publisher colophon

247Index

Page numbers in italics denote figures; those in boldface type denote tables.

African Americans: and American culture, 8, 16

and musical skills, 16, 101

prejudices against, 14, 76, 101, 229n. 60

as prominent musicians, 15–16, 60, 76, 100, 208n. 16

and record ban, 235n. 49

and studio work, 100–102

and unionization, 14–15, 30–31, 101, 102, 224n. 34, 235n. 49

All-Industry Music Committee (AIMC), 178, 182, 190,

Amateur musicians, 9, 207n. 13

American Broadcasting Company (ABC), 71, 218n. 32

American Federation of Labor (AFL), 21–22, 24–25, 107. See also Gompers, Samuel; Trade unionism in America

American Federation of Musicians (AFM): artist vs. worker controversy, 26

compared to building trades organizations, 8, 26

and democracy, 24, 145, 185

early leaders, 210n. 42

and early radio, 66–67

established, 24–27

executive board members in 1940s, 129

FM and television, 165–67, 177–78, 187, 236n. 8

and foreign orchestras, 29–30

military bands, 28–29

proposals to regulate radio and recording:—1933–34, 83–84

—1937–38, 109, 112–16

—1941, 133

—1942, 153–54

proposes “tax” on films, 121

and race relations, 30, 101, 224n. 34

and remotes, 68, 129–30, 133–33

response to sound films, 51–54

retreats on National Plan, 126

structure of, 24, 33–35, 209nn. 33–35

and transcriptions, 225n. 36

traveling bands, 30

wins concessions: —in 1938, 116–17

—in 1943–44, 155, 158–59

—in 1948, 191. See also American Federation of Musicians, individual locals; American Federation of Musicians, membership patterns; Local 47, Los Angeles; Petrillo, James C.; Wages; Weber, Joseph N.; Work rules; Working conditions

American Federation of Musicians, individual locals: Baltimore (Local 40), 26, 135

Boston (Local 9), 30, 40

Boston (Local 535), 31–32

Chicago (Local 10), 50, 52–53, 66, 84, 126, 173

Chicago (Local 208), 30

Columbus (Local 103), 40–41

Kansas City (Local 34), 66, 135

Los Angeles (Local 767), 101–2

Memphis (Local 71), 135

Milwaukee (Local 8), 52, 176–77

Minneapolis (Local 73); 135

New Orleans (Local 174), 52, 109

New York (Local 802), 109, 111, 176, 210n. 37

Philadelphia (Local 77), 26, 55, 77, 84, 221–22n. 6

Pittsburgh (Local 60), 133–34, 150

Richmond (Local 123), 129

Sacramento (Local 12), 177

Salinas (Local 616), 133

San Francisco (Local 6), 39, 52, 118, 135

St. Paul (Local 30), 129

Toledo (Local 176), 176

Washington (Local 161), 56–57, 83

Winona (Local 453), 133 See also American Federation of Musicians, membership patterns; Chicago; Local 47, Los Angeles; New York

American Federation of Musicians, membership patterns: 1896–1956, 203–4

in 1900, 26

1918–28, 39

1928–34, 84

in 1936, 108–9

1936–42, 135

1944–48, 176–77

in selected locals, 39, 196

American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP): compared to AFM, 138

