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I.1   Snail from George Wither, A Collection of Emblemes, Ancient and Moderne (1635)

1.1   Bernard Palissy and workshop, lead-glazed earthenware medallion of Constable Anne de Montmorency (ca. 1565–67)

2.1   Emblem on the title page of Tieleman Janszoon van Brachts’s Martyrer Spiegel (1748)

2.2   Rustic lead-glazed earthenware basin by a contemporary follower or school of Bernard Palissy (ca. 1560)

2.3   Johann Theodore de Bry, Integrae naturae speculum artisque imago (1617)

2.4   Title page from Elias Ashmole’s Theatrum chemicum (1652)

2.5   Alchemical furnace in the form of a fortified tower, from Philippus Ulstadius, Coelumphilosophorum (1526)

2.6   Detail of “Pourtrait de la vile et cite de Saintes, Chef de la Comte de Saintonge . . . Anno 1560”

3.1   “The Island of Ceylon,” in “Secret de l’histoire naturelle contenant les merveilles et choses memorable du monde” (ca. 1580–1600)

4.1   Power cycles in La Rochelle, 1517–1628

4.2   Morbidity and mortality in La Rochelle in 1628

4.3   The price of wheat during the siege of La Rochelle, 1628

5.1   Hans Holbein the Younger, A Wild Man Brandishing an Uprooted Tree Trunk (ca. 1528)

5.2   Bernard Palissy or a contemporary follower, Allegory of Water, 1575–1600

5.3   The “Phoenix Copperplate,” frontispiece of H. J. C. von Grimmelshausen’s Der abentheuerliche Simplicissimus (1668)

5.4   Tête de feuilles (A.D. 400)

5.5   Tête de feuilles as utterer of the word (ca. 1340)

5.6   Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther Preaching at Wittenberg (1520)

5.7   Martin Luther, Appellatio (1520), title page

5.8   Chest of drawers, Long Island Sound region, 1707–20

6.1   Title page from John Winthrop Jr.’s copy of Bernard Palissy’s Discours admirables (1580)

6.2   John Winthrop Jr.’s physician’s chair, southern coastal Connecticut or Long Island (ca. 1650–60)

6.3   Unique three-posted joined great chair, attributed to John Elderkin

6.4   John Foster, The Copernican System (1681)

6.5   The Circle of Urinary Colours, in Robert Fludd, Integrum morborum mysterium (1631)

6.6   The Physician Examines a Specimen, in Robert Fludd, Integrum morborum mysterium (1631)

6.7   Frontispiece to Jakob Böhme’s Aurora (1656)

6.8   Detail of desk interior with inlaid prospect door, New York City, ca. 1700

6.9   Flanders chest, England (ca. 1600)

6.10   Portrait of Winthrop the Younger, by an unidentified seventeenth-century artist

6.11   Jacques de Gheyn the Younger, design for a subterranean grotto for the Stadholder’s House in the Hague (1620)

6.12   Detail of a spice box door, Chester County, Pennsylvania (ca. 1730)

6.13   Spice box dated 1676, Essex County, Massachusetts

6.14   Jean-Baptiste Nini, terra-cotta medallion entitled B. Franklin Americain (1777)

6.15   Reverse of the medallion in figure 6.14

7.1   Theodore de Bry, Sex aliaflumina à Gallis observata (1591)

7.2   Conjunctio sive coitus, in Rosarium philosophorum (1550)

8.1   “The old man transformed in a dismal rock pit,” from Johann Daniel Mylius, Philosophia reformata (1622)

