Prophets: The History of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England (Berkeley: University of California, 1980). For the désert as metaphor, see esp. Schwartz, 11–36.

55. For a complete list of texts one can infer Palissy knew from hints in his writing, see Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 10–13.

56. Charles Webster, The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine, and Reform, 1626–1660 (London: Gerald Duckworth, 1975); and, for a concise version of the Webster thesis, see id., From Paracelsus to Newton.

57. On publication of scientific secrets and their association with both commerce and personal power, see William Eamon, Science and the Secrets of Nature: Books of Secrets in Medieval and Early Modern Culture (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), 3–90, 168–233.

58. Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), xii—xiii.

59. Ibid., xxiv.

60. Ibid., xxii—xxiii.

61. Ibid., xxiii; for the most sustained critique in English of this and other problems in Ginzburg’s oeuvre, see John Martin, “Journies to the World of the Dead: The Work of Carlo Ginzburg,” Journal of Social History 25, no. 3 (Spring 1992): 613–27.

62. Ginzburg, Cheese and the Worms, 127–28; on Bruno, see Frances A. Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964).

63. Jakob Böhme, Aurora. . . that is, the root or mother of philosophie, astrologie, & theologie from the true ground, trans. John Sparrow from the first German ed., Görlitz, 1612 (London: Giles Calvert, 1656), 48; for Böhme’s intellectual biography, see Alexandre Koyré, La Philosophie de Jacob Boehme (Paris: J. Vrin, 1929); for Böhme’s influence in England and America, see Schwartz, French Prophets, 8; Richard Bauman, Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence Among Seventeenth-Century Quakers (Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, 1990), 3–5; Henry A. Pochmann, German Culture in America: Philosophical and Literary Influences, 1600–1900 (Madison: University of Wisconsin: 1957), 31, 224, 226, 677 n. 2; A. G. Roeber, “‘The Origin of Whatever Is Not English Among Us’: The Dutch-speaking and the German-speaking Peoples of Colonial British America,” in Bernard Bailyn and Philip D. Morgan, eds., Strangers Within the Realm: Cultural Margins of the First British Empire (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991), 250; F. Ernest Stoeffler, “Mysticism in the German Devotional Literature of Colonial Pennsylvania,” Pennsylvania German Folklore Society 14 (1949): 1–181; and Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 99, 186, 225–32.

64. Böhme, Aurora, 96–98, 196.

65. Ibid., 98.

66. Luther’s open schism with the enthusiasts is usually dated to 1524; see Bossy, Christianity in the West, 107; and see also a useful overview of the violent quarrels following the rapid rise of Lutheran sectarianism during the sixteenth century in Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: The Age of Reformation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), 2: 73–81.

67. Böhme, Aurora, 159, 162.

68. Ibid., 160–61.

69. Ibid., 146–47.

70. Ibid., 596–98

71. Ibid., 270, 403, 411, 472–73.

72. Peter James Klassen, The Economics of Anabaptism, 1320–1560 (The Hague: Mouton, 1964), 14–16.

73. G. H. Williams, The Radical Reformation (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1962); Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers: Documents Illustrative of the Radical Reformation, edited by George Huntston Williams, and Evangelical Catholicism as represented by Juan de Valdés, ed. Angel M. Mergal, Library of Christian Classics, vol. 25 (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1957); Steven E. Ozment Mysticism and Dissent (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1973); and C. P. Clasen, The Anabaptists: A Social History (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1972).

74. “An Open Letter from Wolfgang Brandhuber to the Church in Rattenberg” (1529), trans. in Klassen, Economics of Anabaptism, appendix D, 128–33.

75. Böhme, Aurora, “Note,” n.p.

76. Jean Seguy, “Religion and Agricultural Success: The Vocational Life of French Anabaptists from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries,” trans. Michael Schank, Mennonite Quarterly Review 47 (July 1973): 209–17.

77. Böhme, Aurora, 402–4.

78. Seguy, “Religion and Agricultural Success,” 209–17.

79. Klassen, Economics of Anabaptism, appendix D, 128–33; on the term “Family of Love,” see John Canne, A Necessitie of separation from the Church of England, provided by the nonconformist Principles (London, 1634), 132; and Ephraim Pagitt, Heresiography: Or a Description of the Hereticks and Sectaries of these Latter Times (London, 1645), 105.

80. Bossy, Christianity in the West, 106.

81. Ibid.

82. John Martin, Venice’s Hidden Enemies: Italian Heretics in a Renaissance City (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 121–2, 99–112.

83. Böhme, Aurora, “Note.”

84. On the Essenes and the early Judeo-Christian sectarian tradition, competition, and confluence, see Gunther Sternberger, Jewish Contemporaries of Jesus: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, trans. Allan W. Mahnke (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995); Eric M. Meyers, ed., Galilee Through the Centuries: A Confluence of Cultures, Duke Judaic Series, vol. 1 (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1999); and Eric M. Meyers and Michael L. White, “Jews and Christians in a Roman World,” Archaeology 42, no. 2 (March—April 1989): 26–32.

85. Grimmelshausen, Adventures of Simplicius Simplicissimus, 250–52. This disciplined description is, in effect, a reversal of Palissy’s dark vision of Saintes in chaos over the mouth of Hell after occupation by Counter-Reformation forces, with unmastered children, the violent heirs of their demonic heritage, divided by loathing into forces of mimetic opposition within the formerly unified community.

86. Ibid., 250, 252.

87. Bossy, Christianity in the West, 109–10.

88. Grimmelshausen, Adventures of Simplicius Simplicissimus, 113–18.

89. Bossy, Christianity in the West, 110–11.

90. For examples of what I call the southeastern prophetic “style,” see Margaret C. Jacob, The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons and Republicans (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981); Joutard, Légende des Camisards; and Schwartz, French Prophets; on the theatricality of the southeastern prophets, see Schwartz, ibid., 251–78.

91. Bossy, Christianity in the West, 110.

92. Quoted in Frederick J. Powicke, The Cambridge Platonists: A Study (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1971), 99.

93. Bauman, Let Your Words Be Few, 1–32.

94. Roeber, “Origin of Whatever Is Not English,” 250–51; Carter Lindberg, The Third Reformation? Charismatic Movements and the Lutheran Tradition (Macon, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1983), 55–178; Hannaway, Chemists and the Word, 9–11. Evidence of Grimmelshausen’s sophisticated occult, astrological, and natural-philosophical interests is found throughout the text of Simplicissimus; see Helmut Rehder, “Planetenkinder: Some Problems of Character Portrayal in Literature,” [University of Texas] Graduate Journal 3 (1968): 69–97; Günther Weydt, Nachahmung und Schöpfung im Barock: Studien um Grimmelshausen (Bern: Francke, 1968), pt. 4; and for a contrary perspective, Blake Lee Spahr, “Grimmelshausen’s Simplicissimus: Astrological Structure?” Argenis 1 (1977): 7–29.

95. Canne, Necessitie of Separation, 132.

96. On the sociology of “front and back,” see Erving Goffman, Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order (New York: Harper Colophon, 1972).

97. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 115–17.

98. Ibid.

99. For one anonymous depiction of Peter’s deliverance from prison, painted in eighteenth-century New York, see Ruth Piwonka, Roderic Blackburn, et al., A Remnant in the Wilderness: New York Dutch Scripture History Paintings of the Early Eighteenth Century (Albany, N.Y.: Bard College Center and Albany Institute of History and Art, 1980), 56, fig. 28 (note the eyes of the guard sitting on a bench in the right foreground).

100. Böhme, Aurora, 224–25.

101. Ibid., 438–39.

102. Ibid., 572.

103. Ibid., 411–12.

104. Ibid., 227–28.

105. Ibid., 441, 452.

106. Cotgrave’s Dictionarie.

107. Jan Craeybeckx, Un Grand Commerce d’importation: Les Vins de France aux anciens Pays-Bas, XIIIe–XVIe siècle (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1958), 78–206; Sidney W. Mintz, Sweetness and Power (New York: Viking, 1985).

108. Jean Chapelot, ed., Potiers de Saintonge: Huit siècles d’artisanat rural: Musée national des arts et traditions populaires, 22 novembre 1975–1” mars 1976, exhibition catalogue (Paris: Editions des Musées nationaux, 1975), esp. 108–13 and 119–21.

109. Schwartz, French Prophets, 11. The geographic origin of these artisans is obscure.

110. Ibid.; Joutard, Légende des Camisards; and Jacob, Radical Enlightenment.

111. Lynn White Jr., “The Iconography of Temperantia and the Virtuousness of Technology,” in Medieval Religion and Technology: Collected Essays (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978), 182–83.