early history, 66

and NAB, 81

supports AFM, 111

American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), 67, 104–5

Armstrong, Edwin H., 13

Arnold, Thurman: early career, 121, 227n. 31

files complaint against AFM, 141

and film industry, 123

heads Antitrust Division, 121

and Sherman Act, 125

testifies against AFM practices, 143, 146, 233n. 21

Atkins, Lenny, 98, 189

Bagley, Charles, 113, 129

Baldwin, James J., 114

Baltimore, 11, 20

Barnes, John P., 149

Basie, William “Count,” 103, 132

Bernie, Ben, 73, 102

Big bands: and AFM membership, 176

and jukebox, 78

rise of, 73–74

and transcriptions, 79–80

and vocalists, 75–76

Bingham, Herbert M., 150

Black, Hugo, 174

Boren, Lyle H., 169

Boston, 20, 31–32, 40

Brady, Will, 138–39, 190

Bremer, Alexander, 23–24

Brenner, J. J., 133–34, 150

Broadcast Music Incorporated (BMI), 138, 219n. 50

Bushell, Garvin, 76

Bushkin, Joe, 134–35

Calloway, Cab, 76, 100

Capehart, Homer E., 171

Capitalism: and the future, 200

and musicians, 57, 148, 151, 194–95

two-sided nature of, 5

and unions, 11

welfare capitalism, 8–9. See also Technological change

Capper, Arthur, 171

Carter, Gaylord, 40, 51

Caruso, Enrico, 62, 216n. 7

Case, Theodore, 1

Casey, Pat, 122

Celler, Emanuel, 170

Chicago: race relations, 30

and radio, 66, 173, 238n. 36

and record companies, 84, 126

and sound movies, 50–53

and theaters, 37–38, 56

and trade unionism, 80, 127

Clark, D. Worth, 143, 150

Cleveland, Ohio, 12, 14, 19, 72

Cole, Nat “King,” 75

Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS): early history, 69–70, 218n. 30

and remote broadcasting, 129, 134. See also Paley, William S.; Radio industry

Columbus, Ohio, 13, 18, 40–41

Communications Act of 1934, 77, 108

Composers and studios: and King Kong, 96

nature of work, 94–96, 223n. 19

well-known composers, 95–96

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 118

Consumers of music: and first record ban, 148–49

growing numbers of, 7–8

Petrillo recognizes preferences, 161

pressure musicians, 19

role in sound revolution, 198

and sound films, 49–50, 120–21

Coontz, Edward C., 146–47

Cooperation among employers: AIMC, 178

during record bans, 148, 156, 178, 182

in 1930s, 80–81, 111. See also Divisions among employers

Copyright laws, 133, 190, 241n. 57

Cox, Eugene, 171

Crumit, Frank, 87

Currier, Charles M., 21

Davis, Elmer, 143

Day, Doris, 75

De Forest, Lee, 2

Decca Records, 78, 102, 111, 153, 156–57

Diamond, Milton, 113, 183–84, 191, 240n. 48

Dickson, William, K. L., 2

Divisions among employers: and first record ban, 152, 156

networks vs. affiliates, 115. See also Cooperation, among employers

Divisions among musicians: big city vs. small town, 148

during second record ban, 188–89

lifestyles, 104

and NAPA 87

race, ethnicity, and gender, 14–19, 22–24, 101

studio work, 105–6. See also Solidarity among musicians

Dollins, Al, 147

Dondero, George, 169

Dorsey, Jimmy, 105

Dorsey, Tommy, 78, 129, 134

Edison, Thomas, 1, 61

Education, musical: and apprenticeship, 4

and recordings, 61

and women, 18, 212n. 9

Ellington, Duke, 74, 100, 130

Ellsworth, Harris, 169–70

Employment patterns: centralization of jobs, 57, 71–72, 90, 148, 195

and film studios, 88–89, 164, 240n. 48

and future of musicianship, 54, 112

hotels, nightclubs, and restaurants, 31–32, 102, 212n. 10

in radio, 73, 104, 107, 144, 164, 188, 198, 199, 235–36n. 1

in recording, 102, 164

in theaters, 33, 37–39, 88

Ethnicity: and studios, 100, 101–2

and unionization, 18–19, 208n. 22, 210n. 42

Federal Communications Commission (FCC): and Blue Book, 168

on musical employment, 144–45, 232n. 17

and National Plan, 125

origins of, 77

reverses policy on AM-FM duplication, 165

Federal Radio Commission (FRC), 77, 219n. 42

Fessenden, Reginald, 1, 63

Film industry: early history, 2, 34

and growing size of theaters, 56

profits: —in 1930s, 48, 55, 119, 121, 123

—in 1940s, 240n. 48

reliance on live music, 34–37, 88–89

and theater ownership, 227n. 28

transition to sound, 47–50, 214nn. 29–32. See also Employment patterns; Strikes; Unemployment among musicians; Wages; Working conditions

