publisher colophon

367Index

accidents, 2n4, 99

accountability: of agencies, 8, 11, 300

in Argentina, 80, 239, 258

in Buenos Aires Province, 258, 263–64

capacity of, 322

civil society and, 314

in Costa Rica, 80

decentralization and, 40

democracy and, 65, 76–79, 82, 89

in Bolivia, 80–81, 181, 187, 197, 204–14, 223

in Honduras, 80, 111–12, 123, 148, 149–56, 170–71

information and, 307

Latin America country chart, 80

police, 77–82, 320, 326

role of, 1, 17, 47, 73

Uruguay, 80

Venezuela, 80

Administrative Decentralization Law, 181

Administrative Law (LGAP), 123

AK-47, 129–30, 149, 152n93. See also weapons

Alianza 72, 151

Alianza (political) party, 243, 259, 274

alcohol: abuse, 325

in Argentina, 283, 293

in Bolivia, 185, 187, 325

in Honduras, 107, 128, 183

Law of Prevention of Alcohol Consumption, 293

sales, 184, 223, 227, 293, 294, 310

youth and, 288

Alfonsín, Raúl, 235

alternative sentencing: in Bolivia, 214, 219, 221

usage, 9, 55, 56, 59, 61, 64, 299

Álvarez, Óscar, 112, 132, 145, 150, 156, 168, 170

Anti-Kidnapping Office (Sección de Antisecuestros), 153

Anti-Narcotrafficking Office (DLCN), 108, 123

Argentina: community policing, 230, 234, 243, 254, 304

crime rates, 50, 237–38, 238n10, 252

crime reports, 48, 52, 239

homicide, 50, 53, 331, 334

human rights, 82, 94, 235, 236, 253, 296

instability, 22, 69, 236, 243, 252, 253, 329

judiciary, 64, 64n57, 237, 240, 250, 253

protests, 94

provincial reform, 83, 251–58

public defense, 59, 59n48

public opinion, 66n58

security reform, 18, 28, 235–42, 317

socioeconomic conditions, 97, 237, 237n6

youth, 101, 240, 254

Argentina’s police forces: management, 199, 308

purges in, 81, 235

Special Security Group (GES) in Mendoza Province, 272n72. See also armed forces in Argentina

Árias, Juan Ángel, 112

armed forces: actions against, 95

democratic transitions and, 17

Latin America, 42, 43, 70, 71, 72, 73, 76

Office of Military Intelligence (DIM), 27, 27n7

policing and, 41, 64

relationship with police, 44, 65, 156. See also military police

armed forces in Argentina, 235, 236, 256, 258, 262

armed forces in Bolivia: budgets, 205n43

drug operations and, 194, 217

hierarchy, 180

history, 175–76

instability and, 193

policing and, 179, 187–88, 189

reform and, 188

armed forces in Honduras: budget, 114

criminal investigation and, 138

history, 107–8, 132

killings by, 162

municipal police and, 147

oversight, 151

police relations, 156

policing and, 114, 117, 128, 129, 161, 169

politics and, 140, 173

U.S. funding of, 169n143

Armed Self-Defense Brigades, 227

arms control. See weapons

Arslanián, León, 260–62

Article 332 (Law of Illicit Association) in Honduras: criminal procedures and, 118n21