112. Ibid.

113. Bossy, Christianity in the West, 11.

114. Ibid., 10–11.

115. Kathleen Basford, The Green Man (New York: D. S. Brewer, 1998)); Richard Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952); William Anderson, Green Man: The Archetype of Our Oneness with the Earth (San Francisco: HarperCollins 1990); Hamish Henderson, “The Green Man of Knowledge,” Scottish Studies 2, no. 1 (1958): 47–85; J. R. L. Highfield, “The Green Squire,” Medium Aevum 22 (1953): 18–23; Lady Raglan, “The Green Man in Church Architecture,” Folklore 50, no. 1 (1939): 45–57; R. O. M. Carter and H. M. Carter, “The Foliate Head in England,” Folklore 78 (1967): 269–74; James Clarke Holt, Robin Hood (London: Thames & Hudson, 1982); and Christian Jacq, Le Message des bâtisseurs de cathédrales (Paris: Plon, 1980).

116. Anderson, Green Man, 20–30; Holt, Robin Hood.

117. Arnold van Gennep, Manuel de folklore français contemporain (Paris: A. Picard, 1943–66), 1: 1488–1502.

118. Anderson, Green Man, 26; Barbara Butts and Lee Hendrix, Painting of Light: Drawings and Stained Glass in the Age of Dürer and Holbein (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2000), 312.

119. For photographs of these two ceramic pieces, see Amico, Bernard Palissy, 26, fig. 14; and Chapelot, ed., Potiers de Saintonge, 73, fig. 229. A full discussion of the plaque’s attribution and source is found in Amico, 37, and Alan Gibbon and Pascal Faligot, Céramiques de Bernard Palissy (Paris: Librairie Seguier/Vagabondages, 1986), 42–45; on Palissy’s Italian influences, see Gibbon and Faligot, 16–26.

120. Anderson, Green Man, 14, 33.

121. On Wisdom and Fortuna in Renaissance humanism, see Charles Dempsey, Inventing the Renaissance Putto (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 184–85.

122. For close discussions of the Simplicissimus frontispiece, see Ellen Leyburn, Satiric Allegory: Mirror of Men, Yale Studies in English, 130 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1956), 7; and esp. Karl-Heinz Habersetzer, “‘Ars Poetica Simpliciana’: Zum Titelkupfer des Simplicissimus Teutsch,” Daphnis 3 (1974): 60–82, and 4 (1975): 57–78.

123. For the relation between the carving of eyes wide open and eschatology in seventeenth-century New England Calvinist mortuary art, see David H. Watters, With bodilie eyes: Eschatological Themes in Puritan Literature and Gravestone Art (Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1981); on the widespread use of figures emanating vegetation in the frontispieces and title-page borders of British-American and Continental books in the early modern era, see R. B. McKevrow and F. S. Ferguson, Title-Page Borders Used in England and Scotland, 1485–1640 (Oxford: Bibliographical Society, 1932); and Alfred F. Johnson, German Renaissance Title-Borders (Oxford: Bibliographical Society, 1929).

124. Böhme, Aurora, 114–15.

125. See Anderson, Green Man, 24, 80–88, 134; and esp. Basford, Green Man, y—16. There is no mention of this program in Adolf Katzenellenbogen, The Sculptural Program of Chartres Cathedral (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1954).

126. See Eugène Canseliet, “Les Ecoinçons des stalles de la cathédrale de Poitiers et leur interprétation alchimique,” Atlantis, 332 (1984): 291–308; C. J. P. Cave, Roof Bosses in Medieval Churches (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948), and Medieval Carvings in Exeter Cathedral (London: Penguin Books, 1953); Roland Sheridan and Anne Ross, Grotesques and Gargoyles in the Medieval Church: Paganism in the Medieval Church (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975); G. L. Remnant, A Catalogue of Misericords in Great Britain (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969); and James Jerman and Anthony Weir, Images of Lust: Sexual Carvings on Medieval Churches (London: B. T. Batsford, 1986).

127. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “misericord.”

128. Anderson, Green Man, 135–36.

129. Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages, 2.

130. The two chests of drawers are located in the collections of the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, and Historic Deerfield, Deerfield, Massachusetts. See also Brian P. Lev-ack, The Formation of the British State: England, Scotland, and the Union, 1603–1707 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

131. On the social history of witchcraft, see Carlo Ginzburg, The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (New York: Penguin Books, 1986), 1–98; id., Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches’ Sabbath (New York: Pantheon Books, 1991); Brian P. Levack, ed., Articles on Witchcraft, Magic, and Demonology: A Twelve Volume Anthology of Scholarly Articles (New York: Garland Publishing, 1992), esp. vols. 1–3, 12; id., The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe (London: Longman, 1995); Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages, 4.

132. Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages, 1–9.

133. Ibid., 7–12.

134. Ibid., 12–20.

135. Ibid.

136. Grimmelshausen, Adventures of Simplicius Simplicissimus, 30–31; these chapters show certain similarities to the medieval German epic Der Busant, which itself may have been derived from the French story Peter of Provence.

137. Ibid., 30.

138. Ibid., 34.

139. Ibid.

140. The ideal form of the society of orders—a rather static model—is exemplified by Roland Mousnier, The Institutions of France Under the Absolute Monarchy, 1598–1789, trans. Brian Pearce (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), and Les Hiérarchies sociales de 1450 à nos jours (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1969). Critiques have developed from Mousnier’s Marxist contemporaries, Pierre Goubert, Beauvais et le Beauvaisis de 1600 à 1730 (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N., 1960), and id., Louis XIV and Twenty Million Frenchmen, trans. Anne Carter (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970); and A. D. Lublinskaya, French Absolutism: The Crucial Phase, 1620–1629, trans. Brian Pearce (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968); as well as gender studies, see Julie Hardwick, The Practice of Patriarchy: Gender and the Politics of Household Authority in Early Modern France (University Park, Pa.: Penn State University Press, 1998); Sarah Hanley, “Engendering the State: Family Formation and State Building in Early Modern France,” French Historical Studies 16 (Spring 1989), and id., “The Monarchic State in Early Modern France: Martial Regime Government and Male Right,” in Politics, Ideology, and the Law in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of J. H. M. Salmon, ed. Arianna Bakos (Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press, 1994).

141. The word verds is read here as a variant of the verb verdir, “to turn green.” I have chosen to translate verds as “verdure” or “greenery” because the use of vegetation seems to capture the sense of the passage most accurately.

142. Böhme, Aurora, 405–6.

143. Ibid., 406–7.

144. Ibid., 407.

145. Ibid., 409–10.

146. The historiography of torture in early modern France is dominated by Roland Mousnier, The Assassination of Henri IV: The Tyrannicide Problem and the Consolidation of the French Absolute Monarchy in the Early Seventeenth Century, trans. Joan Spencer (New York: Scribner, 1973); a transcript of Ravaillac’s torture is found in Edmund Goldsmid, The Trial of Francis Ravaillac for the Murder of King Henri the Great, Together with an Account of His Torture and Execution, Extracted and Translated from the Registers of the Parliament of Paris, 1610 (Edinburgh: Privately printed, 1885); see also John H. Langbean, Torture and the Law of Proof: Europe and England in the Ancien Regime (Chicago: University of Chicago, 1977); William T. Cavanaugh, Torture and Eucharist: Theology, Politics, and the Body of Christ (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998); and Darius M. Rejali, Torture and Modernity: Self, Society, and State in Modern Iran (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994).

147. Jacob, Radical Enlightenment, 22.

148. Ibid., 47.

149. Quoted in François de Vaux de Foletier, Le Siège de La Rochelle (1931; La Rochelle: Editions Quartier Latin et Rupella, 1978), 279.

SIX 1. Ronald Sterne Wilkinson, “The Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr. (1606–1676) and His Descendants in Colonial America, Part I,” Ambix 11, no. 1 (February 1963): 33.

2. Ibid., 34.

3. Ibid.; and Ronald Sterne Wilkinson, “The Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr. (1606–1676) and His Descendants in Colonial America, Part II,” Ambix 13, no. 3 (October 1966): 139; see also John W. Streeter, “John Winthrop, Junior, and the Fifth Satellite of Jupiter,” Isis 39 (August 1948): 159–63; Ronald Sterne Wilkinson, “John Winthrop, Jr., and America’s First Telescopes,” New England Quarterly 35 (December 1962): 520–23; Silvio A. Bedini, “The Transit in the Tower: English Astronomical Instruments in Colonial America,” Annals of Science 54, no. 2 (March 1997): 161–96; and Robert C. Black III, The Younger John Winthrop (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966), 55, 169–71, 307–19.

4. Wilkinson, “Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr., Part II,” 174, cat. no. 196.

5. Estate Inventory, John Winthrop Jr., Boston, 1676: Connecticut State Library, Hartford District, file 6151; Jonathan L. Fairbanks and Robert F. Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, vol. 2: Mentality and Environment (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1982), 217; and William N. Hosley Jr., ed., The Great River: Art and Society in the Connecticut Valley, 1635–1820 (Hartford, Conn.: Wadsworth Antheneum, 1985), 192–93.