Fischer, Phil, 179–80, 198

Fleming, Bob, 104, 167, 190

Fly, James L., 135, 143–45, 232n. 17

Forbstein, Leo, 92

Foreign orchestras, 29–30, 211nn. 46–47

Frequency modulation (FM): in collective bargaining, 165–66, 177–78, 180, 187

in congressional debates, 169–70

developed, 132, 165

FCC reverses policy, 165

Gabler, Milton, 156

Galbraith, John Kenneth, 81

Gamble, Thomas, 128–29

Gardner, Samuel, 61

Gillette, J. W., 90

Gold, Ernest, 94–95

Gompers, Samuel, 22, 24

Goodman, Benny, 80, 134

Government: antitrust laws, 112–13

early radio, 77, 83

and employer associations, 80

and Great Depression, 117–19

ideology, 173, 199

impact of congressional elections, 145–46, 163

injunctions against labor, 52–53

legislators criticize Petrillo, 169–70, 182

NAPA, 86–87

proper role of, 3, 199–200

and radio ownership, 171–72, 237nn. 18–19

and record ban of 1942–44, 141, 155, 157–58

Great Depression, 71, 85, 117–18, 119, 123

Griffith, D. W., 94, 223n. 16

Gruen, Henry, 98, 128

Gurney, Chad, 171

Hartley, Fred A., 174, 181, 182

Hayden, A. C., 56, 83

Heifetz, Jascha, 156

Hendrickson, Al, 91, 93

Herman, Woody, 80, 129

Hierarchy in the workplace: sidemen and leaders, 11

in studios, 91, 94, 99

and technological change, 194, 200

in theaters, 45–46

Hild, Oscar, 129

Hilman, Roc, 167, 190

Hinton, Milt, 76

Hiring process: leader’s role, 11–12

in studios, 91, 222n. 11, 224n. 27

in theaters, 40

Hitchcock, Bill, 138–39, 232n. 18

Hokanson, Nels, 9

Holifield, Chet, 170

Hoover, Herbert, 63, 211n. 47, 217n. 11

Hubbard, Stanley E., 141

Humphreys, Dorothy S., 64–65

Identity: artist vs. worker controversy, 22–24, 26, 28

black musicians, 31

corporate psyche, 111–12

social alienation, 194

in studios, 100

Ideology: communism, 172

irreconcilable positions, 154

labor’s point of view, 114–15, 185

lawmakers’ view, 173, 199

management’s view, 111–12, 123. See also Language and labor

Independent Radio Network Affiliates (IRNA), 124, 228n. 38

Interlochen incident, 141–43

International Alliance of Theatrical and Stage Employees (IATSE), 175

Jensen, Peter L., 1

Johnson, Lyndon B., 171

Joplin, Scott, 8

Jukeboxes: developed, 78, 225n. 2, 229n. 55

and first record ban, 147

impact on employment, 78, 107, 130

in late 1930s, 108, 130, 131, 232–33n. 20

profits from, 153, 240n. 48

“telephone” jukebox, 132. See also Record industry

Kansas City, Mo., 25

Kapp, Jack, 156

Kaufman, Louis, 93–94, 222–23n. 15

Kaye, Sidney, 113, 139, 153

Kearns, Carroll D., 181

Keough, Austin, 120

Keppard, Freddie, 61

Kesten, Paul, 153, 166–67

Knowland, William F., 171

Krupa, Gene, 129, 134

Kyser, Kay, 98, 139, 224n. 26

La Buy, Walter J., 174, 181, 237n. 24

Language and labor: role in labor conflict, 6, 137, 149, 195

in studios, 100. See also Identity; Ideology

Le Poidevin, Harry, 147

Lea, Clarence, 171

Lea Act: criticized by musicians, 171, 173

impact, 173, 198

signed by Truman, 171

terms of, 169

Lee, Helen, 44–45

Lewis, John, 118, 170, 176

Local 47, Los Angeles: and casual work, 103

Central Labor Council, 89

efforts to spread work, 106

origins and growth, 89–90; 222n. 6

and radio work, 98–99, 223n. 23, 237–38n. 38