implementation, 117–19, 121–22, 133, 170

provisions, 117, 117n19

rulings, 140

assault: in Bolivia, 192, 198

in Buenos Aires Province, 258, 262

in Honduras, 112n6, 113, 116, 136, 145

information on, 46

in Mendoza Province, 274

rates, 2, 50

sexual, 326

Association of Municipalities of Honduras (AMHON), 111, 148

Atahuichi, Daniel, 224

Atlántida Department (Honduras), 139, 162n

auditors: in Bolivia, 211

formation of, 322. See also internal affairs

ayllu, 181, 182, 182n5

bail: in Argentina, 262

laws, 221, 312, 328

minor cases, 135

restrictions on, 61

Baltimore, 314

Banzer, Hugo, 176, 186, 187, 194

Bar Associations, 279, 292

Barrientos Ortuno, Rene, 176

barrios: in Bolivia, 186

in Buenos Aires Province, 268

Choloma, 159

in in Costa Rica, 318

definition of, 341

Ejercito de los Andes, 264

La Cava, 271

La Rioja Province, 287, 288

raids in, 54

23 de Enero, 93

Vargas State, 58

Venezuela, 93, 314, 341

violence in, 91. See also villas

Barrio Saludable (Healthy Neighborhood), 168

Basic Training Program in Citizen Security, 319

Battalion 316, 108

Battle, Jorge, 27

Beni Department (Bolivia), 178, 179, 190, 190n16, 192

Block Watch programs, 318

Blumberg, Axel, 241

Body of Neighborhood Auxiliaries, 245

Body of Scientific, Penal and Criminalistic Investigation (CICPC), 43, 55, 57

Bogotá (Colombia), 24, 310, 314, 316

Bolivia: centralization, 41

crime rates, 50, 182–84

crime reporting, 192

criminal justice, 57, 214–22, 299

history, 175–77

instability, 69, 174, 178, 329

police management, 199

public opinion, 66, 183, 192, 209, 218, 228

security reform, 15, 18–19, 28, 177–82, 185–95, 324

security structure, 42, 178, 337–39

socioeconomic conditions, 97, 230

strategic planning, 170

youth, 193, 223, 224

Bolivian police agencies: budgets, 179, 196–97, 202–3, 205n45

budget changes, 183, 188

Feminine Police Brigade, 176, 180

General Office of Police, 175

Immediate Action Group (GAI), 178–79

Immediate Action Police Units, 186

Multipurpose Intervention Brigade (BIP–Polivalentes), 178n1, 200, 201, 218, 338

Penitentiary Security, 178

purges, 187, 210

Rural Area Police Patrol Unit (UMOPAR–The Leopards), 40, 179

Special Anti-Crime Force (FELCC), 178, 229, 339

Special Antinarcotics Force (FELCN), 178, 179, 210, 219

Special Security Group, 177

training, 195–98

Bordón, Sebastián, 273, 273n77

Borjas, María Luisa, 153, 154, 155, 156

Boston, 326

Bratton, William, 46, 301

Brazil: accountability, 80

alternative sentencing, 61

crime rates, 50, 95

federalism, 251

homicide, 51, 52, 53, 100, 100n26, 331, 334

homicides of youth, 100, 100n26

inequality, 96

public opinion, 66, 66n58, 228

rural areas, 82

security reform, 2, 19, 22, 28, 305, 311n9

socioeconomic conditions, 97

studies of, 234

bribery, 47, 215, 258, 264

broken windows theory, 30–33, 35, 301, 303

budgets: Argentinian, 249, 261, 273, 274, 288

Bolivian corruption and, 205–8, 205n43, 205n45

Bolivian decentralization, 190, 190n17, 191

Bolivian municipalities, 181

Bolivian public defense, 218

Honduras’s police, 114, 123, 127, 130, 172

Honduras’s formation, 138

participatory, 40, 266, 315, 315n12

reform of, 11, 21, 25, 27, 56, 64

security forces, 41, 44, 47–48, 55

Buenos Aires, city of (Capital Federal): City Community Police, 244

community policing, 244, 249, 314

Ciudad Oculta, 245, 248

Constitución, 246

crime, 22, 242–44, 245, 247–48, 251

homicide, 238, 244

Illia, 247

killings by police, 252n39

Palermo, 245

policing, 23, 234, 242–51

protests, 28

public opinion, 246

security reform, 242–51, 253, 254

socioeconomic conditions, 243

victimization, 238

youth, 247

Zona Zabatela, 248. See also Federal Police of Argentina

Buenos Aires Province (Argentina): Almirante Brown, 268, 269

Communal Police, 263, 265, 267

crime rates, 94, 243–44, 259, 261–62, 264, 270

crime reports, 238

federal relations, 239

homicides, 269

human rights, 259, 263

instability, 266, 267

Ituzaingo, 267

judiciary, 268, 271

killings by police, 252n39

killings of police, 192

La Matanza, 270

La Plata, 267

Lomas de Zamora, 266

mayors, 283

Morón, 267–68

policing, 41

prisons, 259

Quilmes, 266, 271

San José, 269

socioeconomic conditions, 269, 269n65

urbanization, 252

youth, 265, 267, 269, 271. See also Buenos Aires Province police agencies

Conurbano

Buenos Aires Province police agencies: abuse, 258

Buenos Aires 2 Police, 263, 271

Complex Investigations Unit (UIC), 261

management of, 290

The Mazorca, 258

reform of, 234, 253–54, 257, 258–71, 271n71, 330

resistance to reform, 277

weaknesses, 275, 296. See also Buenos Aires Province

bureaucracy: in Argentina, 245, 268, 269, 278, 282

in Bolivia, 181

in Honduras, 111

reform and, 15, 16, 321

Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), 33, 295

Calderón, Felipe, 71

Cali (Colombia), 310

California: gangs of, 116, 120

Homerun Program, 328

Cape Town (South Africa), 43

capital punishment, 26

Caracas (Venezuela), 30, 42, 43, 46, 94, 314, 320

homicide, 83. See also Federal District

cars: in Argentina, 264, 267

in Bolivia, 210

carjacking: 2, 12, 238

in Honduras, 171

policing and, 4, 134n56. See also vehicles

Casa Alianza, 152

Castellanos, Julieta, 148

Center for Information, Orientation and Citizen Training (Bolivia), 222

Center of Information and Communication (CEINCO; Honduras), 124, 153

Central America: arms, 306

colonial, 106

economics, 230

gangs, 103, 116, 116n16, 121n32

organized crime, 75, 112

poverty, 18

reform, 158n113

sub-region, 19

violence observatories, 325

Chacón, Jesse, 25

Chaco Province (Argentina), 254, 254n40

Chapare (Bolivia), 179, 225

Chávez, Hugo, 25, 27, 27n8, 95

Chicago: community policing, 315–16

crime, 84

gang policy in, 311

violence interrupters of, 268, 328

children: in Bolivia, 177, 214, 230

Children’s Advocacy Center, 326

crime, 93, 326

gangs, 103

in Honduras, 120, 121n32, 122, 152–53, 160, 165

rights, 100

Special Unit to Investigate Children’s Deaths, 154

UN Beijing Rules, 100

Chile: accountability, 80

arrest rates, 101

crime rates, 50, 52, 53

crime reporting, 49

history, 40, 175, 194, 231

homicide, 2, 331, 334

penal code, 34

police reform, 17, 19, 28, 77

police training, 305

prisons, 61, 62, 313n11

public opinion, 23, 66n58

security policy, 327

socioeconomic conditions, 97

Chiuz Sierra, Elizabeth, 112

Choluteca (Honduras), 159, 163, 166

Christian Party, 27

Chubut Province (Argentina), 253, 254, 254n40

churches, 160, 286, 292, 293

gang rehabilitation programs of, 144

Citizen Conciliation Unit (UCC), 210, 225

Citizen Security Program: of Buenos Aires, 245

of Uruguay, 316

Civilian Complaint Review Board (CCRB), 323

civil society: in Argentina, 239, 266, 292, 295, 296

in Bolivia, 174, 220, 226

democracy and, 64, 69, 70, 89–104

in Honduras, 111, 124, 151, 156

reform and, 314, 325, 326, 327

Cobos, Julio, 280, 284

Cobras, 40, 111, 123, 148

Cochabamba, city of (Bolivia): citizen-based policing, 224

“green houses,” 224

policing, 188

private security, 204, 207

Cochabamba Department (Bolivia), 178, 180

Cold War, 25, 74, 195

Colombia: accountability, 80

crime rates, 50

crime reports, 49–50

homicide, 2, 43–44, 53, 100, 331, 334

police reform, 19

prisons, 62, 313n11

private security, 87

public opinion in, 66n58

security policy, 310, 316

socioeconomic conditions, 97, 230

comisarías (police stations): in Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 246, 247–48, 249, 251

in Buenos Aires Province, 259, 261, 263, 268, 269

definition, 341

in Guatemala 305

in Honduras, 127

in La Rioja Province, 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 294

in Mendoza Province, 275n79, 284

reform and, 127, 303

in Salta Province, 255

in San Luis Province, 256

weaknesses in, 44

Comité de Organización Política Independiente Electoral (COPEI), 27

community alarms (alarmas comunitarias), 276, 286

community justice: in Argentina, 234

in Bolivia, 174, 192, 220, 222, 225, 226–27

Integral Justice Centers (Bolivia), 225

programs of, 9, 315

community police: in Bolivia, 229

Office of (city of Buenos Aires), 244

in San Luis Province, 255

in Mendoza Province, 278, 283

reform and, 326. See also community policing

community policing: civil society and, 89, 90, 315

in Costa Rica, 317, 318–19

definition, 4–5, 9–10

discretion and, 302, 304

evaluation, 307, 310, 312, 316

implementation, 28, 36, 42, 67, 68

international, 1, 66

New York, 301

police careers and, 36

reform and, 12–13, 54, 298, 318, 325

social relations, 67, 326

United States 317–18

Unit of Community Extension, 318. See also community police

community policing in Argentina: Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 244, 249, 317

in Buenos Aires Province, 264–68, 285–86

Community Policing Planning and Implementation Team, 286

Community Prevention Brigade (BPC), 286, 289, 292, 295–96

La Rioja Province, 285–86, 288–91, 294–95, 296

in Mendoza Province, 273, 283

national, 234, 243, 254, 257. See also Argentina

community policing in Bolivia: divisions over, 192

functioning of, 222–31, 232, 244, 289, 329

Neighborhoods of Truth Program, 230

Polivalentes, 201

training, 197, 304. See also Bolivia

community policing in Honduras: budgets, 161, 163, 164

Choloma, 147

Comunidad Mas Segura, 113

implementation, 106, 112, 156–68, 172, 329. See also Honduras

CompStat (Computer Statistics): in Argentina, 247, 263, 265

in Honduras, 137–38

policing and, 46, 301

Comptroller General: of Bolivia (CGR), 209, 211

of Honduras, 138

Conservative Party, 175

Constituent Assembly, Bolivia, 191

Conurbano (Argentina): crime in, 243, 259, 261, 263

policing in, 261, 262, 264, 271

Córdoba Province (Argentina): demographics, 252

policing violence, 252n39, 271, 271n71

security reform, 253, 254, 254n40, 257

corruption: in La Rioja Province, 294

management and, 47–48

in Mendoza Province, 273, 273n75

in Mexico, 41

National Anticorruption Council, 141

in New York City, 15

oversight, 11

policing, 14

reform and, 28, 77, 79, 318, 321, 326

salaries and, 7

in San Luis Province, 256

socioeconomics and, 16

vigilantism and, 92

corruption in Argentina: in Buenos Aires Province, 258, 259, 260–61, 263–64, 270–71, 330

Federal Police of Argentina, 248, 249, 243, 245, 250, 252

national, 234, 238, 239

corruption in Bolivia: individual, 210, 213

judicial, 215

local, 182, 203

police, 174, 183, 185–86, 189–92, 204–5, 231

policies against, 204n38, 209

prisons and, 210

private security, 204

rates, 329

reporting, 212–13

specialized police units, 177, 207–9, 211. See also corruption

corruption in Honduras: accusations of, 152

community policing and, 163, 166

control of, 150–51

local, 148

National Anticorruption Council, 141

police, 125, 172

policies against, 112, 168

political figures and, 155

training and, 151. See also corruption

Costa Rica: alpha limas, 299

community policing, 317, 318–19

crime rates, 50

crime reports, 35, 49, 54, 60

crime resolution, 59, 60

criminal investigation, 108, 311

criminal justice, 313

Defensoría del pueblo, 79

gangs, 116n16

homicide, 2, 51, 52, 53, 331, 334

police career, 304

police training, 38

public defense, 58

public opinion, 66n58

security policy, 19

socioeconomic conditions, 97

court appeals, 136, 214, 243, 300

Courts of Youth Guarantees, 269

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), 309–10

crime statistics: analysis, 11, 46

in Costa Rica, 60

deficiencies, 21, 34, 48–54

regional comparisons, 18, 48–54. See also homicide

criminal investigation: in Costa Rica, 299

Department of Inspection, 275

problems, 8, 21, 299

procedures, 6, 54–60, 67, 300, 341, 342

Technical Office of Criminal Investigation (DTIC), 169

Venezuela, 38. See also General Office of Criminal Investigation (DGIC)