6. Fairbanks and Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, 2: 217–18.

7. Ibid., and Robert F. Trent, “The Spencer Chairs and Regional Chair Making in the Connecticut River Valley,” in Bulletin of the Connecticut Historical Society 49, no. 4 (Fall 1984), 191.

8. Trent, “Spencer Chairs,” 191–92; Hosley, ed., Great River, 192–93.

9. Peter M. Kenny, Frances Gruber Safford, and Gilbert T. Vincent, American Kasten: The Dutch-Style Cupboards of New York and New Jersey (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1991), 11–12, 36–39; Robert F. Trent, “New Insights on Early Rhode Island Furniture,” American Furniture, 1999, ed. Luke Beckerdite (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1999): 209–15; Robert A. Leath, “Dutch Trade and Its Influence on Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake Furniture,” American Furniture, 1997, ed. Luke Beckerdite (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1997): 21–39; and Black, Younger John Winthrop, 132–33.

10. Peter Follansbee, “A Seventeenth-Century Carpenter’s Conceit: The Waldo Family Joined Great Chair,” American Furniture, 1998, ed. Luke Beckerdite (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England): 209–10.

11. Quoted in ibid., 210.

12. Ibid., quoted on 211.

13. Elderkin’s greetings are conveyed in Roger Williams to John Winthrop Jr., October 23, 1650, Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 4th ser., 4 (Boston: Printed for the Society, 1863), 284. An early, popular widely disseminated illustration of “The Copernican System” was known to New Englanders from An Almanack of Coelestial Motions for the Year of the Christian Epocha, 1675 (fig. 6.4), but this woodcut was only printed in Boston byJohn Foster (1648–81) some sixteen years after the chair was made. A second edition of the 1675 Almanack appeared in 1681. See Fairbanks and Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, 2: 147–48, 329–30.

14. Foster graduated from Harvard in 1667 and his press in Cambridge printed all New England’s almanacs until 1676. Ibid., 147–48.

15. For a list of Robert Fludd titles in Winthrop’s library, see Ronald Sterne Wilkinson, “The Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr. (1607–1676) and His Descendants in Colonial America, Part IV: The Catalogue of Books,” Ambix 13, no. 3 (October 1966): 155–56, nos. 86–95.

16. Ibid., 155, nos. 89 and 89a.

17. Robert Fludd, Integrum morborum mysterium: Sive medicinae catholicae... [and] Katholikon [Gr.] medicorum katoptron [Gr.] ... [and] Pulsus seu nova et arcanapulsuum historia, e sacro fonte radicaliter extracta, nec non medicorum ethnicorum dictis authoritate comprobata, three works, forming the complete tractate 2 of vol. 1 of the Medicina catholica in one vol. (Frankfurt: Wolfgang Hofmann for Willem Fitzer, 1631), 343; Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1979), 65, fig. 77.

18. Robert Fludd, Katholikon [Gr.] medicorum katoptron [Gr.]: In quo, Quasi Speculo Politissimo Morbipraesentes mor demonstrativo clarissime indicantur, & futuri rationeprognostica aperte cernuntur, atque prospiciuntur (Frankfurt: [Willem Fitzer?], 1631), 255; Godwin, Robert Fludd, 64, fig. 76.

19. The seven-part color wheel is illustrated in Robert Fludd, Medicina catholica (Frankfurt: Willem Fitzer, 1629), 154.

20. See Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, trans. Richard Howard (New York: Hill & Wang, 1981), 26–27: “it is this element which rises from the scene, shoots out of it like an arrow, and pierces me. A Latin word exists to designate this wound, this prick, this mark made by a pointed instrument: the word suits me all the better in that it also refers to the notion of punctuation, and because the photographs I am speaking of are in effect punctuated, sometimes even speckled with these sensitive points; ... I shall therefore call [such a point a] punctum.”

21. On the metropolitan aspect of the significance of the Doric order on seventeenth-century American chairs, see esp. Benno M. Forman, American Seating Furniture, 1630–1730: An Interpretative Catalogue (New York: Norton, 1988), 182–83, 200–201, 276–77, and 304–5; see also Jonathan L. Fairbanks and Robert F. Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, vol. 3: Style (Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1982), 522–24.

22. Milo M. Naeve and Lynn Springer Roberts, A Decade of Decorative Arts: The Antiquarian Society of the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute, 1986), 54–56; Ann Smart Martin, Makers and Users: American Decorative Arts, 1630–1820, from the Chipstone Collection (Madison, Wis.: Elvehjem Museum of Art, 1999), 16.

23. Jakob Böhme, Aurora. . . that is, the root or mother of philosophie, astrologie, & theologie from the true ground, trans. John Sparrow (from the first German ed., Görlitz, 1612 (London: Giles Calvert, 1656), 598.

24. Ibid., 599.

25. Ibid., 472.

26. Ibid., 157–58.

27. Oxford English Dictionary

28. Including Architectura (Antwerp, 1578), and Perspective (Amsterdam, 1628). See also Alexandre Koyré, Metaphysics and Measurement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968).

29. Fairbanks and Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, 3: 514–15.

30. Benno M. Forman, “Continental Furniture Craftsmen in London: 1511–1625,” Furniture History 7 (1971): 94–120.

31. This is to exclude, of course, beds and bedrooms where, cross-culturally and at various moments in history, visitors have been “publicly” received. This custom is especially noteworthy among noble families and the king in ancien régime France, but it can also be observed in England and America.

32. Fairbanks and Trent, eds., New England Begins: The Seventeenth Century, 2: 348–49.

33. Margaret C. Jacob, The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans (London: Allen & Unwin, 1981), 38.

34. “Oswaldus Crollius [D.O.M.A. Osualdi Crollii Veterani Hassi Basilica Chymica Continans], 4 to, should be [16], 283, [25], Pp. but title and first leaf of preface is missing. Followed by ‘Oswaldi Crolii Trectatus De Signaturis Internis Rerum, Seu De Vera Et Viva Anatomia Majoris et minoris mundi’ and ‘De Vera Antiqua Philosphica Medicina’ (1608 or 1609).” Quoted from inventory provided by Wilkinson, “Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr. (1606–1676), Part II,” 150.

35. Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and the Word: The Didactic Origins of Chemistry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 28 and 31.

36. Böhme, Aurora, 130–31, 147–49.

37. Ibid., 148–49.

38. On the phenomena of “absorption” by artists into their work through the media of their tools, see Michael Fried, Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980). I benefited greatly from participation in Fried’s “Eye and Mind” seminar as a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University. See also Robert S. Woodbury, History of the Lathe to 1850: A Study in the Growth of a Technical Element of an Industrial Economy (Cleveland: Society for the History of Technology, 1961); on lathes used by seventeenth-century American turners, see Joseph Moxon, Mechanick Exercizes: Or the Doctrine of Handy-Works, ed. Benno M. Forman (New York: Praeger, 1970 [London, 1677edition]), pls. 12–18. For a discussion of Elderkin as a carrier of books, see chapter 11, p.

39. See Ellen Griffith, The Pennsylvania Spice Box: Paneled Doors and Secret Drawers (West Chester, Pa.: Chester County Historical Society, 1986). The “vine and berry” inlay that often decorates the doors, Griffith argues, was brought to England by French or Flemish artisans, whence it was diffused from the West Country to Chester County.

40. Martha H. Willoughby, “Patronage in Early Salem: The Symonds Shops and Their Customers,” in American Furniture, 2000, ed. Luke Beckerdite (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2000), 169–84.

41. Luther Samuel Livingston, Franklin and His Press at Passy: An Account of the Books, Pamphlets, and Leaflets Printed There, Including the Long-Lost Bagatelles (New York: Grolier Club, 1914).

42. Oeuvres de Bernard Palissy, revues sur les exemplaires de la Bibliothèque du Roi, ed. Barthélemy Faujas de Saint Fond and Nicolas Gobet (Paris: Ruault, 1777), vij—viij. This edition reprints the 1563 text but the editors also refer to a first edition published at Lyon in 1557, which remains unestablished. The consensus of Palissy’s biographers and critics is that the first edition was the one printed at La Rochelle in 1563.

43. Robert Darnton, Mesmerism and the End of the Enlightenment in France (New York: Schocken Books, 1970), 10, 62, 64, 146, 152.

44. For a full-length study of Paracelsianism in relation to the republican tradition in early modern Europe, see Jacob, Radical Enlightenment.

45. The Saint-Aubin engraving is pictured in Charles Coleman Sellers, Benjamin Franklin in Portraiture (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1962), appendix, p. 10.

46. Ibid., 96–108, appendix, p. 9.

47. Ibid., 105. “Several intact cases of these medallions, each pair packed back to back in paper, were discovered in a Bordeaux warehouse in 1885, ‘as fresh as the day when they were first baked’” (Franklin in France. From Original Documents, Most of Which Are Now Published for the First Time, by Edward E. Hale and Edward E. Hale, Jr. (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1887–88; reprint, New York: Burt Franklin, 1969), 1: xvi.