traveling bands, 106. See also Los Angeles

Lombardo, Guy, 73, 86, 97

Los Angeles: as media center, 88–90, 215n. 54

nightclubs, 102

and race relations, 100–102

radio, 97, 238–39n. 36

record companies, 102, 224n. 35

theaters and theater musicians, 40, 88. See also Local 47, Los Angeles

Los Madrugadores, 102

Marcantonio, Vito, 170–71, 237n. 16

McPartland, Jimmy, 61

McTammany, John, 35

Mexican Americans, 100–102

Military bands, 28–29

Miller, Justin, 168, 171, 182

Miller, Neville: on impact of record ban, 146, 233n. 22

supported by industry leaders, 153

testifies against AFM, 146, 233n. 22

Miller, Owen, 23, 25, 27

Milwaukee, 20, 37, 52, 176–77

Moore, Colleen, 94

Moore, H. P., 54

Mullen, Frank E., 153, 238n. 35

Music: 1880–1920, 8

in 1920s, 60

1930s–40s, 73–74, 78, 103

and cultural hierarchy, 23

sideline work, 94

and silent films, 42–43

and sound films, 96

Music Operators of America, 190

Music Performance Trust Fund: established, 191

importance of, 191–92, 196–97, 242n. 4

and Taft-Hartley Act, 175–76, 191, 241n. 61. See also Record ban of 1948

Musical Mutual Protective Union (MMPU), 11

Musicians’ National Protective Association (MNPA), 20–21

Mutual Broadcasting System (MBS): established, 70

and remotes, 129, 134

Muzak Corporation, 108, 153

National Association of Broadcasters (NAB): and Blue Book, 168

and BMI, 219n. 50

in collective bargaining, 111–15

coordinates antilabor campaign, 139

IRNA, 112, 124

lobbies Congress, 141

origins and early structure, 80–82

and the press, 197

and public relations, 81, 139

rejects “fixed fee” proposal, 154–55

reorganized in 1939, 124, 228n. 38

structure in 1950, 219–20n. 51, 230–31n. 4

National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), 80–81, 175, 197

National Association of Performing Artists (NAPA), 86–87

National Broadcasting Company (NBC): early history, 69

prepares for FM and television, 165

and remotes, 134

structure of, 71

and transcriptions, 79

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), 190–91, 241n. 56

National League of Musicians (NLM): decline, 25–26, 210n. 37

origins, 20–21

and trade unionism, 21–24

National Plan of Settlement, 115–16, 124–26

New Orleans, 52, 109

New York, Local 802 threatens strike, 111

as media center, 57–58, 72

and sound films, 56, 58

and theaters, 37–38

and unionization, 20–21, 30, 37, 210n. 37

Newspapers: and campaign to save theater jobs, 54

owned by broadcasters, 140, 183, 231n. 6

and sound revolution, 197

vilify Petrillo, 139–40, 184, 197

Nightclubs: in Boston, 31–32

casual vs. studio work, 103

drugs and alcohol, 103–4

in Los Angeles, 102

Nixon, Richard M., 182

Noble, Ray, 80, 87, 97

O’Konski, Alvin E., 171

Olsen, George, 73

Padway, Joseph, 145, 172–73, 185

Paley, William S., 70, 82, 172, 218n. 30, 220n. 52

Petrillo, James C.: announces record bans, 135, 177

apologizes at 1948 convention, 190–91

appreciates union solidarity, 130

calls for strikes in radio, 128–30, 133–34, 150

Chicago years, 50–51, 66, 84, 113, 126

early life, 127

elected AFM president, 126

and FDR, 158–59, 230n. 64

FM and television, 166, 177–78, 187–88