criminal investigation in Argentina: national, 246, 253, 340

in Buenos Aires Province, 259, 260n49, 261, 263

Department of Criminal Analysis, 275

La Rioja Province, 291, 293

in Mendoza Province, 275, 282

criminal investigation in Bolivia: security structures of, 177, 179, 180, 186

procedures, 214–20

Special Crimes Investigation Group (GTIDE), 178

training, 195, 198n28, 200, 203

criminal investigation in Honduras: Article 332 and, 118n21, 119

municipal, 147

procedures, 124–26, 130–31, 133–41, 169

the Public Ministry and, 133, 135–36, 156

reform and, 299, 300

security structures of, 107, 108–110, 123, 123n34, 337

Custodio, Ramón, 172

Danlí (Honduras), 159, 164, 166, 329

decentralization: in Argentina, 234, 237, 253, 267

in Bolivia, 83, 174, 180–82, 186, 191–92, 223

in Costa Rica, 40, 42

in Honduras, 146–49

in Mexico, 40

police, 39–44

states, 7, 20, 82–83, 88

in Uruguay, 316

in Venezuela, 43

Decree 123-2002, 129, 140

Defensoría del Pueblo: accountability role, 8, 78–81

in Bolivia (DDP), 181, 197–98, 211–12, 213, 215

Colombia, 80

Ecuador, 80

Peru, 80

Venezuela, 80

de la Rúa, Fernando, 243, 239

Delta Force, 178, 179, 339

Democratic Action (Acción Democrática) party, 27

Partido Demócrata Mendoza (PD) party, 274

democratization: in Argentina, 258

in Bolivia, 232

civil society and, 89–90, 92, 101, 313

in Honduras, 108, 111

judicial reform and, 5, 7, 8, 324

power and, 71

process of, 17, 19, 68, 104

security forces and, 13, 77

Department of Analysis and Information, 110, 153

de Rosas, Manuel, 258

detectives (inspectores): in Argentina, 284

definition, 342

education of, 37n16

Detective Body, 275

evaluation of, 308

Federal Police of Argentina, 340

in Honduras, 136, 160, 162, 337

relations with prosecutors, 57

Directed Area Responsibility Teams (DART), 318

discipline: abuse and, 72, 81, 320, 321, 322

in Argentina, 235, 252

in Bolivia, 175, 176, 186, 187, 204, 212

Disciplinary Board (Mendoza Province), 276, 281

in Honduras, 128, 143, 152, 156

legal regulations on, 29

legislatures and, 25–26

in New York, 323

police management and, 44, 118

Superior Disciplinary Tribunal, 177, 178, 181, 212, 338

zero tolerance and, 32

discretion: in Honduras, 110, 115, 119, 129, 156, 158

in Bolivia, 208

in Argentina, 235, 242

and evaluation and, 307–9, 312

law and, 29, 65

policing youth and, 101

police officer, 14–15, 78, 85

reform and, 298, 302–7, 321, 323, 325, 327

policing gangs and, 103

commissioners, 318

disorder: in Argentina, 293

in Bolivia, 193

criminal policy and, 88

in Honduras, 107, 128

society, 26, 31–33, 69, 84

youth, 303

displacement, 129, 309

District Police, 263

domestic violence: in Bolivia, 181, 218, 226

in Honduras, 157, 158

policing and, 310, 318, 326

support programs, 9. See also gender; women

Dominican Republic: accountability, 80

criminal justice, 56

homicide, 52, 53, 100n26, 331, 334

homicides of youth, 100n26

police training, 37

prisons, 62

private security, 85n11, 87

socioeconomic conditions, 97

drugs: appeal and consumption of, 6, 102, 287, 288, 294, 311

in Argentina, 250, 264, 287

in Bolivia, 248, 301, 341

cocaine, 32, 84, 94, 248, 294

corruption involving, 150, 171, 258, 322n20

in Honduras, 110, 158, 160

marijuana, 32, 288, 294

paco, 248, 325

policing of, 301, 319, 326

trafficking, 59, 92, 145, 160, 172, 210

in Venezuela, 93

Dubón, Sonia, 140

Duhalde, Eduardo, 259–60, 261–62, 264

Early Intervention (EI), 321–22

Ecuador: accountability, 80

community policing, 40

constitutional crisis, 28, 69

crime rates, 50, 54

crime statistics, 83, 311–12

criminal justice, 59, 60

homicide, 53, 331, 334

judiciary, 64, 81

police, 36, 48, 304

police training, 305

prisons in, 62, 313n11

private security in, 87

socioeconomic conditions, 97

Ecological Brigade, 287

edicts: in Argentina, 235, 242–43, 258

police accountability and, 80

reform and, 21, 29, 34–35, 60

education: in Argentina, 267

crime and, 95, 96, 99

in Bolivia, 212, 215, 229, 230

in Honduras, 113, 114–15, 145–46, 158, 160, 165, 170

in Mendoza Province, 273n75, 286

reform and, 318, 320

society and, 5, 91, 101, 102, 103

El Alto (Bolivia): Ciudad Satélite, 224, 228

community justice, 192

courts, 218

crime, 227

homicide, 227

Huayna Potosí, 228

map, 228

patrols, 174

policing, 202, 225, 226–28, 229, 303, 310

protests, 223

violence in, 94

El Proceso, 235, 342

El Salvador: accountability, 80

crime rates, 50

crime reports, 49, 52, 312

criminal investigation, 59

homicide, 2, 52, 53, 112, 331, 334

homicides of youth 100n26

maras, 116

police abuse, 78

police recruitment, 36

prisons, 62

private security, 87

public defense, 59

public opinion, 66n58

socioeconomic conditions, 97

security policy, 101

war, 108

Entre Ríos Province (Argentina), 252n39, 254, 254n40

evaluation: in Argentina, 240, 246, 251

in Bolivia, 189, 203, 216, 339

in Buenos Aires Province, 260, 261, 263, 265–66, 268

citizens’ role, 311–12, 323

community policing, 316, 327

criminal justice, 299–300

in Honduras, 157, 159

La Rioja Province, 289, 291

in Mendoza Province, 272, 281, 282, 284

police careers, 36, 38

quality of, 315

reform and, 16, 17, 298, 305–6, 307–10, 325

executive branch: of Argentina, 235–36, 241, 250, 252–53, 255, 261

of Bolivia, 177, 212

budget role, 47

decentralization, 40

democracy and, 70

of Honduras, 108, 124, 140, 149, 150, 155

legal power, 29

of Mendoza Province, 274

public defense and, 58n46

relations of, 11, 79, 80

rights and, 95

role in reform, 24–27, 33, 61, 65, 68, 330

expedientes (police reports), 138, 141, 299, 300, 342

Expeditionary Task Force (ETF), 194

Explosives Brigade, 180

extortion: in Argentina, 258, 264

in Bolivia, 204

families: in Argentina, 248, 265, 265n58, 276

in Bolivia, 183, 207, 217, 224, 229, 338

Citizen Security and Protection Plan for the Family, 186

in Costa Rica, 319

crime against, 2

Family Justice Centers, 326

Family Justice Division (FJD), 326

Family Protection Brigade, 178, 218, 226, 229, 338

in Honduras, 105, 110, 127, 157, 165

police, 36, 321

protection of, 103

socialization of, 91

reform and, 307, 328, 329

violence in, 101

favoritism: in Argentina, 254

in Bolivia, 199, 204

in Honduras, 128

reform and, 39

fear: in Argentina, 239, 243, 270, 271, 288

in Bolivia, 227, 303

in Honduras, 113, 165, 166, 172

among police, 303, 321

society, 85, 90–91, 93–94, 103, 308, 330

state-society relations, 67, 77

Federal District (Venezuela): death squads, 92n18

Metropolitan Police (PM), 27n8, 37n16, 43, 46, 251

police, 30, 43

security reform, 46. See also Caracas

federal government: in Argentina, 234, 238–42, 257, 297

in Bolivia, 181, 222

Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 243–44, 248, 251

Buenos Aires Province and, 244n22, 264

in Honduras, 147, 173

Latin America, 41, 42, 77, 80. See also executive branch

Federal Investigations Agency, 240, 242

federalism: in Argentina, 257

in Bolivia, 191

reform and, 18, 19, 83

Venezuela, 18, 251

Federal Police of Argentina (PFA): drugs and, 294

history, 235

internal affairs, 249, 250

personnel changes in, 239, 241

policy of, 238

purges, 239, 241

reform in, 234, 237n5, 242–51

structure, 340. See also Argentina

Buenos Aires, city of

Fernández de Kirchner, Cristina, 240, 241, 251

Ferrera, Danelia, 169

finances: in Argentina, 264, 276

in Bolivia, 114, 189, 190, 199, 203, 205, 207

community, 67

control of, 8, 209, 211, 212

in Honduras, 108

Police Treasury (Bolivia), 189

reform and, 321

transparency of, 47. See also budgets

Flores Lanza, Enrique, 140

forums: arbitration, 66

in Argentina, 254, 254n40

in Bolivia, 174, 220, 222–23, 225, 226, 227

community justice, 315

community policing, 312, 315–16

in Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 244

in Buenos Aires Province, 260, 261, 262, 265, 266–68, 271

Foro Ciudadano, 124

in Honduras, 139, 146, 155, 166, 342

in La Rioja Province, 286

in Mendoza Province, 283

in Santa Fe Province, 254

Fujimori, Alberto, 79

gangs: in Bolivia, 193

community policing and, 159

El Salvador, 36

growth, 90, 91

Honduran numbers, 121n32

Honduran prisons and, 142

in Honduras, 110–11, 113–18, 120–21, 132, 153, 160

La Ceiba, 105

Law for the Prevention, Rehabilitation and Social Reintegration of Persons Belonging to Gangs, 144–45