48. The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Albert Henry Smythe (New York: Macmillan, 1907), 7: 23–26.

49. Richard Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952), 4–6.

50. Michel René Hilliard d’Auberteuil, quoted in Alfred Owen Aldridge, Franklin and His French Contemporaries (New York: New York University Press, 1957), 43.

51. Jacques-Louis Ménétra, Journal of My Life, ed. Daniel Roche, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1986), 73; see also Lisa Jane Graham, “A Quest for Autonomy: Jacques Louis Ménétra, Glazier in Eighteenth-Century France” (Department of History European Seminar, Johns Hopkins University, April 21, 1988), 31, and René Moulinas, Les Juifs du pape en France: Les Communautés d’Avignon et du Comtat Venaissin aux 17e et 18e siècles (Paris: Privat, 1981).

SEVEN 1. Frederick J. Powicke, The Cambridge Platonists: A Study (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1971), 99–100.

2. Ibid.

3. Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and the Word: The Didactic Origins of Chemistry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 44–45.

4. Paracelsus: Selected Writings, ed. Jolande Jacobi, trans. Norbert Guterman, Bollingen ser. 28 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1958), 4–6.

5. Carlo Ginzburg, The Cheese and the Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller, trans. John and Anne Tedeschi (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), xxiii.

6. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres complètes de Bernard Palissy, ed. Paul-Antoine Cap (Paris: J.-J. Dubochet, 1844; reprint with an avant-propos by Jean Orcel, Paris: A. Blanchard, 1961), 43.

7. Jean Chapelot and Eric Rieth, Navigation et milieu fluvial au XIe siècle: L’Epave d’Orlac (Charente-Maritime), Documents d’Archéologie française, no. 48 (Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme, 1995), 9–93.

8. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 1: 23–25.

9. Translated from original text reproduced in Mathieu Augé-Chiquet, Les Amours de Jean-Antoine de Baïf (Paris: Hachette, 1909), 149. For a description of Baïf’s Ficinian academy, which was more universalist in nature than Gohory’s, see D. P. Walker, Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella (London: Warburg Institute, 1958), 96–106.

10. W. H. Herendeen, “The Rhetoric of Rivers: The River and the Pursuit of Knowledge,” Studies in Philology 68, no. 2 (Spring 1981), 107–8.

11. For a world history of this phenomenon, see Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory (New York: Knopf, 1995), “Water.”

12. See Max F. Schultz, “The Circuit Walk of the Eighteenth-Century Landscape Garden and the Pilgrim’s Circuitous Progress,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 15, no. 1 (Fall 1981), esp. 1–5.

13. Leon Wencelius, “Musique et Chant Sacré,” in L’Esthétique de Calvin (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1937), 285.

14. Quoted in Augé-Chiquet, Amours de Jean-Antoine de Baïf, 150, lines 70–87; and 154, lines 25–30.

15. Frances A. Yates, The French Academies of the Sixteenth Century (London: Warburg Institute, University of London, 1947), 84; id., “The Art of Raymond Lull: An Approach to It Through Lull’s Theory of the Elements,” Journal of the Warburg and CourtauldInstitutes 17 no. 1–2 (1954): 136 n. 1; Ramon Llull, Libre de meravelles, a cura de mn. Salvador Galmés, 4 vols. (Barcelona: Editorial Barcino, 1931–34); and see also Josep Maria Ruiz Simon, L’art de Ramon Llull 1 la teoria escolàstica de la ciència (Barcelona: Quaderns Crema, 1999).

16. Palissy, Recepte véritable, 4.

17. For an account of the translation of the Hypnerotomachia into French, see Benjamin Fillon, “Le Songe de Poliphile,” Gazette des Beaux Arts, 20 ( July—December 1879): 60–64.

18. The most recent English translation is Francesco Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili: The Strife of Love in a Dream, trans. Joscelyn Godwin (London: Thames & Hudson, 1999); see also Anthony Blunt, “The Hypnerotomachia Poliphili in Seventeenth-Century France,” Journal of the Warburg Institute 1 (1937–38): 117–37; Giovanni Pozzi in vol. 2 of Francesco Colonna, biografía e opera, ed. Maria Teresa Casella (Padua: Editrice Antenore, 1959); Emanuela Kretzulesco-Quaranta, Les Jardins du songe: “Poliphile” et la mystique de la Renaissance (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1986); and Alberto Perez Gomez, Polyphilo, or, The Dark Forest Revisited: An Erotic Epiphany of Architecture (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992).

19. Francesco Colonna, Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, trans. Robert Dallington as Hypnerotomachia: The Strife of Love in a Dream (London, 1592); reprint (New York: De Capo Press, 1969), 11.

20. Ibid., 11–14.

21. Ibid., 14.

22. Ibid., 15.

23. Ibid., 16; see also fig. 2, 13.

24. Yates, French Academies, 46; Wencelius, Esthétique de Calvin, 280–83.

25. Clément Marot, “L’Epître aux Dames de France” (August 1, 1543), quoted in Wencelius, Esthétique de Calvin, 282–83.

26. See D. P. Walker, “Orpheus and Theologian and the Renaissance Platonists,” Warburg Journal 16 (1953); id., “The Prisca Theologia in France,” ibid. 17 (1954); for a fine study of Ficino’s Neoplatonic system in early modern music and song, and its effect on the body, see Gary Tomlinson, Music in Renaissance Magic: Toward a Historiography of Others (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 67–228; see also id., Metaphysical Song: An Essay in Opera (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999).

27. Pontus de Tyard, Solitaire premier, ou Prose des muses e de la fureur poétique (Lyon: Jean de Tournes, 1552); Solitaire premiere, ou Discours des muses, e de la poétique (Paris: Galiot du Pré, 1575); Solitaire second, ou Discours de la musique (Lyon: Jean de Tournes, 1552); Solitaire second, ou Prose de la musique (Lyon: Jean de Tournes, 1555).

28. M.J. B. Allen, “Ficino’s Theory of the Five Substances and the Neoplatonists,” in Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 12, no. 1 (Spring 1982)., 19.

29. Quoted in ibid., 20.

30. Jakob Böhme, Aurora. . . that is, the root or mother of philosophie, astrologie, & theologie from the true ground, trans. John Sparrow (from the first German ed., Görlitz, 1612 (London: Giles Calvert, 1656), 504–6.

31. Psalm 104 was not only identifiable with the doxology of Protestantism. The Catholic apologist Guy Le Fèvre de La Boderie transposed the hymn nearly intact to serve as centerpiece for his La Galliade (1578), “Cercle IV.” La Galliade is a celebration of the glory of Gaulle, for its composer the wellspring of music, and by extension, also of the harmonizing effects of the music of the spheres. Of course, from Palissy’s point of view, one man’s harmony was another’s discord. See Simone Maser, La Galliade (Geneva: E. Droz, 1979), 11–12, 31–32.

32. Böhme, Aurora, 571.

33. Ibid.

34. For a discussion of this psalm, see Patrick Boylan, The Psalms: A Study of the Vulgate Psalter in the Light of the Hebrew Text (Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son, 1948), 2: 177–88.

35. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres complètes, ed. Cap, 9.

36. For a comparative discussion of tensions between the aural and the written text in early modern England, see D. R. Woolf, “Speech, Text, and Time: The Sense of Hearing and the Sense of the Past in Renaissance England,” Albion 18, no. 2 (Summer 1986): 159–93.

37. Gordon L. Davies, The Earth in Decay: A History of British Geomorphology, 1578–1878 (New York: American Elsevier, 1969), is a good general survey of the subject.

38. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 45.

39. Classical interpretation ran parallel to biblical in its rejection of an aging earth; see James Dean, “The Earth Grows Old: The Significance of a Medieval Idea” (Ph.D. diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1971), 5–10.

40. Davies, Earth in Decay, 9.

41. Thomas Robinson, A Vindication of the Philosophical and Theological Exposition of the Mosaick System of the Creation (London, 1709), 54.

42. See Davies, Earth in Decay, for numerous examples of persecution for questioning the dogma that “all was made in the beginning of the Creation of the world.”

43. Northrup Frye, The Great Code: The Bible and Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982), 138.

44. Bernard Palissy, Discours admirables de la nature des eaux et fontaines... (Paris: Martin Le Jeune, 1580), 90, 103. For Paracelsus on the quinta essentia, see Paracelsus: Selected Writings, ed. Jacobi, 28–29.

45. Hannaway, Chemists and the Word, 28–29; also Walter Pagel, “Paracelsus and the Neoplatonic and Gnostic Traditions,” Ambix 8 (1960): 127–32.

46. Bernard Palissy, The Admirable Discourses of Bernard Palissy, trans. Aurele La Rocque (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957), 125–28.