on industrial change, 126–27, 151, 161

and Interlochen incident, 141–43

makes concessions to employers, 152, 187–88, 239n. 38

and patriotism, 140, 145, 151

praised, 128, 183–85

and the press, 139–40, 183–84, 197

on proper role of government, 199

testifies before House committee, 182–83

testifies before Senate committee, 150–52

threatens strikes, 52, 84, 150, 177

as viewed by lawmakers, 145, 169–70, 182

Philadelphia, 20, 55, 77, 84, 221–22n. 6

Phillips, John, 171

Photoplayers, 34–37, 212n. 5

Pittsburgh, 134–35, 150

Player pianos, 35–37

Porter, Paul, 165, 168

Pressley, A. L., 147

Pridham, Edwin S., 1

Rabin, Benjamin J., 170

Race relations. See African Americans

Radio Act of 1927, 77

Radio Corporation of America (RCA): buys Victor Records, 77

creates RCA-Thesaurus, 79

and first record ban, 156

in Los Angeles, 102

and NBC, 69

and organized labor, 119

prepares for second record ban (RCA-Victor), 179

promotes licensing plan, 115

Radio industry: and commercial sponsorship, 67

cooperative vs. participating programs, 239n. 37

early development of, 1–2, 63, 67

nature of early programming, 64, 67, 70

and network broadcasting, 2, 69

prepares for FM and television, 165–67

profits: —in 1920s, 69, 217nn. 22

—in 1930s, 71, 125

—in 1940s, 240n. 48

and program directors, 99–100

and remotes, 68–69, 73

structural changes in 1930s, 71–72, 104, 115–16

sustaining vs. commercial programs, 98, 238–39n. 36. See also Employment patterns; Wages; Work rules; Working conditions

Radio stations: KELW, 101

KFI, 190

KFWB, 75, 85, 99, 220n. 63

KHI, 64

KHJ, 71, 218n. 31

KLX, 237n. 18

KMPC, 99

KPAS, 237n. 18

KRNR, 237n. 18

KQV, 133–34

KTSP, 129, 141

WAAF, 173–74, 181

WABC, 70

WAGA, 181

WBAV, 64

WBEN, 124, 228n. 38

WCAH, 64

WCTS, 237n. 18

WDAS, 86

WEAF, 67, 68, 69, 218nn. 27–28

WEAN, 64

WFAA, 67

WFI, 64

WFIL, 152

WGN, 71

WIBW, 237n. 18

WJAS, 133–34

WJEF, 237n. 18

WJZ, 65, 67, 69, 218n. 27

WKBW, 181

WKRZ, 237n. 187

WKZO, 237n. 18

WLIN, 237n. 18

WLW, 71

WNAC, 68

WNAX, 227n. 18

WOR, 71

WPEN, 181

WRVA, 129

WTAR, 147

WTMV, 181

WXYZ, 71

Record ban (1942–44): capitulation of industry leaders, 158, 160

Decca capitulates, 155–56

international support, 234n. 38

NAB criticizes, 146, 233n. 22

Petrillo announces, 135

Petrillo’s evaluation, 160

and the press, 139–40

resumption of production, 157

Roosevelt’s involvement, 157–59

significance, 137, 157, 161

and small business, 146–47, 233n. 23

solidarity among musicians, 138–39

Supreme Court supports union, 155

terms of settlement, 155, 235n. 48

War Labor Board, 157

Record ban (1948): and labor solidarity, 166–67, 179, 188–90

Petrillo announces, 178

pressures to end, 188–90

settlement and terms, 191

significance, 191

and Taft-Hartley Act, 188, 238n. 26

and transcription companies, 241n. 56

Record industry: early history, 1–2, 59–60

jukeboxes, 60, 108, 153, 232–33n. 20

in Los Angeles, 102

sales and profits: —1929–33, 77–78

—1935–42, 228n. 41

—in 1940s, 153, 240n. 48

and transcriptions, 78–79. See also Record ban (1942–44); Record ban (1948); Wages; Work rules; Working conditions