military and, 128

policing of, 32, 41, 42, 101

policy, 6, 102–3

United States policy, 74. See also maras

García Meza, Luis, 176–77

gated communities, 85–86, 88, 269–70. See also private security

gender: in Argentina, 239, 294

in Honduras, 167

policy and, 59, 325. See also domestic violence; women

General Office of Citizen Security, 190, 222n85

General Office of Criminal Investigation (DGIC): abuse, 150

children’s deaths and, 154

criminal justice role, 131, 134–36, 138–39

discipline, 151, 152

reform of, 168

responsibilities, 123–26

structure of, 109, 111, 337

weaknesses of, 127, 130. See also criminal investigation

geography: of Argentina, 245, 294

of Bolivia, 199, 231

community policing and, 317

crime and, 59, 88

decentralization and, 7, 39, 40–41

democracy and, 70

gangs and, 103

of Honduras, 127, 139, 165

of Latin America, 21, 42, 68, 69, 82–87, 104, 325

policy and, 77, 101, 304, 309, 327, 330

social differences and, 9

of United States, 42

of Venezuela, 314

glue, sniffing of: 120, 288, 294, 325. See also drugs

Grazzo, Reina, 105, 172

Group of Civilian Support for the Police (GACIP), 186, 225

Guardatti, Paulo, 273n77

Guatemala: accountability, 80

crime rates, 50

crime reports, 49

criminal investigation, 38

criminal justice, 300

homicide, 53, 331, 334

human rights, 94

maras, 116

misdemeanor arrests, 34

police assignments, 305

police history, 40

police presence, 45n25

police recruitment, 36

prisons, 62

private security in, 86, 87

public opinion, 66n58

rotation of police, 39

socioeconomic conditions, 97, 98

Guayaquil (Ecuador), 42, 60

Guerrero, Rodrigo, 310

health: in Argentina, 247, 276, 288, 292, 296

Argentina’s police, 233

benefits for police, 7, 321

in Bolivia, 187

Bolivia’s police, 189, 202, 230, 338, 339

court rulings on, 64

in Honduras, 127, 142, 142n75, 143

policy, 26, 304, 313, 318

violence and, 328

homicide: in Argentina, 52, 97, 238, 243–44

in Bolivia, 53, 83, 183–84, 227

in Brazil, 51, 52

in Buenos Aires Province, 258, 269

in Latin America, 2–3, 49–50

convictions, 8, 59–60

in Costa Rica, 51, 52, 40, 40n53

in Medellín (Colombia), 43

in Chile, 52

in El Salvador, 52, 52n30, 97

Latin America country comparison tables, 50, 53, 97–99, 331, 334

in Mendoza Province, 273

in New York City, 31

policy, 310

rates, 51, 54

reporting, 49–54

socioeconomic conditions and, 96–99

in Uruguay, 52

in Venezuela, 53, 83

youth, 99–100, 100n26

See also homicides in Honduras

Homicide Division (Venezuela), 55

homicides in Honduras: arms and, 129n42

community policing and 158, 163

criminal investigation of, 136–37

police and, 152

rates, 51, 112–14, 112n6, 131

youth and 122. See also homicide

Honduran Childhood and Family Institute (IHNFA), 145–46

Honduras: community policing, 156–68, 230, 244, 304

crime, 2, 50, 51, 112–15

criminal justice, 132–39, 299

criminal policy, 112–15

drugs, 325

history, 106–8

international projects, 311

judicial reform, 139–41

kidnapping, 23

police discretion of, 302, 303

police abuse, 150

police management, 127–31

public opinion, 66

rights groups, 221

security reform, 18, 108–73, 176, 329

security structure, 110, 122–27, 337

violence observatory, 311

women police, 176

youth, 115–22

Honduras police agencies: anti-kidnapping units, 110, 123, 153

children unit, 110, 157

Civil Guard, 107

Feminine Auxiliary Police, 110, 167

General Office of Police Education (DGEP), 109, 110, 337

General Office of Special Investigative Services (DGSEI), 109–10, 123–24, 124n36, 337

General Office of Special Preventive Services (DGSEP), 109, 110, 142, 337

Migration and Frontier Police, 110

National Police (PN), 109, 110, 123–27, 131, 134, 154

Public Security Force (FSP), 108

Special Security Force (CES), 107

Human Development Index (HDI), 96–97, 99

human ecology, 83–84

human resources: in Argentina, 249, 261, 278, 288–89

in Bolivia, 127, 190, 212, 214

Office of Human Resources (Honduras), 127

police, 45, 46, 55

reform, 301, 320

human rights: antiauthoritarianism and, 94

in Argentina, 235–36, 253, 259, 263, 296, 340

in Bolivia, 178, 193, 197, 222

Honduran groups, 118, 152, 153

in Honduras, 132–33, 145, 146, 161, 169, 172

Human Rights Office, 201

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 280

Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, 121n32

La Rioja Province, 290

in Mendoza Province, 277

Santa Fe Province, 257

security and, 13, 26, 35–36, 42

training, 37, 304

human rights commissions: in Buenos Aires Province, 259

in El Salvador, 78

Honduran policing reform and, 156, 162

in Honduras, 111–12, 118–19, 142–43, 146, 150, 165

House of Deputies (Bolivia), 186

in La Rioja Province, 290, 292

in Latin America, 81

in Peru, 80

in San Luis Province (Argentina), 100, 255

in Santa Fe Province, 257

Manuel Zelaya and, 172

impunity: in Argentina, 252

in Bolivia, 218

for crime, 55, 56, 94

incommunicado detention, 134

indigenous peoples: Aymara, 182n5, 196, 224

Guaraní, 224, 229

Quechua, 224

Indonesia, 31, 40

inequality: in Argentina, 237

in Bolivia, 174, 230

crime and, 95–98, 316

security services, 83

in Honduras, 165

Gini index, 96, 97

societal, 82, 85, 89, 90

inspector general: of Bolivia, 178, 212, 213

of Honduras, 152, 168

of Latin America, 79

Integrated Center of Inter-Institutional Work (CIP), 138

Integration Program (Programa Integrar), 287

International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), 300

International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP), 136, 170n143, 215n65

Intersectional Operational and Coordination Councils (COCI), 286, 287, 292, 293–94

Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), 51, 148, 311n9

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), 60

internal affairs of Argentina’s police: in Buenos Aires Province, 260, 260n49, 263–64, 265

Ethics Tribunal, 260n49, 261

Federal Police of Argentina, 249, 250, 340

General Inspector of Security (IGS), 275–76, 279, 280–81, 284

Internal Affairs Auditor, 260n49, 261, 263–64

in La Rioja Province, 291

in Mendoza Province 276, 281, 284

national, 79, 253

in San Luis Province, 257

internal affairs of Bolivia’s police: finances, 207

National Office of Professional Responsibility (DNRP), 80, 178, 181, 212, 213

reforms of, 186

weaknesses in, 203, 211, 212–13

internal affairs of Honduras’s police: functioning of, 111, 122, 150–54, 155, 171

Internal Affairs Unit (UAI), 111, 122, 150, 152–53, 155, 168

the Public Ministry (MP) and, 152

internal affairs of police agencies: changes in, 42, 68, 80, 303, 321, 326

evaluation and, 299, 309

in New York City, 322n20

in Nicaragua (Office of Internal Affairs), 78, 80

in Panama, 80

in Peru, 79, 80

procedures, 81

in São Paulo, city of (Brazil), 78

structure of, 8, 17, 79

in Venezuela, 81

International Commission of Jurists, 140

Israelite Mutual Association of Argentina (Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina, AMIA), 258, 261

Jaque, Celso, 285

Joint Task Force (JTF), 194

Jóvenes Hondureños Adelante–Juntos Avancemos (JHA-JA), 121

judicial councils: in Argentina, 253

in Bolivia, 181, 214

role of, 64

judicial police: in Argentina, 253

in Buenos Aires Province, 259

definition, 342

in La Rioja Province, 291

in Mendoza Province, 275, 276

role of, 48, 55, 342

Technical Judicial Police (PTJ; Bolivia), 27n7, 177, 217, 338

judiciary: agencies, 41

budgets, 64

in Buenos Aires Province, 259, 260, 265, 268, 269

in Costa Rica, 42, 319

in Ecuador, 64

in La Rioja Province, 293, 296

in Mendoza Province, 272, 272n72, 275, 277n84

procedures, 34, 35, 54, 65, 101

relations of, 25, 70, 74, 79

roles, 29, 326

statistics of, 51

in Venezuela, 64

weaknesses, 55, 58, 60–61, 81

judiciary of Argentina: role of, 237, 250, 253

in Buenos Aires Province, 271

reform of, 240

judiciary of Bolivia: reform of, 174, 186, 214, 220–21

role of, 177, 186, 194, 202, 213, 214–21

judiciary of Honduras: Article 332 and, 118n21

criminal law and 117

extrajudicial killings and, 153

information and, 144

internal affairs and, 155

investigative police and, 123n34

judges of, the peace and, 147

local level, 146

orders, 119

penal process code in, 136

reform of, 113, 134n56, 139–141, 171

relations of, 149

resources, 127

weaknesses of, 118, 134

Kelling, George L., 30, 301

kidnapping: in Argentina, 28, 241

in Bolivia, 178, 210, 339

in Buenos Aires Province, 262, 264

in Central America, 112

in Honduras, 113, 140, 151, 170

investigation, 12

policing against, 23

rates, 50

in Venezuela, 2

killing: in Argentina, 239, 241, 246, 252

in Bogotá (Colombia), 310

by police, 51, 79

extrajudicial, 32, 77

in Guatemala, 59–60, 300

of youth, 99, 100

in Honduras, 102, 116, 142–43, 152–54, 159, 162

in Bolivia, 186, 194

in Buenos Aires Province 258, 261, 266, 271

in Mendoza Province, 271n71, 280, 285

in La Rioja Province, 292

prisons, 51

in Venezuela, 27, 51, 77, 92, 94, 305n3. See also police abuse

Kirchner, Néstor, 239, 240, 241, 244n22, 250, 251

labor: in Argentina, 235, 252

in Bolivia, 174, 176

in Buenos Aires Province, 265

in Honduras, 111, 143, 145

Labor Law (Honduras), 123

in La Rioja Province, 292, 295

markets, 2, 88, 98

La Ceiba (Honduras): community policing, 105, 162, 307

police officials, 143, 303, 329

reform in, 147

La Chispa, 314

Lafalla, Arturo, 273, 276n81, 284

La Pampa Province (Argentina), 254, 254n40

La Paz, city of (Bolivia): alcohol in, 325

Alto Tejar, 228, 229

Cementerio General, 228, 229

crime rates, 201, 227

geography, 174

history, 175

identification cards in, 208

judicial functioning in, 215, 218

judicial police in, 202

map, 228

Max Paredes, 228, 229

Municipal Police, 180

neighborhoods, 193, 224, 227, 229, 247

police, 188, 203n35, 207, 223–25, 229, 230

police academies, 190, 195

police centralization in, 203

prisons, 221

private security, 203, 207

Pura Pura, 193, 201, 227, 228

United States Embassy, 201

La Paz Department (Bolivia): 178, 180, 184, 190, 199, 202

La Rioja, city of (Argentina), 286, 288, 292, 294

La Rioja Province (Argentina): alcohol, 288, 293, 310

community policing, 254, 285–86, 288–91, 294–95, 296, 312

crime rate, 285, 288, 294

crime reports, 238, 291

forums, 254n40

human rights, 290, 293

instability, 285

internal affairs, 291

judiciary, 291, 293

Law of Prevention of Alcohol Consumption, 293

mapping, 286

policing in, 233

security reform, 234, 257, 285–96, 330

youth, 286–88, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296

Law of Police and Social Coexistence (LPCS; Honduras), 114, 115, 119, 122, 141, 160