47. Böhme, Aurora, 162–63.

48. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 42.

49. Dean, “World Grows Old,”12.

50. Ibid., 143.

51. Ibid., 142–43.

52. Ibid., 143–44.

53. See Richard Bernheimer, WildMen in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1952), 12.

54. Dean, “World Grows Old,” 143–44.

55. Ibid., 180–84.

56. Ibid., 185–88.

57. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 254, 301, 47, 199, 228, 378.

58. Paracelsus: Selected Writings, ed. Jacobi, 141–43.

59. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 93.

60. Epigraph to this section from H. J. C. von Grimmelshausen, The Adventurous Simplicissimus: Being the Description of the Life of a Strange Vagabond Named Melchior Sternfels von Fuchshaim, trans. A. T. S. Goodrick (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1962), 339.

61. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1:46.

62. Ibid., 48.

63. On the hermaphrodite and conjunctio, see esp. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Bollingen ser. 20 (New York: Pantheon Books / Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1953–83), vol. 12: Psychology and Alchemy (1953), 329; vol. 13: Alchemical Studies (1967), 123, 136, 139, both trans. R. F. C. Hull.

64. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres complètes, ed. Cap, 39.

65. Ibid., 41; for a more complete discussion of these issues comparatively, see Charles Webster, “Water as the Ultimate Principle of Nature: The Background to Boyle’s Skeptical Chemist,” Ambix 13, no. 2 (June 1966): 96–107; and D. R. Oldroyd, “Some Neo-Platonic and Stoic Influences on Mineralogy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Ambix 21, nos. 2 and 3 (July—November 1974): 128–56.

66. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres complètes, ed. Cap, 41–42.

67. Ibid., 53–54.

68. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 52–56.

69. Ibid., 50.

70. Böhme, Aurora, 153, 440.

71. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 56.

72. Ibid.

73. Alexandre Koyré, La Philosophie de Jacob Boehme (Paris: J. Vrin, 1929), 169–301.

74. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 57.

75. Ibid., 59.

76. Ibid., 59–60.

77. Ibid., 62–63.

78. Ibid, 63–64.

79. Ibid., 56–57.

80. See Ernst Kris, “Der Stil ‘Rustique’: Die Verwendung des Naturabgusses bei Wenzel Jamnitzer und Bernard Palissy,” Jahrbuch der Kunsthistorischen Sammlungen in Wien, n.s. (Vienna: A. Scholl, 1926), 108–138; Klaus Pechstein, “Wenzel Jamnitzes Silberglocken mit Naturabgussen,” Anzeiger des Germanischen Naturalmuseums (Nuremberg, 1967), 39ff.; and Erich Egg, Veroffentlichungen des Museum Ferdinandeum 40 (Innsbruck: Universitats-Verlag, 1960), for references to the direct bronze casting done by the Austrian sculptor Casper Gras (ca. 1584–1674).

81. Hillel Schwartz, The French Prophets: The History of a Millenarian Group in Eighteenth-Century England (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), 215. See also G.-H. Bougeant, Les Quakres français, ou les nouveaux trembleurs... (Utrecht, 1732). I am grateful to Peter Dreyer for calling this reference to my attention.

EIGHT The Art of the Earth

EPIGRAPH: Tale collected in Robert Colle, Legendes et contes d’Aunis et Saintonge (La Rochelle: Editions Quartier Latin et Rupella, 1975), 127–31, my translation.

1. The report of Chapelot and his team is contained in Jean Chapelot, Claudine Cartier, Jean Cartier, Odette Chapelot, Serge Renimel, Eric Reith, et al., “L’Artisanat céramique en Saintonge (XIIIe—XIXe siècles): Essai d’archéologie extensive terrestre et sub-aquatique, rapport préliminaire (typescript, Musée national des arts et traditions populaires, Ecole pratique des hautes études, 5th sec., 1972). See also Jean Chapelot et al., eds., Potiers de Saintonge: Huit siècles d’artisanat rural: Musée national des arts et traditions populaires, 22 novembre 1975–1” mars 1976, exhibition catalogue (Paris: Editions des musées nationaux, 1975); and Jean Chapelot, “La Céramique exportée au Canada français: Trafic maritime et commerce de la céramique aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles,” in Dossiers de l’archéologie, no. 27 (March—April 1978): 104–13; as well as Jean Chapelot, “Vaisselle de bord et de table à Saint-Mâlo—Saint-Servan du XIVe au XIXe siècles” (typescript, n.d., on deposit in the Archives départementales de la Charente-Maritime).

2. For the classic article on Saintongeais pottery from the earlier British perspective, see G. C. Dunning, Cyril Fox, and C. A. Raleigh Rodford, “Kidwelly Castle, Carmarthenshire: Including Survey of the Polychrome Pottery Found There and Elsewhere in Britain. With an Inventory of the Polychrome Pottery Found in Britain,” Archaeologia 83, 2d ser., no. 33 (»933): 93–138.

3. Chapelot, “L’Artisanat céramique en Saintonge,” 2; id., “La Céramique exportée au Canada français,” 104–13; and id., “Vaisselle de bord et de table,” 156–63 (note esp. chart, “Les Principaux groupes céramiques à Saint Servan—Saint Malo: XIVe—XIXe siècles,” located on 161, for evidence of diffusion of ceramics from southwestern France’s principal trading partners).

4. For maps of the sites, see Chapelot et al., Potiers de Saintonge, 58, 68, 84, 89, 90–1; also id., “L’Artisanat céramique en Saintonge,” 41, 48.

5. Ibid.; and Chapelot, Potiere, 44–48.

6. Chapelot et al., “L’Artisanat ceramique en Saintonge,” 47.

7. Aumier was originally from Ecoyeux, a tiny village near La Chapelle-des-Pots; see Chapelot, “Céramique exportée au Canada français,” 112.

8. Bernard Palissy, The Admirable Discourses of Bernard Palissy, trans. Aurele La Rocque (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957), translator’s introduction, 8–9.

9. “Numero extraordinaire: Maisons et meubles Poitevins, Vendéens, Saintongeais,” La Vie à la Campagne, no. 5, Exceptionnels, xxx (Paris: Hachette, 1924; reprint, Paris: Librairie Guénégaud, 1976).

10. See n. 2 above.

11. Dunning et al., “Kidwelly Castle, Carmarthenshire,” 118.

12. I learned this in a personal interview in 1981 with Bernard Demay, a native of La Rochelle and director of the Bibliothèque municipale de la Rochelle. I also sat in on a local collège (high school) class in La Rochelle, where I saw firsthand the impressive mnemonic skills required of local écoliers, especially in the ritualistic repetition of homework responses and the memorization of poetry and prose from French literature and history. It was clear from this experience that the Palissy stories would be remembered in substantially the same way by most members of the same cohort group.

13. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 188. The La Rocque translation of this and the following passages from “On the Art of the Earth” has been somewhat modified.

14. Ibid., 188–89.

15. Ibid., 189–90.

16. Ibid., 190.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid., 191.

19. Ibid., 192.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid., 192–93.

22. See Jerah Johnson, “Bernard Palissy, Prophet of Modern Ceramics,” Sixteenth-Century Journal 14, no. 4 (1983): 401.

23. A discourse wrytten by M. Theodore de Beza, conteyning in briefe the historie of the life and death of Maister Iohn Caluin, with the testament and laste will of the saide Caluin, and the catalogue of his bookes that he hath made. Turned out of Frenche into Englishe by I. S. (London, H. Denham for L. Harrison, 1564; facsimile, Amsterdam, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; New York, Da Capo Press, 1972).

24. Ibid.; Elaine K. Bryson Siegel et al., Eucharistic Vessels of the Middle Ages (exhibition catalogue; Cambridge, Mass.: Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1975), 1–35.

25. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 1: 52–53.

26. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres complètes de Bernard Palissy, ed. Paul-Antoine Cap (Paris: J.-J. Dubochet, 1844; reprint with an avant-propos by Jean Orcel, Paris: A. Blanchard, 1961), 151.

27. This is probably a cryptic reference to “the jovial character,” commonly used by alchemists in reference to the coordination of matter with Jupiter.

28. Quoted in Alexandre Koyré, La Philosophie de Jacob Boehme (Paris: J. Vrin, 1929), 19 (my translation), see also 19, no. 2.

29. Ibid., 20.

30. G.W.F. Hegel, Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte, vol. 15 of Werke (Berlin, 1836), 301, et passim.

31. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 193.

32. Ibid., 193–94.

33. Ibid., 194.

34. Ibid.

35. Ibid., 195.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid., 196.

39. Ibid., 200.

40. Ibid., 200–201.

41. Ibid., 200.

42. Ibid., 195–96, 198.

43. Mireille Laget, “Childbirth in Seventeenth-and Eighteenth-Century France: Obstetrical Practices and Collective Attitudes,” in Robert Forster and Orest Ranum, eds., Medicine and Society in France: Selections from the Annales: Economies, sociétés, civilisations, volume 6, trans. Elborg Forster and Patricia M. Ranum (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980), 139–57.