Record and Transcription Fund: established, 155–56

importance, 157, 160–161, 192, 196–97. See also Record ban (1942–44)

Remote broadcasting: beginnings, 68, 73

musicians’ perspective, 128, 130

strikes, 129–30, 133–34, 150

and work rules, 133

Rey, Alvino, 132

Ringling Brothers’ Circus, 133, 229–30n. 60

Rivers, L. Mendel, 170

Roosevelt, Franklin D.: appoints Arnold, 121

and AT&T, 105

New Deal, 85

and Petrillo, 158–59, 230n. 65

Rosenbaum, Samuel R., 125, 152–53, 191, 234n. 35

Ruhe, C. H., 24

Sabath, Adolf J., 170

Samuels, William Everett, 30

San Francisco, 39, 52, 118, 135

Sanjek, Russell, 179, 238n. 33

Sarnoff, David, 66, 172

Schenck, Nicholas, 120

Schubert, J. J., 50

Shapiro, Eudice, 92–93

Shaw, Artie, 102, 130

Sherman Act, 84, 112–13, 115, 125

Sinatra, Frank, 74–75

Skill levels: improvisation, 14, 101

sight-reading, 93

stage presence, 14, 45–46

and union rules, 14. See also Education, musical

Smith, Art, 91, 222n. 13

Solidarity among musicians: during record bans, 138–39, 166–67, 179, 188–90

race, gender, and ethnicity, 14–19

radio strikes, 130. See also Divisions among musicians

Spitz, Leo B., 120

Standby fees: in radio, 105, 167, 228–29n. 45

and Supreme Court, 231n. 10

and Taft-Hartley Act, 175, 238n. 26

Steiner, Max, 96

Stevens, Ernest L., 61

Strikes: in Gilded Age, 22, 32

in radio, 129–30, 133–34, 150, 173–74

in theaters, 40, 50, 52–53

threatened by Local 802, 111

threatened by Petrillo, 52, 150, 177

threatened by Weber, 110, 113–14, 124

and World War II, 162. See also Record ban (1942–44); Record ban (1948)