Law of Popular Participation (LPP; Bolivia), 181–82, 190, 223

Law of Transparency and Access to Public Information (Honduras), 149, 151

legislatures: in Argentina, 237, 240, 241, 242, 257

Argentina’s bicameral commission, 242

in Bolivia, 190–91, 212, 218

Congressional Bicameral Commission (Buenos Aires Province), 259, 260, 261, 270

Honduras National Congress, 111, 158n113

limits of, 25–26

in Mendoza Province, 270, 272, 274, 275, 280, 283

Mendoza Province’s bicameral security commission, 275

provincial, 40

relations with executives, 11

roles, 47

in Salta Province, 255

in Uruguay, 27

in Venezuela, 27, 27n8

Liaison Unit, 275

Liberal Party: of Bolivia, 175

of Honduras, 140

Lobo, Porfirio: administration of, 106

Óscar Álvarez and, 156

decentralization plan, 148

policies of, 168, 170, 171

stance on maras, 133

Los Angeles (United States), 116

lynching. See vigilantism

Macri, Mauricio, 251

Maduro, Ricardo, 112, 113–14, 115, 132–33, 156, 171

mano dura (iron fist): adoption, 15, 25, 26, 28, 34

application, 92

in Argentina, 236, 239, 257

in Buenos Aires Province, 259, 262

in El Salvador, 101

in Honduras, 106, 113, 121, 132, 140, 145, 168

laws and policies, 64, 85, 88

in Mendoza Province, 277, 279, 285

support for, 23, 77, 315. See also zero tolerance

maps and mapping: access to, 327

Buenos Aires Province, 261, 263, 265, 267

citizen, 91

and crime, 200, 245, 247, 265, 267, 268, 282, 291

digital, 137

discretion and, 327

El Alto and La Paz (Bolivia), 224

incivilities, 286

La Rioja Province, 286, 291

Mendoza Province, 282

programs of, 7, 46, 240, 253

Special Analysis for the Construction of Maps, 263

Tegucigalpa and Comayaguela (Honduras), 162

Maracaibo (Venezuela), 67, 77, 305

maras: community policing and, 160

definition, 342

Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13), 116, 120, 143, 342

18th Street, 116, 120, 143, 342

in Honduras, 115–122, 144, 147–48, 158, 165, 172

laws against, 129

prisons and, 146. See also Article 332; gangs

Matrix Team, 288

media: accountability and, 3

in Argentina, 239

in Bolivia, 213, 218, 219, 220

crime reports, 53

exposure in, 77

in Honduras, 116, 116n15n, 117n18, 144, 153, 161

in La Rioja Province, 292

police relations, 33

penal process codes in, 57

sensationalism of, 23, 120

violence and, 91

Mendoza metropolitan area: capital city police, 283

Godoy Cruz, 278

Gran Mendoza, 275

Guaymallén, 278–79

Las Heras, 283

Mendoza Province (Argentina): accountability, 280–81, 283, 284

community alarms, 286

community policing, 254, 273, 283

crime rates, 271–72, 273, 274, 281, 284, 285

crime reports, 238

demographics, 252

forums, 254n40

human rights, 253, 277

internal affairs, 281

judiciary, 272, 272n72, 275, 277n84

killings by police, 252n39

prisons, 272, 273, 276–77, 277n84, 279, 280

public opinion, 274n78

security reform, 234, 253, 257, 271–85, 296, 330

youth, 283, 284

Menem family, 285

Menem, Carlos, 236–37, 236n3, 237n5, 242

mental illness: depression, 128

policing and, 304. See also suicide

Mesa, Carlos, 185, 189, 209

Mexico: accountability, 80

crime policy, 23

crime rates, 50, 95

crime reports, 48

criminal justice in, 59

federalism, 18, 251–52

history, 106

homicide, 53, 331, 334

human rights discourse, 94

inequality, 96

internal migration, 84

maras, 116

police reform, 234

prisons, 61, 62

public opinion, 66n58, 94

socioeconomic conditions, 97

Mexico City (Federal District of Mexico): criminal justice, 308

police reform, 28, 41, 42, 83

Micheletti, Roberto, 172

migration: internal, 84, 183, 195, 208n50, 225, 235

international, 165, 235

military. See armed forces

military police: of Bolivia, 188, 194, 205

roles, 43, 52. See also armed forces

military regimes, 89, 235, 258, 260

Minerals Management Service, 76

Ministry of Defense: in Bolivia, 176, 205

in Venezuela, 27n7, 43

Ministry of Government (Bolivia): crime reports and, 201

drug agencies and, 179

history, 175

identification cards and, 210

legislation and, 186

ministers, 185

police and, 177, 222n85

police finances and, 205–6, 205n44, 205n45, 208, 211

prisons and, 221

salaries and, 207n47

statistics and, 53

Ministry of Industry, Commerce, and Employment (MICE; La Rioja), 292

Ministry of Justice (Venezuela), 43

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, 209, 214, 221

Ministry of Justice and Security, 274, 275, 279

Ministry of Justice, Security and Human Rights (MJSDH), 240, 241, 244, 251

Ministry of Labor: in Honduras, 123

in Argentina, 240

Ministry of Social Development, 240

Ministry of the Interior: in Argentina, 241, 340

in Bolivia, 176, 209, 210

in France, 42

in Peru, 79, 80

police and, 24–25

in Venezuela, 57, 93n21

minors: in Argentina, 257, 269

in Bolivia, 187, 221, 338

in Buenos Aires Province, 269n65

Buenos Aires provincial courts, 265, 269

in Costa Rica, 311

in Honduras, 124n36, 141

killings of, 2

legal status of, 100

policing of, 101. See also youth

misdemeanors: in Argentina, 238

Buenos Aires Province code, 258

in Bolivia, 183n7, 184, 210, 213

in Costa Rica, 35, 35n13

detentions and, 84

in Guatemala, 34

in Honduras, 155

law and, 29, 30

in Mendoza Province, 275

Mobile Rural Patrol, 179

Montevideo (Uruguay), 316

morale of police, 7, 36, 37, 255, 321

Morales, Evo; civil society and, 192

election of, 174, 225, 231

reforms of, 189–90, 195, 199, 210, 231, 329

regional conflict and, 191

social relations of, 192

Multiple Response Program (PRM; Buenos Aires Province), 266

municipalities, 40, 86

of Argentina, 254

of Buenos Aires Province, 261, 263, 268

of Bolivia, 180, 181, 223, 225

of Honduras, 107, 111, 127, 146–48, 156

of Mendoza Province, 280, 283

narco-trafficking. See drugs: trafficking of

National Automated Case Management and Information System (NACMIS), 141, 170

National Convergence Forum, 156

National Corps, 176

National Council of Citizen Security and Public Order, 189

National Council of Interior Security (CONASIN; Honduras): establishment of, 111

internal investigation and, 150

powers of, 122, 155–56, 171

prison massacre reports of, 142. See also accountability

internal affairs of Honduras’s police

National Crime Prevention Plan, 239–42, 243

National Democratic Action (Acción Democrática Nacionalista, ADN), 185

National Gender Office, 52

National Guard: in Bolivia, 175

in Venezuela, 43

National Office of Investigation (DNI), 108, 169

National Office of the Internal Auditor, 178

national police agencies: of Bolivia, 41, 174–232

of Costa Rica, 40

of Honduras, 105–73

of Italy, 42

reform of, 39, 51

National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), 176, 185

National Security: in Argentina, 236

Bolivia’s structure of, 188

doctrine of, 25, 25n6, 195

in Honduras, 124, 149

usage of term, 25

National System of Citizen Security Law, 188, 222, 225

National Vocational Training Institute (INFOP; Honduras), 145

Nazer, Jorge, 327

Neighborhood Community Policing Councils, 286

neighborhood councils: in Bolivia, 224, 227

Crime and Violence Prevention, 245

in Honduras, 157

in La Rioja Province, 293

in Montevideo, 316

reform and, 67

Neighborhood Security Brigades, 186, 224

neoliberalism: in Argentina, 237

in Bolivia, 181

Latin America, 33, 88, 90, 98, 104

Netherlands, 31

Neuquén Province (Argentina), 252n39, 253

New York City: Bronx, 308

Brooklyn, 304

citizen reports in, 312

community policing, 304

crime in, 33

East New York, 316

gangs, 311

homicide, 31

police officers, 45

reform in, 24, 32–33, 301, 304, 323

subways of, 32

Transit Authority (NYCTA), 301

Washington Heights, 312

zero tolerance in, 32, 132, 280, 301

New York Police Department (NYPD): academy, 36

arms use, 309

CompStat adoption, 46

detentions by, 32, 84, 301

image, 15

Mollen Commission, 322, 322n20

personnel, 45

Quality of Life Summons of, 301

Street Crimes Unit, 308

Nicaragua: accountability, 80

crime rates in, 50, 95

crime reports in, 48, 56

gangs, 116n16, 121n32

history of, 108

homicide, 53, 331, 334

internal affairs, 78, 79

international loans to, 311n9

police management, 83

police salaries, 48

prisons, 62

public opinion in, 66n58

socioeconomic conditions, 97, 98

youth programs, 101

Office of Army Intelligence (DIE), 43

Office of Control of Corruption and Abuse, 260

Office of Criminal Investigation (DIC), 108, 124, 152

Office of Criminal Policy, 238

Office of Evaluation of Information for Crime Prevention, 260, 261

Office of Intelligence and Prevention Services (DISIP), 43

Office of Legal Affairs, 249

Office of Personal Identification, 208, 208n50

Office of Police Agreement, 243

Office of Professional Responsibility (ORP): of Guatemala, 80

of Honduras, 111, 152, 168

Office of Public Safety, 74

Office of the Inspector General, 152, 168

Office of Victim Assistance, 282

Operation Impact, 304

oral trials: in Argentina, 234, 253

in Bolivia, 214–15, 215n64, 216

in Honduras, 133

in La Rioja Province, 293, 299

penal process code reform and, 8, 56

Organic Law of Police and Carabineros (Bolivia), 176

Organic Law of the Federal Police of Argentina (PFA), 237n5, 247n27, Organic Law of the National Police (LOPN) in Bolivia, 177, 180, 187, 197, 208, 208n49