44. Caroline Walker Bynum, Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (New York: Zone Books, 1992), 220; Thomas Laquer, “Orgasm, Generation, and the Politics of Reproductive Biology,” Representations 14 (Spring 1986): 1–41.

45. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 198, 200–201.

46. Jakob Böhme, Aurora. . . that is, the root or mother of philosophie, astrologie, & theologie from the true ground, trans. John Sparrow (from the first German ed., Görlitz, 1612 (London: Giles Calvert, 1656), 168: 49.

47. Ibid., 363: 27 and 28.

48. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 197. See also Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “countenance.”

49. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 199–200.

50. Ibid., 196.

51. Ibid., 201.

52. Ambroise Paré, On Monsters and Marvels, trans. Janis L. Pallister (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982).

53. Ibid., 6.

54. Böhme, Aurora, 185:46.

55. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 201–2.

56. Benvenuto Cellini, The Autobiography of Benvenuto Cellini, abridged and adapted from the translation by John Addington Symonds by Alfred Tamarin (London: Macmillan, 1969), 133–37, and Robert Goldwater and Marco Treves, eds., Artists on Art: From the XIV to the XX Century (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972), 93.

57. Palissy, Admirable Discourses, 203.

58. Chapelot et al., Potiers de Saintonge, 79–82.

59. Ibid., 80.

60. See Frances A. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1978), 49–56, and figs. 1, 8, 26a.

61. Yvonne Hackenbroch, “Wager Cups,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 26, no. 9 (May 1968): 381–87. On the goldsmith trade in Augsburg, see Reinhold Baumstark, Helmut Seling, et al., Silber und Gold: Augsburger Goldschmiedekunst für die Höfe Europas (Munich: Hirmer, 1994); Cesare Vecellio, Vecellio’s Renaissance Costume Book: All 500 Woodcut Illustrations from the Famous Sixteenth-Century Compendium of World Costume (New York: Dover Publications, 1977), 29, 68–70, 73–74.

62. Bernard Palissy, A Delectable Garden, trans. and ed. Helen Mortenthau Fox (Falls Village, Conn.: Herb Grower Press, 1965), section epigraph quoted from 16, 26, and 50. This translation, which I modify, uses old English to approximate Palissy’s sixteenth-century French.

63. Ibid., 1.

64. Ibid.

65. See Marjorie Hope Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory: The Development of the Aesthetics of the Infinite (New York: Norton, 1963).

66. Palissy, Delectable Garden, 3–4.

67. Ibid., 4–5. For a series of engravings of such locations, where the town of Plurs in Switzerland is represented at the foot of an “apocalyptic” mountain, in response to a natural disaster in 1618 when half of the town was lost (“sa ruine terrible arrivée en 1618”), see Gunther Kahl, “Plurs: Zur Geschichte der Darstellungen des Fleckens vor und nach dem Bergsturz von 1618,” in Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Archäologie und Kunstgeschichte 41, no. 4 (1984), cover illustration, 249–73, and figs. 28 and 29.

68. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “grotto.”

69. Palissy, Delectable Garden, 6–7.

70. Cotgrave’s Dictionarie.

71. Palissy, Delectable Garden, 8–11.

72. Ibid., 11–16.

73. Ibid., 20–21.

74. Ibid., 21.

75. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 60–61.

76. Palissy, Delectable Garden, 21. See George Edwards and Matthew Darley, A New Book of Chinese Designs (London, 1754), pl. 86, for an eighteenth-century design of such a rustic chair.

77. Section epigraph: Serge Renimel, “4.2.3.2. Les Sites XVéme—XVIéme siècles,” in Jean Chapelot, Claudine Cartier, Jean Cartier, Odette Chapelot, Serge Renimel, Eric Reith, et al., ‘L’Artisanat céramique en Saintonge (XIIIe—XIXe siècles): Essai d’archéologie extensive terrestre et sub-aquatique, rapport préliminaire (typescript, Musée national des arts et traditions populaires, Ecole pratique des hautes études, 5th sec., 1972), 46.

78. Ibid., 78–80.

79. Chapelot, Potiers de Saintonge, 72.

80. Ibid., 74; Musée national céramique de Sèvres accession no. 53951.

81. Ibid., 76. See also a recently discovered vessel from La Chapelle-des-Pots of the same form with a molded image of the young Louis XIII on the side, now in the Musée régional Dupuy-Mestreau in Saintes. This establishes a probable date of ca. 1610 for this vessel and shows that courtly patronage for the green molded forms was available in the seventeenth century. For an illustration, see Revue du Louvre: La Revue des musées de France (Paris: Conseil des musées nationaux) 51, no. 5 (December 2001): 83, fig. 18.

82. Louvre accession no. OA 3989.

83. Charles Webster, “Water as the Ultimate Principle of Nature: The Background to Boyle’s Skeptical Chemist,” Ambix 13, no. 2 (June 1966): 96–97.

84. Quoted in ibid., 102.

85. Quoted in D. R. Oldroyd, “Some Neo-Platonic and Stoic Influences on Mineralogy in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries,” Ambix 21, nos. 2 and 3 (July—November 1974): 135.

86. Chapelot et al., L’Artisanat céramique en Saintonge, 80.

87. Ibid., 80–81.

88. Chapelot, Potiers de Saintonge, 73–74.

89. The classic account of this relationship between war, Rosicrucianism, and political language is Frances A. Yates’s The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, an ultimately enthusiastic but also pioneering and erudite book, the important and far-reaching implications of which have been extended though not necessarily superseded in a less subjective fashion by the historian of science Margaret C. Jacob, in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans (London: Allen & Unwin, 1981).

90. Heinrich Khunrath, Amphitheatrum sapientia aeternae solius verae Christiano-kabalisticvm, divino-magicum, nec non, physico-chymicvm, tertriunum, catholicon (Magdeburg: Levinum Braunss Bibliopolam, 1608); Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 38, 49–50.

91. Ibid., 38–39. Yates published a complete reprint of the manifestos in an appendix, 235–60.

92. Arthur E. Waite, The Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross (New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1961), unpaginated eleventh image and caption. Although this text is definitely the work of a devout believer, it is accepted as a valuable and accurate source of basic information about Rosicrucian imagery and arcana.

93. Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 49.

94. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Bollingen ser. 20, vol. 12: Psychology and Alchemy (New York: Pantheon Books / Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1953), trans. R. F. C. Hull, 393, fig. 214.

95. Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1979), 71.

96. Ambroise Paré, On Monsters and Marvels, trans. Janis L. Pallister (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 26.

97. I am most grateful to Joe Marino for bringing this important reference to my attention.

98. James Nohrnberg, The Analogy of the Faerie Queene (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976), 16.

99. Ibid., quoting On the Cave of the Nymphs, 13, trans. Thomas Taylor, in Select Works of Porphyry (London, 1823), 194f.; slightly modified here. Böhme calls man “either a vessel of honour or dishonour” in Aurora, 99: 4.

100. Plato, Timaeus, trans. H. D. P. Lee (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1965), 66–69.

101. Ibid., 67–68.

102. Ibid., 68–69.

103. On the sword as symbol of alchemic separation, see H. J. Sheppard, “Gnosticism and Alchemy,” Ambix 6, no. 2 (December 1957): 98–101.

104. Samuel Norton, Alchymiae complementum, et perfectio, seu, Modus et Processus argumentandi: sive multiplicandi omnes lapides, & elixera in virtute . . . (Frankfurt: Typis Caspari Rotelii, Impensis Guiliemi Fitzeri, 1630). For a fuller discussion of Van Helmont’s “Willow Tree Experiment,” see Charles Webster, “Water as the Ultimate Principle of Nature: The Background to Boyle’s Skeptical Chemist,” Ambix 13, no. 2 (June 1966): 96–99. Northrop Frye, The Great Code: The Bible and Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982), 135–38, contends the return of the tree and water of life “lost” after Genesis, in Revelation, signifies the typological relation between the two books.

105. See also Salomon Trismosin, La Toison d’or: ou, La Fleur des trésors, commentaires des illustrations par Bernard Husson; étude iconographique du manuscrit de Berlin par René Alleau (Paris: Retz, 1975).

106. Böhme, Aurora, 117: 55, 56.

107. Ibid., 347–48: 49–52.

108. Musée Marmattan (Wildenstein Collection); William Wells, “French Fifteenth-century Miniature Painting a New Hypothesis: Jean Perréal: From René to the Bourbon Master,” Apollo, July 1986, 17.

109. On this aspect of Ficino’s ideas, see Wayne Shumaker, The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance: A Study in Intellectual Patterns (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979), 129–30.

