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THIS STUDY has benefited from the knowledge and advice of many people. Edwin Perkins guided it through the dissertation stage at the University of Southern California with intelligence and care. Steven Ross, who also served on my dissertation committee, helped improve the early drafts in his own thoughtful ways. Richard Jewell of the USC Cinema School, Terry Seip, and Frank Mitchell also read and commented on all or parts of the dissertation drafts, and Doyce Nunis, Jr., pointed me to valuable resources. I am deeply indebted to these and other scholars at USC for their generosity and counsel.

Turning the dissertation into a book entailed new obligations. At Ohio State University I encountered an especially sharp group of business and labor historians who offered new direction and inspiration. David Sicilia read an earlier version of the manuscript and made many valuable suggestions. Mansel Blackford and Warren Van Tine went over selected chapters and alerted me to inconsistencies as well as additional sources. At the University of Hawaii I have had the opportunity to work in an equally supportive environment. I am particularly grateful to Robert Locke and Idus Newby for reading and rereading drafts of the book to my advantage.

I wish to thank librarians and archivists at the University of Southern California; the Academy of Motion Pictures, Arts, and Sciences; the University of California at Los Angeles; the University of California at Berkeley; the University of Puget Sound; the Ohio State University; the Ohio Historical Society; the Cleveland Public Library; the AFL-CIO Economic Research Department; and the University of Hawaii Library. I also wish to thank Serena Williams, Bill Peterson, Ed Ward, Sue-Ellen Hershman, Thelma Stewart, and Mark Massagli of the American Federation of Musicians; and Lee Petrillo, Milton Gabler, John TeGroen, Phil Fischer, Lenny Atkins, Eudice Shapiro, Henry Gruen, Al Hendrickson, Art Smith, Helen Lee, Jack Bunch, Roc Hilman, Richard Taesch, Rocky Jackson, Robb Navrides, Bob Fleming, Will Brady, Buddy Peterson, Bill Hitchcock, and Robert Alder, each of whom I interviewed in the course of my research.

For the photographs included herein, I am grateful to Dace Miller, Ned Comstock, Peter Lloyd Jones, Bill Benedict, Sarah Partridge, Marc Wannamaker, Greg Geary, Terry Geesken, Elvis Brathwaite, Vernon Will, Charles Arp, Elizabeth McCullough, Miles Kreugger, Carol Merrill-Mirsky, Jerry Anker, Lowell Angell, and Ray Avery. For permission to reproduce photographs, I wish to thank the University of Southern California, the Theatre Historical Society of America, the Case Research Lab Museum, the Bison Archives, the Chicago Sun-Times, the Ohio Historical Society, the Bettmann Archive, the Museum of Modern Art, AP/Wide World Photos, and the American Federation of Musicians. For help with tables and graphs, I thank Chris Grandy, David Ross, Billie Ikeda, Gwen Agina, and Susan Abe of the University of Hawaii, and George Potamianos and John Ahouse of USC.

The book and I have also benefited from the advice of editors and anonymous referees. Chapter 1 draws on “Artists as Workers: Musicians and Trade Unionism in America, 1880–1917,” The Musical Quarterly 79 (Fall 1995): 512–54. Chapter 2 is a reworked version of “The ‘Pit’ Musicians: Mechanization in the Movie Theaters, 1926–1934,” Labor History 35 (Winter 1994): 66–89. Chapter 4 contains material from “Musicians in Hollywood: Work and Technological Change in Entertainment Industries, 1926–1940,” Technology and Culture 35 (April 1994): 289–314. Many thanks to Thomas Levin, Daniel Leab, and Robert Post, editors at these journals, for their guidance. I also wish to express my sincere thanks to the editorial team of Robert Brugger, Philip Scranton, and Mary Yates, who helped me turn the manuscript into a book with consummate skill.

In the course of completing this project, I received financial assistance from the John and Dora Haynes Foundation, the University of Southern California, the Ohio State University, and the University of Hawaii. On a more personal level, I wish to thank Louise McReynolds, Kenneth Lipartito, Michael Speidel, Arthur Verge, and Sheldon Anderson for their help, and all the friends who offered good cheer and moral support during the past decade. My most heartfelt thanks belong to my wife, Reneé, whose special contribution to my work is more important than words can say.

All errors of fact or interpretation, of course, are mine alone.

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