8.2   Early-seventeenth-century anthropomorphic lead-glazed earthenware vessel, La Chapelle-des-Pots

8.3   The Chemical Wedding of Princess Elizabeth of England and the Elector Palatine Frederick of Bohemia in 1613

8.4   Hieronymus Imhof, wager or marriage cup (ca. 1610–15)

8.5   Seven earth spirits sitting in a subterranean refuge and matrix, from Musaeum hermeticum (1625)

8.6   Early-seventeenth-century lead-glazed earthenware cosmology, La Chapelle-des-Pots

8.7   Early-seventeenth-century lead-glazed earthenware hermetic vessel, La Chapelle-des-Pots

8.8   Bernard Palissy and his workshop, rustic lead-glazed earthenware basin

8.9   Pitcher and plate, La Chapelle-des-Pots (ca. 1680)

8.10   Johann Theodore de Bry, De macrocosmi structurae, from Robert Fludd, Utriusque cosmi majoris (1624)

8.11   Porta amphitheatri sapientiae aeternae, from Heinrich Khunrath, Amphitheatrum sapientia aeternae (1609)

8.12   Monsphilosophorum, frontispiece to Denis Zacaire, Die Naturliche Philosophia (1724)

8.13   Conceptio seu putrefactio, from Rosarium philosophorum (1550)

8.14   Virgin lactating into the sea of renewal, from Daniel Stolcius de Stolcenberg, Viridarium chymicum (1624)

8.15   Paullus van der Doort, The Cabalist-Alchemist (1609)

8.16   Detail of figure 8.6

8.17   Accipe ovum et igneopercutegladio, from Michael Maier, Atalanta fugiens (1618)

8.18   Plate 9 of the Mutus liber (1677)

8.19   Elementa, from Samuel Norton, Alchymiae complementum (1630)

8.20   Visita interiora terra rectificando invenies occultum lapidem, from Basilius Valentinus, Les Douze Clefs de philosophie (1660)

8.21   Plate 15 of the Mutus liber (1677)

8.22   Dialogue Between the Alchemist and Nature (1516)

9.1   Inpatientia sauvitas (ca. 1627–28)

9.2   In patientia sauvitas from Jacobus Typotius, Symbola diuina & humanapontificum, imperatorum, regum (1652)

9.3   Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Martyrdom of St. Simon (1512)

9.4   Johann Theodore de Bry, The Grand Peregrination, from Michaelis Maieri, Viatorium (1618)

9.5   Dirck Volkhertsz Coornhert, Patientia triumphus 400

9.6   Adiumenta, from Jeremias Drexel, Heliotropium (1628)

9.7   Elias Neau in the Dungeon, from anon., A Short Account of the Life and Sufferings of Elias Neau (1749)

10.1   Edward Howes, marginalia in a letter to John Winthrop Jr., London, January 22, 1627

10.2   Reconstruction and translation of drawing in figure 10.1

10.3   Rustic tin-glazed earthenware “Palissy dish” (ca. 1630–65)

10.4   Tin-glazed earthenware “Palissy fecundity dish,” inscribed “1633 Stephen: Fortune: &: Elizabeth”

10.5   “Four dancing children” from Paracelsus’s Propheceien und Weissagungen (1549)

10.6   Johann Theodore de Bry, Metaphysical and Physical Science of the Pyramids, from Robert Fludd, Utruisque cosmi majoris (1624)