NINE “In Patientia Sauvitas”

EPIGRAPH: Jakob Böhme, Aurora. . . that is, the root or mother of philosophie, astrologie, & theologie from the true ground, trans. John Sparrow, from the first German ed., Görlitz, 1612 (London: Giles Calvert, 1656), 185.

1. Patientia can also connote endurance or resignation in this context. I wish to acknowledge Donna Evergates for her help with translations from the Latin and Arnt Bohm for his help with the German.

2. Maurice Ricateau, La Rochelle 200 ans huguenots: 1500–1700 (La Rochelle: Imprimerie de la Charente-Maritime, 1978), 6–8; Adrien Blanchet, Les Souterrains-refuges de la France: Contribution a l’histoire de l’habitation humaine (Paris: Picard, 1923), 253–82; J. R. Colle, “Les Souterrains-refuges en Saintonge,” Bulletin de la Societégéographique de Rochefort, 2d ser., 2 (1968): 87–91; Paul Cantaloube, “Souterrains-refuges,” Recherche de la Commission des arts et monuments de Charente-Inferieure 14 (1897): 102–6; Pierre-Amedée Brouillet, “Inscriptions, tombeaux, statues, laternes des morts, souterrains-refuges de Haut Poitou” (Bibliothèque municipale, Poitiers, MS 865, nineteenth-century typescript); Jérôme Triolet and Laurent Triolet, Les Souterrains: Le Monde des souterrains-refuges en France (Paris: Errance, 1995); and Nicolas Faucherre et al., Les Fortifications du littoral: La Charente-Maritime (Paris: Editions Patrimoines et Médias, 1996), 67–81.

3. Winthrop Papers, vol. 1: 1498–1628 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 194–96.

4. Fludd, of course, was not alone in this preoccupation. See esp. Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd.: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1979), 82–83.

5. Bernard Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 1: 46.

6. Böhme, Aurora, 196–97; see esp. 196: 107.

7. Ibid., 168: 52; 169: 57; 163: 23, 24; 164: 28, 29; and 162–63: 21; 112: 25.

8. Palissy, Recepte véritable, in Oeuvres, ed. Fillon and Audiat, 1: 40–41.

9. See Pamela H. Smith, The Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), 152, fig. 7.

10. On digging up bones of martyred dead by pilgrims in search of the sweet smell of sanctity, see Lionel Rothkrug, “The ‘odour of sanctity,’ and the Hebrew Origin of Christian Relic Veneration,” Historical Reflections / Reflexions historiques 8, no. 2 (Summer 1981).

11. For an informative essay on this cycle of engravings, see Priscilla L. Tate, “Patentiae Triumphus: The Iconography of a Set of Eight Engravings,” in Gerald J. Scheffhorst, ed., The Triumph of Patience: Medieval and Renaissance Studies (Orlando: University Presses of Florida, 1978), 106–138.

12. Jon Butler, The Huguenots in America: A Refugee People in New World Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983), 161–65; id., “Les ‘Hymnes ou cantiques sacrez’ d’Elie Neau: Un Nouveau Manuscrit du ‘grand mystique des galères,’” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 124 (July—September 1978): 416–23; Emile G. Léonard, L’Histoire générale du protestantisme (Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1964), 3: 61–64; Charles Read, “Un Confesseur de la R. P. R. sous Louis XIV: Elie Neau, ‘Martyr sur les galères et dans les cachots de Marseille,’” Bulletin de la Société de l’histoire du protestantisme français 23 (1874): 529–44; Sheldon S. Cohen, “Elias Neau, ‘Instructor to New York Slaves,’” New-York Historical Society Quarterly 55 (1971): 7–27; Frank J. Klingberg, Anglican Humanitarianism in Colonial New York (Philadelphia: Church Historical Society, 1940), 124–39.

13. Elias Neau, An Account of the Sufferings of the French Protestants, Slaves on Board the French Kings Galleys (London: Richard Parker, 1699), 2.

14. Butler, Huguenots in America, 162.

15. “Mémoire pour servir d’instruction à Monsieur le comte de Frontenac sur l’entreprise de la Nouvelle-York, 7 juin 1689,” Rapport de l’Archivist de la Province de Québec 8 (1927–28): 12–16; quoted in J. F. Bosher, “Huguenot Merchants and the Protestant International in the Seventeenth Century,” William and Mary Quarterly 52, no. 1 (January 1995): 89.

16. Böhme, Aurora, 368: 48.

17. Elias Neau, Account of the Sufferings, 8–9.

18. Ibid., 9–11.

19. Cotton Mather, A Present from a farr country (Boston: Green & Allen for Perry, 1698), 13–14.

20. Ibid., 17–18.

21. Ibid., 17–19.

22. Ibid., 13.

23. Ibid., 20–21.

24. Quoted in Butler, Huguenots in America, 165.

TEN Being “at the Île of Rue”

EPIGRAPHS: Edward Howes, letter dated March 25, 1633, Winthrop Papers, vol. 3: 1631–1637 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1943), 114–15. Edward Howes, letter dated January 22, 1627, Winthrop Papers, vol. 1: 1498–1628 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 374–75. John Winthrop, “Experiencia” (1616–18), written while mourning the death in childbirth of his second wife, Thomasine Clopton Winthrop (1583–1616), Winthrop Papers, 1: 191.

1. On the military and political significance of La Rochelle’s offshore islands Ré and Oléron, see David Parker, La Rochelle and the French Monarchy: Conflict and Order in Seventeenth-Century France (London: Royal Historical Society, 1980), 14.

2. Winthrop Papers, 3: 114–15.

3. Robert C. Black III, The Younger John Winthrop (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966), 17–22; and Edmund S. Morgan, The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John Winthrop (Boston: Little, Brown, 1958), 21–27. On Ireland as a “variation” on the English model and a precursor for American colonization in the seventeenth century, see Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988), 101–23.

4. Black, Younger John Winthrop, 21–23.

5. Ibid., 124.

6. Charles Webster, The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine, and Reform, 1626–1660 (London: Gerald Duckworth, 1975), 65.

7. Ibid., 66–67.

8. Winthrop Papers, 1: 278–79 (April 26, 1622).

9. Ibid.

10. Frances A. Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1978), 103–4.

11. Black, Younger John Winthrop, 26–7.

12. Ibid., 25–27.

13. Winthrop Papers, 1: 338, n. 35.

14. Winthrop Papers, 1: 337–38.

15. Owen Hannaway, The Chemists and the Word: The Didactic Origins of Chemistry (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 43–4.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid., 44.

18. Winthrop Papers, 1: 347–48.

19. Black, Younger John Winthrop, 28–31.

20. Winthrop Papers, 1: 352–53.

21. Black, Younger John Winthrop, 87–88, 113–14.

22. Webster, Great Instauration, 388–91.

23. Ibid., 390.

24. Ibid.

25. Winthrop Papers, 1: 359–60.

26. Winthrop Papers, 1: 374–75 (undated, but probably December 1627).

27. On the prolongation of life, see Webster, Great Instauration, 249–323.

28. Winthrop Papers, 1: 374–75 (January 22, 1627).

29. Winthrop Papers, 1: 374–75. For a useful discussion of the general analogy between Christ’s passion, the redemption of postlapsarian mankind, and the transmutative action of the philosopher’s stone on fallen matter, see Wayne Schumaker, The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance: A Study in Intellectual Patterns (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), 189–90.

30. Winthrop Papers, 3: 206.

31. Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, 118–39, and Webster, Great Instauration, 39.

32. Winthrop Papers, 1: 374, n. 13; and “The Winthrop Papers,” North American Review 105, no. 217 (October 1867): 608–13.

33. The Wisdom of Solomon, trans. and ed. David Winston (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1979), 172–77, vv. 15–22. Winston argues the translation of “artificer” in the final line probably refers to a joiner, as a figure of the woodworker as metaphysical joiner of microcosm and macrocosm; as in Proverbs 8:30: “I was with him as one working as a joiner” (176).

34. David Winston, Logos and Mystical Theology in Philo of Alexandria (Cincinnati, Ohio: Hebrew Union College Press, 1985), 36.

35. I am grateful for Professor Janet Meisel’s insights into the translation of this aphorism.

36. Winston, Logos and Mystical Theology, 14.

37. Ibid., 58.

38. Webster, Great Instauration, 45.

39. Yates, Rosicrucian Enlightenment, fig. 24a, for an image of “Alchemy and Geometry”

40. See similar pictographs of horoscopes in Hieronymus Cardanus (Jerome Cardan), Libelle quinque (Nuremburg, 1547), sig. 109v, 113v.

41. Wisdom of Solomon, trans. and ed. Winston, 177.

42. Edward Howes to John Winthrop Jr., January 22, 1627, Winthrop Papers, 1: 374–75.

43. Winthrop Papers, 1: 392–94.

44. Winthrop Papers, 1: 385 (April 7, 1628).

45. Black, Younger John Winthrop, 36–9.

46. Ibid., 38.

47. Romolo Quazza, La guerra per la successione di Mantova e del Monferrato (1628–1631) da documenti inediti, 2 vols., Pubblicazioni della Reale Accademia Virgiliana, 2d ser., Miscellanea, 5–6 (Mantua: G. Mondovi, 1926); see also Winthrop Papers, vol. 2: 1623–1630 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1929), 73, n. 1.