Organic Law of the National Police (LOPN) in Honduras: Academic Council and, 131

accountability agencies, 111

adoption, 108

discipline and, 150

internal affairs and, 152, 153

investigation and, 126

police agencies and, 122, 124

prisons and, 143

private security and, 148

provisions of, 115, 115n10

public order, 302

reform of, 132

Organization of Judicial Investigation (OIJ), 51, 60

Oruru Department (Bolivia), 178, 190, 190n16, 192

Pact of San José, 61

Panama: accountability, 80

crime rates in, 50

gangs in, 116n16

homicide, 53, 331, 334

police abuses, 79

prisons in, 62

public opinion in, 23, 66n58

socioeconomic conditions in, 97, 98

Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), 51

Pando Department (Bolivia), 178, 190, 190n16

Paraguay: accountability, 80

crime rates, 50, 95, 331, 334

history of, 175, 231

homicide, 53, 331, 334

inequality in, 230

internal affairs, 79

international loans, 311n9

prisons, 62

public opinion, 66n58

socioeconomic conditions in, 97, 98

patrols: in Bolivia, 174, 179, 195, 199, 225, 231, 338, 339

in Buenos Aires, city of, 248

in Buenos Aires Province, 267, 270

in Córdoba Province, 254

in Honduras, 114, 117, 157, 158, 164

in La Rioja Province, 233, 286, 288, 291

in Mendoza Province, 278, 280

policing role of, 6, 14, 45, 47

reforms of, 308, 316, 317

in society, 67

in Venezuela, 38, 55n36

Paz Zamora, Jaime, 178n1, 186

penal code: of Argentina, 235

of Bolivia, 219

changes in, 35

of Chile, 34

definition of, 9, 29, 342

of Honduras, 117, 132

of Mendoza Province, 273

of Venezuela, 57

penal process code: in Argentina, 234, 235, 237, 253

in Bolivia (NCPP), 181, 203, 214–22

in Buenos Aires Province, 259

in Costa Rica, 319

definition of, 29, 92, 342

in Ecuador, 56, 58

in Guatemala, 56

in Honduras (CPP), 106, 115n10, 118, 132–35, 138, 139, 142, 153, 161, 172, 329

in Mendoza Province, 273, 282

in Nicaragua, 56

reforms of, 8–9, 12, 30, 56

in Venezuela (COPP), 27–28, 56–58

weaknesses of, 12–13

Perdomo, Mario, 112, 166, 172

Perón, Juan, 235

Peronist (Justicialista) Party: in Buenos Aires Province, 259, 261, 267

in Mendoza Province, 273, 274, 277, 281

national, 236, 243

in Salta Province, 255

Personal Identification Service (Bolivia), 189, 208n50, 208n51

Peru: accountability, 80

cocaine from, 248

corruption, 36

crime in Bolivia and, 183

crime rates, 50, 95

Defensoría, 79

homicide, 53, 331, 334

internal affairs, 79

police abuse, 78

policing, 35

prisons, 62

public opinion, 66

security reform, 28

socioeconomic conditions, 97

Philadelphia, 314

Plan Dignidad, 194

Planning and Management Assessment Unit (UPEG), 137

Plan of Reinforced Citizen Security, 187–88

plea bargaining, 135

police abuse: accountability and, 78, 79, 82, 302

broken windows and, 32

detentions and, 60

discipline and, 72

investigations of, 80, 299

law and, 15

Mexico City, 41

oversight and, 27

politics and, 17

purges and, 81

reform and, 299, 308, 309, 322, 326, 330

rights groups and, 36

São Paulo (Brazil), 78

study of, 13

Venezuela, 57, 81. See also headings beginning with “internal affairs”

police abuse in Argentina: in Buenos Aires Province, 258–60, 262, 263–64, 266, 271

Federal Police of Argentina, 242, 250

La Rioja Province, 291, 294

in Mendoza Province, 271, 273, 276, 280

national, 233, 234, 235, 236, 239

Salta Province, 255

San Luis Province, 256

police abuse in Bolivia: accountability, 211–13

cadets as victims of, 197–98

during detention, 186, 210

forms of, 193

investigation of, 211–12, prose-cution for, 186, 213

special units and, 177

police abuse in Honduras: accountability and, 149, 155

community policing and, 163

investigations of, 112, 118

legal reform and, 171

punishment for, 150

recognition of, 168

reporting, 119

rights group and, 132

special operations and, 161

U.S. funding and, 169n143

police academies: in Costa Rica, 299, 318

Dominican Republic, 37

in Guatemala, 305

limits, 37–39, 302

Los Angeles Police Academy Magnet School Program, 328

New York Police Department, 36

in Peru, 36

reforms of, 304–6

in Uruguay, 37. See also police training

police academies in Argentina: Córdoba Province, 253

Escuela de Suboficiales y Agentes, 290

Escuela Superior, 290

Federal Police, 244, 246, 249, 250

Instituto de Formación Superior, 290

in Mendoza Province, 276, 282

La Rioja Province, 286, 290

provincial, 253, 254

University Institute of Integral Security (IUSI), 255, 256

University Institute of Public Security (IUSP), 276, 278, 281–82

Security and Criminal Policy Institute (IPCS), 260

police academies in Bolivia: Basic Police School (Esbapol), 195, 196, 197–98

curricula, 188, 189

location, 190

National Police Academy (Anapol), 176, 195, 196–97, 198n28, 223, 225

Police School, 176

Superior Police School (ESP), 192, 196, 197

training in, 195–98

Universidad Policial “Mariscal Antonio José de Sucre” (Unipol), 195, 196–97

police academies in Buenos Aires Province: Center for Advanced Studies in Police Specialties (CAEEP), 263

curricula, 259

Technological School in Public Security, 263

Juan Vucetich Police School, 263

police academies in Honduras: Academic Council, 131

Center for Police Instruction (CIP), 109, 110, 130, 136

community policing and, 167, 304

corruption and, 151

formation of, 107, 109

limits of, 130–31

National Police Academy (ANAPO), 109, 110, 130, 167

promotion and, 128

School for Subofficials (ESO), 109, 110

Superior Institute of Police Studies (ISEP), 109, 110

Police Inspector (Honduras), 111

police management: in Argentina, 278

in Bolivia, 183, 200–204, 209, 220

comisarías and, 303

decentralization and, 40

in Honduras, 110, 127–31

internal divides and, 14, 68

in La Rioja Province, 289, 290, 291, 296

in Mendoza Province, 282

in New York City, 301

reform, 12, 298, 306, 320–23, 325

in Venezuela, 38, 45n23

weaknesses, 6, 21, 44–48, 76, 79, 81

police ranks: in Argentina, 249, 254

in Bolivia, 180, 195–98, 198n28, 199–200, 206–7, 210–11, 213

in Buenos Aires Province, 262

evaluation and, 17

extortion and, 204

in Guatemala, 36

in Honduras, 107, 109, 128, 150, 166, 167

in La Rioja Province, 289, 290–91

numbers of, 7

promotion among, 39

relations among, 14–15, 44–45, 47, 75, 81, 217

salary differences, 47

in Salta Province, 255

training and, 37, 38

police stations. See comisarías

police training: corruption and, 47

courses, 14

in Guatemala, 36

investigation, 12, 26, 55, 56

legal, 21, 33, 299

national security doctrine and, 25n6

preventative, 45

public relations, 23–24

quality of, 30, 36–38

reform and, 68, 304, 306, 308, 320, 328

reform of, 12, 14, 20, 37–39, 303, 325

U.S.-funded, 74, 215

in Venezuela, 27, 57. See also police academies

police training in Argentina: Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 246–47, 249, 250

Buenos Aires Province, 259, 261, 263, 271

Departmental Retraining Centers, 263

La Rioja Province, 289–90, 292

Mendoza Province, 272, 272n72, 276, 278, 279, 281, 283, 287–89

national, 235–37, 239, 252, 253, 254

Salta Province, 255

San Luis Province, 256

Santa Fe Province, 254

Venezuela, 37

police training in Bolivia, 183, 184, 185–86, 189, 195–98, 198n28, 176, 177, 187, 215, 222, 225, 229

Office of Instruction and Training, 198

police training in Honduras, 108, 109, 110, 125, 126, 128, 130–31, 136, 138, 142, 147, 151, 169–70n143, 170, 337