10.7   Homo sanus, from Robert Fludd, Medicina catholica (1629)

10.8   Hostilis munimenti salutis invadendi typus, from Robert Fludd, Integrum morborum mysterium (1631)

10.9   John Winthrop Jr., plans for a colonial fortress (ca. 1630)

10.10   John Winthrop Jr., design for a large courtyarded dwelling

11.1   Lead-glazed ceramic alembic, Martin’s Hundred, Virginia (ca. 1620)

11.2   Samuel King, Portrait of Ezra Stiles (1771)

11.3   Anagram of “Johanes Winthrop” with the “th” surmounted by Dee’s monas sign (1642)

14.1   William Hogarth, Noon, L’Eglise des Grecs, Hog Lane, Soho (1736)

14.2   Automaton in the form of a nef, with a side removed to reveal its hidden clockwork mechanism (ca. 1580)

14.3   Plate 1 from William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty (1753)

14.4   Title page from William Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty (1753)

14.5   Jan Luyken, Vervolging in Rochell (ca. 1661)

14.6   Maltese cross with descending dove, monument to six Huguenot martyrs, Fort Réal, Ile de Sainte-Marguerite

14.7   Johann Theodore de Bry, title page of Robert Fludd’s De naturae simia seu technia macrocosmi historia (1618)

14.8   Johann Theodore de Bry, title page of Robert Fludd’s De technica microcosmi historia (1619)

14.9   Johann Theodore de Bry, geomantic escutcheons from Robert Fludd’s Utriusque cosmi majoris (1617)

14.10   William Hogarth, The Bench (1758)

14.11   The Universal Tincture as an African King (seventeenth century)

14.12   William Hogarth, Hogarth’s Cottage (1786)

14.13   William Hogarth, Tail Piece, or The Bathos (1764)

14.14   William Hogarth, The Times (1762)

14.15   Johann Theodore de Bry, Theatrum orbi, from Robert Fludd, Utriusque cosmi majoris (1617)

14.16   François Perrin, title page from Clément Marot and Théodore de Bèze, Les Pseaumes mis en rime Françoise (1562)

14.17   Johann Theodore de Bry, title page of Ars memoriae, in Robert Fludd’s Utriusque cosmi majoris (1617)

14.18   Léonard de la Reau, architect, Hôtel de Ville, La Rochelle (ca. 1544)

14.19   Seal of La Rochelle attached to a document dated 1437

14.20   Sixteenth-century échauguette at Brouage

14.21   Claude Masse, detail of the Coupe et profil du Grand Temple de La Rochelle (ca. 1717)

14.22   Pulpit of the First Church in Albany, New York, 1656–57

14.23   Désert pulpit (ca. 1690–1720)

14.24   Court cupboard, northern Essex County, Massachusetts (1680)

14.25   Court cupboard (ca. 1715)

14.26   Salt-glazed stoneware mug with applied decoration, inscribed “Jan Allers 1594”

14.27   “De anim. Memorat. Scient.,” from Robert Fludd, Utriusque cosmi majoris (1617)

14.28   Court cupboard, coastal Connecticut, 1690–1710

14.29   Detail of pierced openwork lead-glazed earthenware vase, La Chapelle-des-Pots, France (ca. 1590–1625)

14.30   Joseph Hollamore, lead-glazed earthenware harvest jug (1764)

14.31   Detail of the lower cupboard door in figure 14.28

14.32   Georges de la Tour, Saint Joseph the Carpenter (ca. 1640)

14.33   Masonic master’s chair (ca. 1765–70)

14.34   Barthélemy Berton, title page of Bernard Palissy’s Recepte veritable (1563, 1564)

14.35   Johann Martin Bernigeroth, Assembly of French Masons for the Reception of Masters, from Les Coutumes des francs-maçons dans leur assemblées (ca. 1745)

14.36   Benjamin Franklin, The Anatomy of Man’s Body as Govern’d by the Twelve Constellations, from Poor Richard Improved (1764)

15.1   Boston leather side chair (ca. 1700)

15.2   Side chair, Boston, 1650–1700

15.3   Side chair, New York City, 1705–10

15.4   Side chair, Boston, 1690–1705

15.5   Side chair, New York City, 1660–1700

15.6   Side chair, New York City, 1660–1700

15.7   Side chair, New York City, 1660–85

15.8   Side chair, New York City, 1685–1700

15.9   Grand chair, New York City, 1680–95

15.10   Escritoire, New York City or northern Kings County, 1685–95

15.11   Detail of the finial of the grand chair illustrated in figure 15.9

15.12   Detail of a drawer pull on a kas, New York City or northern Kings County (ca. 1700–40)

15.13   Detail of the understructure of the trapezoidal seat of the grand chair illustrated in figure 15.9

15.14   Side chair, Boston or New York City (ca. 1700)

15.15   Detail of the understructure of the side chair illustrated in figure 15.14

15.16   Side chair, New York City, 1700–25

15.17   Detail of the “French hollow” back of the side chair illustrated in figure 15.16

15.18   Caned chair, London (ca. 1700)

15.19   Side chair, New York City (ca. 1700)

15.20   Side chair, New York City (ca. 1700)

15.21   Joined great chair, New York, 1650–1700

15.22   Armchair, New York City, 1705–10

15.23   Armchair, New York City (ca. 1705–10)

15.24   Armchair, New York City, 1705–10

15.25   Side chair, New York City, 1705–10

15.26   Composite detail showing the crest rails of the chairs illustrated in figs. 15.23, 15.24, and 15.25 and the stretcher of the chair illustrated in figure 15.22