48. Winthrop Papers, 2: 72–73 (to Emmanuel Downing, dated March 9, 1629), and 75–76 (to John Freeman, dated March 28, 1629).

49. Winthrop Papers, 2: 150–51.

50. For example, see Winthrop Papers, 2: 226–27 (Edward Howes to John Winthrop Jr., March 31, 1630).

51. Malcom Freiberg, ed., Winthrop Papers, vol. 6: 1650–1654 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1992), 57–58 (August 26, 1650).

52. Ibid., 58.

53. Winthrop Papers, 3: 72.

54. Ibid.

55. Winthrop Papers, 3: 94

56. The inscription is reprinted in its entirety in Winthrop Papers, 3: 94–5, n. 2.

57. There is a huge bibliography by English ceramic historians on the relationship between the production of Bernard Palissy and his imitators in early seventeenth-century London, particularly concerning the “Palissy dishes”: see Rhoda Edwards, “London Potters circa 1570–1710,” Journal of Ceramic History, no. 6 (1974): 10, 121; Michael Archer, Delftware: The Tin-glazed Earthenware of the British Isles: A Catalogue of the Collection in the Victoria andAlbert Museum (London: H.M. Stationery Office in Association with the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1997), 109–12; Louis L. Lipski, Dated English Delftware: Tin-glazed Earthenware, 1600–1800, ed. Michael Archer (London and Scranton, Pa.: Sotheby Publications, 1984), nos. 90–94, 99, 104–6, 110–13, 118–21, 125–26; Frank Britton, “Bernard Palissy and London Delftware,” English Ceramic Circle Transactions 14, pt. 2 (1991): 172–73; Lionel Burman, “Motifs and Motivations: The Decoration of Some Seventeenth-Century London Delftwares—Part 2: Images and Emblems,” ibid. 15, pt. 1 (1993): 105; Graham Slater, “English Delftware Copies of the Fécondité Pattern Dishes Attributed to Palissy,” ibid. 17, no. 1 (1999): 47–67; and Leslie B Grigsby, “Dated English Delftware and Slipware in the Longridge Collection,” Antiques 155, no. 6 (June 1999): 877–79.

58. Charles Dempsey, Inventing the Renaissance Putto (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 95. For an illustration of the Danaë by Rosso, see Slater, “English Delftware Copies of the Fécondité Pattern Dishes,” 48, fig. 3.

59. Grigsby, “Dated English Delftware and Slipware in the Longridge Collection,” 879.

60. “The Lord created me at the beginning of his work, the first of his acts of old. /... when he marked out the foundations of the earth, / then I was there beside him, like a master workman; and I was daily his delight, rejoicing before him always, / rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the sons of men. / . . . Happy is the man who listens to me, watching daily at my gates, waiting beside my doors.” Proverbs 8:22, 29–31, 34.

61. Winston, Logos and Mystical Theology in Philo of Alexandria, 15–16, 20–21.

62. Theophrastus Paracelsus, The Prophesies of Paracelsus: Occult Symbols, and Magic Figures with Esoteric Explanations, trans. and ed. Paul M. Allen (Blauvelt, N.Y.: Rudolf Steiner Publications, 1973), 67.

63. Ibid.

64. For a discussion of the putto and spiritello and how they inform medieval and Renaissance concepts of body and spirit, see Dempsey, Inventing the Renaissance Putto, 86 et passim.

65. Paracelsus, Prophesies of Paracelsus, 86.

66. Robert Fludd, Philosophia sacra et vere christiana seu meteorologia cosmica (Frankfurt: Officina Bryana, 1626).

67. Winthrop Papers, 3: 96–98 (November 24, 1632).

68. Robert Fludd, Medicina catholica (Frankfurt: Willem Fitzer, 1629) and Integrum morborum mysterium (Frankfurt: Willem Fitzer, 1631) respectively; on their survival in Winthrop’s library, see Roland Sterne Wilkinson, “The Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr. (1606–1676) and His Descendants in Colonial America, Part IV: The Catalogue of Books,” Ambix 13, no. 3 (October 1966): 155, nos. 89 and 90, in the New York Academy of Medicine.

69. This prayer and response are from Psalms 31:16 and 91:10–11.

70. For a brilliant exegesis of Philo’s sources for this verse, which I have summarized here, see Wisdom of Solomon, ed. Winston, 175–76, verse 20.

71. Joscelyn Godwin, Robert Fludd: Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds (Boulder, Colo.: Shambhala, 1979), 56.

72. Job 6:4.

73. Winthrop Papers, 2: 91–92.

74. Ibid., 179 (Isaac Johnson to John Winthrop Sr. at Groton, December 17, 1629).

75. For the words quoted, see Les Oeuvres de Maistre Bernard Palissy, ed. B. Fillon and Louis Audiat (Niort: L. Clouzot, 1888), 2: 3, dedication of Discours admirables to Palissy’s patron Antoine de Ponts in 1580; and see also the motto “Povrete Empeches les Bons” (fig. 14.34) in the frontispieces to both of Palissy’s books. I have translated “les bons” as “happiness and safety.”

76. Black, Younger John Winthrop, 86–87.

77. Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Providence Island, 1630–1641: The Other Puritan Colony (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 221–66.

78. Winthrop Papers, 3: 76 (April 3, 1632).

79. Ibid., 100 (November 28, 1632).

80. Ibid., 95 (November 23, 1632).

81. Quoted in Kupperman, Providence Island, 225. On Comenius and Harvard, see Samuel Eliot Morison, Builders of the Bay Colony (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1930), 273.

82. Pamela H. Smith, The Business of Alchemy: Science and Culture in the Holy Roman Empire (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), 231–40.

83. Ibid., 231–34.

84. Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. “parterre,” definition 3.

85. Smith, Business of Alchemy, 232, fig. 25.

86. Ibid. 244.

87. Winthrop Papers, 3: 292 (September 3, 1636).

88. Robert Blair St. George, “Bawns and Beliefs: Architecture, Commerce, and Conversion in Early New England,” Winterthur Portfolio 25, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 277.

89. Ibid., 273–74. Charles Estienne, Maison Rustique, or, The Covntrie Farme, compiled in the French tongue by Charles Steuens and Iohn Liebault . . . and translated into English by Richard Surflet . . . (London: Edm. Bollifant for Bonham Norton, 1600).

90. Ibid., 273.

91. Winthrop Papers, 3: 112(March 18, 1633); see also Howes’s lament of “Rochell,” 114–15.

92. The full original title page of the Discours admirables reads: Discours Admirables, De La Nature Des Eavx Et Fonteines, Tant Naturelles Qu’Artificielles, des metaux, des sels & salines, des pierres, des terres, du feu & des emaux. Avec Plusieurs Autres Excellens secrets des choses naturelles. Plus Un Traite’ De La Marne, Fort utile & necessaire, pour ceux qui se mellent de l’agriculture. Le Tout Dresse’ Par Dialogues, Esquels sont introduits la theorique & la practique. Par M. Bernard Palissy, inventeur des rustiques figulines du Roy & de la Royne sa mere. A Treshaut, Et Trespuissant sieur le sire Anthoine de Ponts, Chevalier des ordres du Roy, Capitaine des cents gentils-hommes, et conseiller tres fidele de sa majeste. A Paris, Chez Martin le Jeune, a l’enseigne du Serpent, devant le college de Cambray. 1580. Avec Privilege Du Roy. Winthrop’s copy is currently in the collections of the New-York Society Library, and is listed as catalogue number 196 in Roland Sterne Wilkinson, “The Alchemical Library of John Winthrop, Jr. (1606–1676) and His Descendants in Colonial America, Part IV: The Catalogue of Books,” Ambix 13, no. 3 (October 1966): 174. The history of this volume and of the large segment of Winthrop the Younger’s original alchemical library that descended through the Winthrop and Bayard families to the Society in December 1812 is told in Helen T. Farah, “The Winthrop Collection,” New-York Society Library typescript LS K6011x, December 1965; Samuel Eliot Morison, “Statement on the Winthrop Collection,” New-York Society Library typescript, Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 22, 1935; Herbert Greenberg, “Some Aspects of the Winthrop Library,” New-York Society Library typescript, January 1935; id., “The Authenticity of the Library of John Winthrop the Younger,” American Literature 8, no. 4 (January 1937): 448–52; Austin Baxter Keep, History of the New-York Society Library (Boston: Gregg Press, 1972), 266–69; and The Minute Book of the Trustees of the New-York Society Library 2: 150–51, entry for December 4, 1812.

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