National Vocational Training Institute, 145

polls: in Argentina, 241, 257

in Bolivia, 183, 192

in Chile, 23

citizen security, 1, 22, 25, 55, 102

in Maracaibo (Venezuela), 77

in Panama, 23

on the police, 66n58

in Honduras, 117, 126, 159, 165

in Mendoza Province, 272, 273, 273n75, 274n78, 283

in Venezuela, 93. See also public opinion

pollution: in Argentina, 255

concerns over, 325

Population and Migration Office, 110

Potosí, city of (Bolivia), 175

Potosí Department (Bolivia), 178, 192

poverty: in Argentina, 237, 237n6, 239, 243

in Bolivia, 183, 230

in Buenos Aires Province, 266, 269, 269n65

crime and, 16, 95, 97–99, 316

in Honduras, 18, 107, 164–65, 329

in Nicaragua, 83

policies on, 103

prisons: in Argentina, 62, 238, 252

in Brazil, 62

budgets, 144

in Buenos Aires Province, 259

conditions, 61, 312–13

in Costa Rica, 60

criminal justice and, 60, 61

drugs, 59

education in, 313

funding of, 61, 143

killings, 51

Latin America country chart, 62

in Mendoza Province, 272–73, 276, 277, 277n84, 279, 280

overcrowding, 56, 73, 341

populations, 62

reforms of, 39

relations of, 11

in Salta Province, 255

in San Luis Province, 256

riots, 61, 128, 280

in Venezuela, 62

violence, 61. See also prisons in Bolivia

prisons in Honduras

prisons in Bolivia: administration, 177

civil rights and, 216

conditions, 62, 216, 221

debtors and, 181

drug, 194

Law of Penitentiary Security, 221

National Penitentiary and Supervision Office, 221

Palmasola Prison, 210

population, 220

records, 202

San Pedro Prison, 221

sentencing and, 216, 313n11

prisons in Honduras: administration, 109, 144

budgets, 143

Centro Penal, Comayagua, 145

Centro Penal San Pedro Sula, 139, 143, 144, 145n75, 143

conditions, 62, 112, 141–46

control of, 109

criminal justice and, 132–33

El Porvenir Agricultural Penal Colony, 142, 143, 144, 150

gangs and maras in, 117n20, 118

legal access from, 139

Penitentiary Cooperation and Control Committees, 144

Penitentiary Institute, 144

population, 133n53

riots, 111, 128

sentences, 126

training, 144

private security: in Argentina, 269–70, 270n67, 270n69

Association of Firms of Security and Private Investigation of Honduras (ASEMSIPH), 149

Association of Private Security Agencies, 279

Battalion of Private Physical Security (BSFP), 177, 203

in Bolivia, 186, 177, 203–4, 204n36

in Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 270n67, 270n69

in Chile, 85n11

in Costa Rica, 85, 85n11, 87

documenting, 11

growth, 39, 44, 72, 85–87, 88

in Honduras, 109, 148–49

Latin American country comparison, 87

in Mendoza Province, 278–79

in Mexico, 86

Private Enterprise Registry, 279

Santa Cruz Department, 207

in Uruguay, 87

in Venezuela, 44. See also gated communities

privatization: in Argentina, 237

in Honduras, 146, 203

problem-oriented policing: application of, 35, 46, 67, 306, 307, 321

in Argentina, 233, 234, 235, 254, 257, 297

in Bolivia, 200, 201, 222, 225, 226, 227, 231

in Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 242, 244, 246

in Buenos Aires Province, 258

development of, 1, 5–6, 7, 12, 17–18, 44

discretion and, 298

in Honduras, 105–6, 117, 137, 156, 167–68, 172

in La Rioja Province, 295–96

in Mendoza Province, 283–84, 285, 286

traditional policing and, 10, 33, 38, 102, 302, 324

Program for the Prevention of Crime and Violence (Buenos Aires [Capital Federal]), 244

promotion: Argentina, 240

Bolivia, 198–200, 212, 217

Chubut Province, 253

conflicts over, 37, 38, 75, 325

Costa Rica, 319

Ecuador, 304

education and, 38–39

Federal Police of Argentina, 249, 251, 254

Honduras, 128, 156

incentives, 14, 303–4, 308, 325

La Rioja Province, 289

Mendoza Province, 275, 276, 282

politicization of, 68

procedures of, 7

Santa Fe Province, 253, 254

Provincial Coordinating Council of the Juvenile Problem (La Rioja Province), 287

public defense: Article 332 and, 118n21

in Bolivia, 215, 216, 218, 221

in Buenos Aires Province, 259

conflicts over, 57

functioning of, 55, 58–59, 58n45, 73, 83

Honduran prisons and, 141, 143

in Honduras, 134, 134n56, 138–39, 146, 169

in San Luis Province, 256

in Venezuela, 58n44, 58n46

Public Ministry (MP): Article 332 and, 118n21, 119

in Bolivia, 214–16, 222

role of, 7

in Honduras, 108, 123n34, 124–25, 133, 134n56, 156

problems in, 57

public opinion: in Bolivia, 192, 212

changes in, 9, 69, 77

impacts on, 24

police and, 55

participation and, 16. See also polls

public relations: in Bolivia, 195, 197, 339

in Honduras, 141

in Mendoza Province, 283, 284

new units and, 42

reform and, 325

training in, 23–24

Public Security and Police Law (Mendoza Province), 275

pulling levers, 310

Quality of Life summons, 301

Quiroga, Jorge, 187–88

Quito (Ecuador), 52

Radical Party, 235, 243, 277

Radio Patrol 110, 225

rape, 59, 112

recruitment: problems in, 36–37

community policing and, 167

in Bolivia, 183, 196

in Los Angeles (United States), 329

in Santa Fe Province, 254

reform and, 320

rehabilitation: detainees, 55, 61, 100

gangs, 144–45, 158

in Honduras, 144–46, 158, 221

Law of Delinquent Rehabilitation (Honduras), 144

marginalized people, 32

National Rehabilitation Center, 311

reform and, 313

in Uruguay, 311

restorative justice, 100, 311

Revolutionary Leftist Movement MIR (Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria, MIR), 185

Rico, Aldo, 262

Río Negro Province (Argentina), 252n39, 254, 254n40

Rivera Hernández (Honduras), 160, 161, 303

robbery: occurrence of, 2, 50, 59n49, 72, 91, 93, 94, 97

in Bolivia, 210

in Buenos Aires Province, 262, 264

in Honduras, 112, 113, 116, 119, 158

in Mendoza Province, 274, 276

Rodas Gamero, Jorge, 112, 168

Rodríguez Saá, Adolfo, 255

Romero, Álvaro, 112, 130, 171

Romero, Ramón, 166

Romero de Campero, Ana María, 212

rotation: in Argentina, 283

in Bolivia, 199, 200

in Honduras, 127, 161

problems involving, 39, 45, 76, 318, 320

Ruckauf, Carlos, 261–62

rule of law: corruption and, 75

definition, 70, 71

democracy and, 18

executives and, 26

in Honduras, 119, 171

policing and, 104

state and, 72

Safco Law (Bolivia), 189, 211. See also finances

Sabbatella, Martín, 267

Safer Community (Comunidad Más Segura), 113, 157–67, 307. See also community policing