15.27   Armchair, New York City (ca. 1700–10)

15.28   Details of oak baptismal screen in the church of Saint-Étienne, Ars-en-Ré, Île de Ré, 1625–27

15.29   Black chair, Long Island Sound region, 1705–30

15.30   Black great chair, probably Tarrytown, Westchester County, 1705–30

15.31   Couch, New York City or coastal Rhode Island, 1700–15

15.32   Detail of early-eighteenth-century oak confessional in the church of Sainte-Catherine, Loix, Ars-en-Ré, Île de Ré

15.33   Side chair attributed to Pierre or Andrew Durand, Milford, Connecticut, 1710–40

15.34   Enclosed pine pew with carved door, Église d’ Esnandes, Aunis, France (ca. 1740–50)

15.35   Side chair, London, 1685–1700

15.36   Side chair, London (ca 1690–1700)

15.37   Side chair, New York City, 1685–1700

15.38   Details of three carved panels in the choir screen in the church of Saint-Étienne, Ars-en-Ré, Ile de Ré (ca. 1629)

15.39   Details of one of the earliest panels in the choir screen (fig. 15.38) in the church of Saint-Étienne, Ars-en-Ré, Ile de Ré (ca. 1580)

15.40   Joined great chair, probably New York City (ca. 1675)

15.41   Composite diagram of the New York side chair illustrated in figure 15.3

15.42   Flow diagram representing the formal reversal and redirection of turning patterns on the Boston and New York plain leather chairs

16.1   Friends meetinghouse, Flushing, Long Island

16.2   The John Bowne House, Flushing, Long Island

16.3   Oval table with falling leaves, or “draw-bar table,” area of Kingston, New York (ca. 1740)

16.4   (a) Detail of draw bar slide mechanism underneath the top of the table shown in figure 16.3; (b) loper, or “draw bar,” from a similar table from the same or a related shop

16.5   Van Cortlandt family table, New York City (ca. 1700)

16.6   Staircase in the Arsenal of the citadel at Saint-Martin de Ré, Île de Ré, 1681–85

16.7   Engraving of the mechanism from a Parisian “table with sliding leaves” (ca. 1580–1600)

16.8   Dining table, unidentified New York cabinetmaker

16.9   Detail of the “French Ship Y[ar]d,” engraved by Thomas Johnson or Charles le Roux (ca. 1730)

16.10   Brackets from the Friends meetinghouse, Flushing, New York

16.11   Tea table, Flushing, Long Island (ca. 1690–1720)

16.12   Great chair, western Long Island, probably Flushing, or New York City, 1660–90

16.13   Joined great chair, northwest shore, Long Island, possibly Huntington, 1720–40

16.14   Joined great chair, Huntington, Long Island, 1720–40

16.15   Interior view of the gallery of Brigflatts Friends Meeting House, Cumbria

16.16   Samuel Clement, Flushing, Long Island, June 1726. Inscription behind the lower central drawer in the base of the high chest of drawers in figure 16.17

16.17   Samuel Clement, high chest of drawers, Flushing, Long Island (1726)

16.18   Oak kas, New York City or western Long Island, 1650–70

16.19   Chest of drawers, New York area, probably New York City, 1685–1715

16.20   Stand, Flushing, Long Island, 1720–30

16.21   Page of exercises from Étienne de Blégny, Les Elemens; ou, premieres instructions de la jeunesse (1702)

16.22   Tea table, New York City, ca. 1700

16.23   “The figure of the Indians fort or Palizado in NEW ENGLAND And the maner of the destroying It by Captayne Underhill and Captayne Mason” (1638)

16.24   Portrait of Petrus Stuyvesant, attributed to Henri Couturier (ca. 1661–62)

16.25   Title page from Jean Berger’s design book for Boston tradesmen (1718)

17.1   Joseph Leddell Sr., copper sundial (1751)

17.2   Christopher Colles, copper and iron sundial, 1774–1816

17.3   French Huguenot silver beaker depicting the devil leading the pope and the pretender into the mouth of hell, made in France, around the time of the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, and engraved by Joseph Leddell Sr. in New York City in 1750

17.4   Unknown artist in the circle of Gerardus Duyckinck I, Romulus and Remus Received into the Household of the Shepherd Faustulus and His Wife Acca Larentia (ca. 1700–30) 918

2   Eastern New York Colony and the Long Island Sound Region

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