Studio Basic Agreement of 1926, 89

Studio contractors, 90–91, 105

Studio Producers Committee, 119–23

Sweet, Blanche, 94

Taft, David G., 172

Taft, Hulbert, Jr., 172

Taft, Robert A.: criticizes AFM practices, 175

introduces Taft-Hartley bill, 174

investments in radio, 171–72

Taft-Hartley Act: background, 174–75

significance for musicians, 175–76, 188, 198, 238n. 26., 241n. 61

Truman vetoes, 175

Technological change: and business history, 48, 197–98

employer’s point of view, 122–23, 141, 182, 197, 200

and future of labor, 6, 200–201

identity and psychological impact, 57–58, 100, 194

lawmakers’ point of view, 172–73, 199

and Luddism, 34, 53, 141, 146, 168

Petrillo’s view, 126–27, 151, 154, 161

and the press, 141, 184

Weber’s view, 51, 62–63, 69

and work, 3, 32, 61, 93, 194

TeGroen, John, 101, 106

Television: and AFM policy, 165–66, 177–78, 187

developed, 132

Petrillo accused of blocking, 182

Theater organs, 43–45, 213nn. 18–19

Thomas, Henry, 16

Tiomkin, Dimitri, 164

Trade unionism in America: during Great Depression, 117–19

in Gilded Age and Progressive Era, 11, 19–20, 22, 32

and “make-work” issue, 145–46

in 1940s, 140, 162–63, 172

and use of injunctions, 52–53

and women, 17

Trammell, Niles, 166, 238n. 35

Transcriptions: and AFM policy, 102, 225n. 36

big bands, 79–80

developed, 78–79, 219n. 46

leading companies, 79, 111, 155, 241n. 56. See also Record industry

Traveling bands: big bands, 74–75

in Los Angeles, 105

and union rules, 30, 211nn. 48–49, 225n. 44. See also Big bands

Tremaine, William B., 35

Truman, Harry: attitude toward labor, 163

signs Lea bill, 171, 237n. 16

vetoes Case bill, 172

vetoes Taft-Hartley Act, 175

Unemployment among musicians: FCC recognizes, 144–45, 232n. 17

losses in theaters after 1934, 107

in radio, 66, 181, 192, 198

in sound films, 33, 50, 56–58, 216n. 57

Vandenberg, Arthur H., 142, 169, 171

Velie, Lester, 190

Victor Records. See Radio Corporation of America

Victory disks, 145, 151, 232n. 18

Wages: and casual work:—in (Gilded Age), 12–13, 28

—in 1930s, 102–3

in circuses (1940s), 133

in film studios (1930s), 91, 164

and gender, 18, 45, 93

and race, 15, 101

in radio: —in 1920s, 65–66

—in 1930s, 72–73, 98, 106

—in 1940s, 164, 188, 241n. 59

at record companies

—in Progressive Era, 61–62

—in 1930s, 102, 117

—in 1940s, 135, 164, 227n. 26

and sideline work (1930s), 94

and television (1940s), 166

in theaters (1920s), 40, 41, 45–46, 50, 57, 212n. 10

Wagner Act, 118, 174, 190

War Labor Board (WLB), 157–58, 234n. 45, 237n. 25

Waring, Fred, 73, 86–87, 99

Warner, Albert, 120

Warner Bros.: profits (1930s), 119, 121, 123

and sound movies, 2, 47–48

Warner, Harry, 48

Washington, D.C., 12–13, 28, 56–57, 83

Weaver, Chauncey, 113, 129

Weber, Joseph N.: abandons tactics of accommodation, 110–14

and artist vs. worker controversy, 28

becomes AFM president, 27

criticized by rank and file, 109

early life, 27

failing health, 123

favors policies of accommodation, 84–85, 195

on impact of sound movies, 120

and Local 47, 91

proposes “tax” on films, 121

retreats on National Plan, 126

on role of government, 199

and segregation, 30

staggering employment, 85, 220n. 63

threatens strikes, 110, 113–14, 124

views on technological change, 51, 62–63, 84, 215n. 36, 216n. 59 and 69

warns CIO not to “trespass,” 118

Webster, Cliff, 106

Wheeler, Burton K., 171

Whiteman, Paul, 86–87, 96, 99

Willard, A. D. Jess, 178

Woll, J. Albert, 174

Women: in big bands, 76

in film studios, 92–93

as music teachers, 18, 206n. 5

prejudices against, 16–17

professionalization: —in 1870, 206n. 5

—in 1890, 18

in radio, 64–65

and social expectations, 18

as theater musicians, 44–45

and trade unionism, 17–18

Woods, Mark, 113, 150, 238n. 35

Work culture: dress, 46, 94, 214n. 25

drugs and alcohol, 104

love of performing, 10, 64

pride in work, 45

stress, 61, 93

and unionization, 13–14. See also Solidarity among musicians

Work rules: in Cleveland (1864), 12

in Columbus (1921), 41

and dress of musicians, 46, 94, 214n. 25

in film studios, 90

and gender, 18

in nightclubs and hotels, 102–3

nonunion musicians, 13, 21, 28, 207n. 12

race relations, 101

in radio, 66–67, 98

in theaters, 41, 46

traveling bands, 30, 211nn. 48–49, 225n. 44

Working conditions: in big bands, 74, 76

casual vs. studio work, 103

in circuses, 9

in film studios, 91, 93, 222n. 13

leaders vs. sidemen, 11

in radio, 64, 73, 98–99

in recording, 61, 134–35

sideline work, 94

in theaters: 9–10, 39–41, 44–46

Wurlitzer, Rudolf, 35. See also Theater organs

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Related ISBN
9781421429168
MARC Record
OCLC
1048204482
Pages
247-253
Launched on MUSE
2018-08-15
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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