Safir, Howard, 301

salaries: in Bolivia, 177, 186–87, 203, 206–7, 211, 217

in Buenos Aires Province, 263

conflicts, 47–48

corruption and, 48

in El Salvador, 59

Federal Police of Argentina, 249

in Honduras, 127, 143, 152

increases, 7, 38

in La Rioja Province, 289

in Mendoza Province, 272–74

reform and, 304, 308

in San Luis Province, 255

Salta Province (Argentina): instability and, 254

prisons, 255

reforms in, 255

youth, 255

Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo, 28, 186, 188, 189

San Diego (California), 17

San José (Costa Rica): crime in, 60

public opinión in, 92

Tibás, 319

Zapote, 317

San Luis Province (Argentina), 100, 235, 253, 254, 255–57

Ministry of Education and Culture, 255

San Pedro Sula: antiviolence programs in, 148, 302

community policing in, 158, 159, 163

crime in, 112

killings in, 136

map, 162

municipal police, 147

policing in, 147, 157, 168. See also Sula Valley

Santa Cruz, city of (Bolivia), 203, 224

Santa Cruz Department (Bolivia): community policing, 229

Plan Tres Mil, 229

policing in, 15, 178, 180, 190–91, 202

political strife in, 187, 188, 190, 190n16

Santa Cruz Province (Argentina), 252

Santa Fe Province (Argentina): abuse in, 253

community policing, 257

demographics, 252

killings in, 252n39

Ministry of Government, 254

public opinion, 23

reform in, 253–54, 257

Special Operations Troops, 257

Santiago (Chile): information in, 314

police structure in, 17

São Paulo, city of (Brazil), 22, 78

São Paulo state (Brazil), 59

School Brigades, 186, 224

Schools of Community Participation in Security, 266

Secretariat of Government and Justice (Honduras), 140, 143–44

Secretariat of Investigations and Criminal Intelligence, 265

Secretariat of Prevention, 295

Secretariat of Security: Citizen Security Committees and, 157

formation, 150

of Honduras, 108–11, 114, 122–25, 124n36, 131, 144, 145, 337

human rights abuse, 153–54

internal affairs and, 152, 153–54

of La Rioja Province, 285, 291

laws and, 170

of Salta Province, 255, 285, 291

structure, 156

Secretariat of Security and Community Protection, 236

Secretariat of Social Defense, 179

Secretary of Justice and Security, Buenos Aires Province, 260, 265

Security Police: in Bolivia, 176

in Buenos Aires Province, 260

shantytowns: See barrios; villas Siles Suazo, Hernán, 185

Social Accord for Security (Mendoza Province), 285

social services: in Argentina, 244, 245, 248, 264

decentralization, 10

in Honduras, 109, 137, 168

in Mendoza Province, 284

in La Rioja Province, 286

policing and, 39, 83

in United States, 326

youth, 32

zero tolerance and, 33–34, 35

Solá, Felipe, 244n22, 262, 263

South Africa, 31, 328

Spain: advisors and training from, 108, 134n56, 151

colonial history of, 235

Special HIV/AIDS law (Honduras), 115

Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT), 111

sports: basketball courts, 102, 153, 307

events, 218, 224

groups, 288, 293

leagues, 160–61

youth, 307

Strategic Government Coordination Committee, 286

strategic planning: Bolivia’s police, 170, 186

Buenos Aires Province’s police, 258

gangs and, 310

Institutional Strategic Plan, 189

in La Rioja Province, 285, 292, 296

of Mendoza Province parties, 274

Office of Strategic Planning, 285

police structures and, 318

prevention, 266

recruitment, 166

security reform, 298, 299, 301, 304, 323, 324–26

Strategic Government Coordinating Committee, 286

Strategic Plan of Integral Public Security, 168

Strategic Plan of Security and Prevention of “AntiSocial” Conduct, 273

youth and, 287. See also police management

strikes: in Argentina, 235, 255

in Bolivia, 174, 177–79, 189, 193, 207n47, 214

in Honduras, 155

private security in Bolivia, 203

Subsecretariat of Community Participation, 263

Subsecretariat of Human and Social Rights, 242

Sucre (Bolivia), 66, 175, 202, 208

Sula Valley (Honduras): Peace and Coexistence Program, 146

Sumario, 56

Support and Citizen Cooperation Patrol (PAC), 223

suicide, 2n4, 99

Supreme Court: in Argentina, 64

capital punishment and, 306n4

in Córdoba Province, 253

in Costa Rica, 35

in Honduras, 140–41, 145, 151

in Mendoza Province, 282

in United States, 64

in Venezuela, 64

surveys. See polls; public opinion

System of Geographic Information (SIG), 263

System of Special Analysis for the Construction of Maps, 236

Tactical Police Operations Unit (UTOP), 178

Tarija Department (Bolivia), 178, 190, 190n16, 208

taxes: in Bolivia, 190, 193, 207n47 maras, 116

Technical Homicide Board, 52, 312

Technical Unit of Penal Reform (Honduras), 167

Tegucigalpa (Honduras): community policing in, 159, 160–61, 162, 163–64, 167

crime in, 112

gangs in, 120

Municipal Police of, 147

policing in, 67, 126, 129, 131, 168

terrorism in, 170n143

UAI headquarters in, 152

terrorism, 169, 170n143, 178n1, 339

Thailand, 305

Tijuana (Mexico), 48

Tragic Week, 235

Transit Police: of Honduras, 110, 150

of Bolivia, 210, 224

transparency: accountability and, 8, 76

in Argentina, 253

in Bolivia, 187

citizens and, 29

financial, 329

in Honduras, 125, 152, 168

among institutions, 11

Law of Transparency and Access to Public Information, 149, 151

private security and, 86

reform and, 320

unemployment: in Argentina, 237

in Bolivia, 183, 230

in Colonia Kennedy, 160

in Honduras, 165

in Mendoza Province, 273, 273n75

in metropolitan Buenos Aires area, 269, 269n65

relation to crime, 22, 95, 96, 97

of youth, 16, 100

unions: in Argentina, 235, 258

in Bolivia, 207

in Honduras, 111

United Kingdom, 31

United Nations: reports of, 69

Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juveniles, 100

United Nations Development Program (UNDP), 149, 198, 230

United States: Agency for International Development (USAID), 74, 74n4, 134n56, 215n65

Department of Defense, 74, 169n143

Department of Justice, 74, 74n4, 136

Department of State, 74, 74n4, 170n143

Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), 74n3, 186

Unit of Minor Protection, 255

universities: Aconcagua University, 288

Argentina’s police and, 254, 263

Catholic University, 305

City University of New York, 288

collaboration with police, 37–38, 305

Francisco Morazán University (UPNFM), 131

in Honduras, 130–31, 165

National Autonomous University, 131

National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH), 131

National University of Cuyo, 231

San Francisco de Quito University, 305

University of Minas Gerais, 305

urbanization: in Bolivia, 230

and decentralization, 83–85

and geography, 82

Uruguay: Citizen Security Program of, 316

crime rates in, 50

crime statistics in, 49

homicide, 52, 53, 331, 334

police training in, 37

prisons in, 62

public opinion, 66

security reforms in, 19, 27

socioeconomic conditions in, 97

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 74, 74n4, 134n56, 215n65

use of arms: exams on, 36

private security and, 204n36

training on, 130

Vargas State (Venezuela), 57

vehicles: contraband, 43n19, 92

Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), 264

in Bolivia, 186, 202, 207, 253

in Honduras, 127, 136, 147, 150, 161, 163

in La Rioja Province, 288, 295

in Mendoza Province, 284

need for, 48

reform and, 7

thefts of, 136, 141. See also cars

vendors: in Argentina, 283

in Bolivia, 227, 310

disbursing, 14

in Honduras, 148

Venezuela: Assistance Centers, 61

crime, 2, 50, 95

crime reports, 48, 49n28

criminal investigation, 55, 55n36, 56–58, 59

death squads, 92, 92n19

drug trafficking, 172

homicide, 2, 53, 83, 331, 334

homicide of youth, 100, 100n26

human rights, 82, 95

instability, 28, 69

killings by police, 51

Law of Vagabonds and Crooks, 35

legislature, 27–28

police abuse, 81

Police Reform Commission, 25

police-society relations, 66

policing, 35, 43, 88, 305

public opinion, 66n58, 77, 228

security reform, 20, 25, 27

socioeconomic conditions, 97. See also Caracas

Chávez, Hugo; Federal District

Viceroyalty: of La Plata, 175

of New Spain, 106

of Peru, 175

victimization: in Bolivia, 183

Crime Victim Centers, Santa Fe Province, 257

insecurity and, 23

management, 49

surveys, 49, 282

vigilantism: in Bolivia, 92, 219–20, 227

in Cochabamba (Bolivia), 219n80

in Federal District (Venezuela), 93

in Guatemala, 92

patterns of, 90, 92, 103

in Venezuela, 93

villas (Argentina): Buenos Aires (Capital Federal), 247, 248, 264

definition, 342

Carlos Gardel, 264

La Cara, 264

La Cava, 271. See also barrios

villas (Bolivia): Villa Adela Conave, 227, 228

Villa Bolívar, 226n96

Villa Victoria, 227n99

violence: in Bogotá (Colombia), 316

fear of, 90

international, 42

patterns, 19, 54, 76, 84, 94–95, 98

by police, 61, 67, 305

policy, 103, 313

politics and, 28, 94

poverty and, 97

society and, 303, 309, 317

state, 73, 77, 104

STOP the Violence program, 328

study of, 90–91

in Venezuela, 57

victims, 2, 327

youth and, 2, 99–101, 311, 327–28. See also domestic violence

violence in Argentina: in Buenos Aires Province, 262, 265, 268, 271

in city of Buenos Aires, 243, 244, 247, 248, 250

in La Rioja Province, 286, 288

in Mendoza Province, 271, 276

national, 234

in San Luis Province, 256. See also domestic violence; violence

violence in Bolivia: causes, 195

citizen forums and, 227

during detention, 218

drug eradication and, 194

family, 229

police and, 193

policing of, 197

political, 194, 227

prison, 221

rates, 182. See also domestic violence; violence

violence in Honduras: antiviolence programs, 146, 148, 170

community policing and, 160

crime and, 113

fatalities, 131

poverty and, 329

prison, 142

urban, 112

women and, 167

youth, 117. See also domestic violence; violence

violence interrupters, 268, 328

Violence Observatories: on gender, 325

of Honduras, 113, 131

role in reform, 52, 311–12, 324–25

Vulnerable Communities Program, 240

War: Chaco War, 175, 176

Ministry of, 175

of the Pacific, 175

Wayar, Raúl, 255

weapons: AK-47s, 129–30, 149, 152n93

CompStat and, 46

control of, 30, 43n19

criminals and, 73

in Honduras, 129–30, 141, 149, 157

M-16s, 149

police, 306

Police Law, 130

trafficking of, 124

Uzis, 129, 149

in Venezuela, 30

Wilson, James Q., 30

witnesses: in Argentina, 274

in Bolivia, 210, 220

criminal justice role of, 13, 54, 57, 300

in Honduras, 119, 125, 126, 134, 137, 154

protection of, 92n10, 299

policing and, 72, 73

in vigilantism, 93

women: homicide of, 59–60

Office for Women (Honduras), 167. See also domestic violence; gender

World Bank, 134n56, 151

You Choose program, 287

youth: in Argentina, 254

in Bolivia, 193, 223, 224, 240, 247

in Buenos Aires Province, 265, 267, 269, 270

crime among, 52, 99–100, 318, 324

discrimination against, 88

drug use, 32

in El Salvador, 101

gangs, 36, 74, 342

in Honduras, 115–22, 129, 145–46, 152–54, 165, 170

in La Rioja Province, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296

in Mendoza Province, 273, 283, 284, 286–88

in Nicaragua, 101

policing of, 101–4, 310–11

programs, 6, 9, 105, 160, 307, 328–29

at risk, 29, 39, 300

in Salta Province, 255

social relations, 84, 90, 102–4, 303, 327

unemployment, 16

Yungas (Bolivia), 179, 225

Zelaya, Manuel “Mel”: appointments of, 112, 169, 171

citizen forums of, 146

community policing and, 165

police purges of, 155

private security and, 149

problem-oriented policing, 168

reforms under, 171–73

Supreme Court nominations, 140

youth killings and, 152

zero tolerance: in Argentina, 236

in Honduras, 113, 115

in New York, 301

policing and, 29–36, 85, 88, 90

Previous Chapter

References

Additional Information

ISBN
9781421428147
Related ISBN
9781421429403
MARC Record
OCLC
1049797471
Pages
367-389
Launched on MUSE
2018-08-29
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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