1 Raymond Aron, Memoirs: Fifty Years of Political Reflection, trans. George Holoch (New York: Holmes & Meier, 1990), 202, 206.
2 Raymond Aron, Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2003), 5–6.
3 Aron, Memoirs, 211–212.
4 Raymond Aron, “A Half-Century of Limited War?,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 12, no. 4 (April 1956): 103.
5 Hans Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 26.
6 Ibid., 183–216.
7 Ibid., 232–233.
8 Kenneth N. Waltz, “The Politics of Peace,” International Studies Quarterly 11, no. 3 (September 1967): 199, 201.
9 Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495–1975 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1983); idem, “Theories of General War,” World Politics 37, no. 3 (April 1985): 344–374; idem, “Domestic Politics and War,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18, no. 4 (Spring 1988): 653–673.
10 Hedley Bull, The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics (London: Macmillan, 1995 ), 200.
11 Ivan Arreguín-Toft, How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 3–4.
12 William Zartman and Victor A. Kremenyuk, eds., Cooperative Security: Reducing Third World Wars (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1995); William Zartman and Guy Olivier Faure, eds., Escalation and Negotiation in International conflicts (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Alan J. Kuperman, “The Stinger Missile and U.S. Intervention in Afghanistan,” Political Science Quarterly 114, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 219–263.
13 John Ellis, From the Barrel of a Gun: A History of Guerrilla, Revolutionary and Counter-insurgency Warfare, from the Romans to the Present (London: Greenhill, 1995); Robert B. Asprey, War in the Shadows: The Classic History of Guerrilla Warfare from Ancient Persia to the Present (London: Little, Brown, 1994); Walter Laqueur, Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical and Critical Study (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1998); Ian Frederick and William Beckett, Modern Insurgencies and Counter-insurgencies: Guerrillas and Their Opponents since 1750 (London: Routledge, 2001); Leroy Thompson, Dirty Wars: Elite Forces vs. the Guerrillas (Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1990).
14 Joanna Wright, “PIRA Propaganda: The Constriction of Legitimacy,” Conflict Quarterly 10, no. 3 (Summer 1990): 24–41; John A. Hannigan, “The Armalite and the Ballot Box: Dilemmas of Strategy and Ideology in the Provisional IRA,” Social Problems 33, no. 1 (October 1985): 31–40.
15 Michael McKinley, “Lavish Generosity: The American Dimension of International Support for the Provisional Irish Republican Army, 1968–1983,” Conflict Quarterly 7, no. 2 (Spring 1987): 20–42.
16 Waltz, “The Politics of Peace,” 199.
17 Institute for National Security Studies, Strategic Assessment: Engaging Power for Peace (Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1998), esp. chap. 11; Robert D. Steele, “The Asymmetric Threat: Listening to the Debate,” Joint Forces Quarterly, Autumn/Winter 1998–1999, 78–84.
18 Brantly Womack, China and Vietnam: Politics of Asymmetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 78.
19 Andrew Mack, “Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars: The Politics of Asymmetric Conflict,” World Politics 27, no. 2 (January 1975): 175.
20 Ibid., 177–179.
21 Ibid., 188.
22 Andrew Mack’s biography is available on the Human Security Report Project website (http://www.hsrgroup.org/about-hsrp/OurPeople/Andrew_Mack.aspx).
23 United Nations, “Press Conference to Launch Report on ‘Shrinking Costs of War,’” press release, United Nations, Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, New York, January 20, 2010, http://www.un.org/News/briefings/docs/2010/100120_War.doc.htm.
24 Hans Morgenthau, “The Pathology of American Power,” International Security 1, no. 3 (Winter 1977): 3–20; Michael Howard, “The Forgotten Dimensions of Strategy,” Foreign Affairs 57, no. 5 (1979); J. Hart, “Three Approaches to the Measurement of Power in International Relations,” International Organization 30, no. 2 (1976); James Lee Ray and Ayse Vural, “Power Disparities and Paradoxical Conflict Outcomes,” International Interactions 12, no. 4 (1986); Zeev Maoz, “Power, Capabilities, and Paradoxical Conflict Outcomes,” World Politics 41, no. 2 (1989); Seymour Melman, “Limits of Military Power: Economic and Other,” International Security 11, no. 1 (Summer 1986): 72–87.
25 Michael Fischerkeller, “David versus Goliath: Cultural Judgments in Asymmetric Wars,” Security Studies 7, no. 4 (Summer 1998): 1–43; A. F. K. Organski and Jacek Kugler, “Davids and Goliaths: Predicting the Outcomes of International Wars,” Comparative Political Studies 11, no. 2 (July 1978):141–180; idem, The War Ledger (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), esp. chap. 11, “Davids and Goliaths: Predicting the Outcomes of International Wars.”
26 M. Anderson, M. Arnsten, and H. Averch, Insurgent Organization and Operations: A Case Study of the Viet Cong in the Delta, 1964–1966 (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp. for the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense and the Advanced Research Projects Agency, August 1967); Eliot A. Cohen, “Constraints on America’s Conduct of Small Wars,” International Security 9, no. 2 (1984):151–181; Frank C. Darling, “American Policy in Vietnam: Its Role in the Quakeland Theory and International Peace,” Asian Survey 11, no. 8 (1971): 818–839; Michael J. Engelhardt, “America Can Win, Sometimes: U.S. Success and Failure in Small Wars,” Conflict Quarterly (Winter 1989): 20–35; Laurence E. Grinter, “How They Lost: Doctrines, Strategies and Outcomes of the Vietnam War,” Asian Survey 15, no.15 (1975): 1114–1132; Chang Jin Park, “American Foreign Policy in Korea and Vietnam: Comparative Case Studies,” Review of Politics 37, no. 1 (1975): 20–47; J. A. Koch, The Chieu Hoi Program in South Vietnam, 1962–1971: A Report Prepared for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., January 1973); Timothy Lomperis, “Vietnam’s Offspring: The Lesson of Legitimacy,” Conflict Quarterly (Winter 1986): 18–33; James McAllister and Ian Schulte, “The Limits of Influence in Vietnam: Britain, the United States and the Diem Regime, 1959–63,” Small Wars & Insurgencies 17, no.1 (2006): 22–43; Mark Peceny, “Two Paths to the Promotion of Democracy during U.S. Military Interventions,” International Studies Quarterly 39, no. 3 (1995): 371–401; G. D. T. Shaw, “Laotian ‘Neutrality’: A Fresh Look at a Key Vietnam War Blunder,” Small Wars & Insurgencies 13, no. 1 (2002): 25–56; Willard J. Webb and Walter S. Poole, History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: The Joint Chiefs of Staff and the War in Vietnam, 1971–1973 (Washington, DC: Office of Joint History, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2007).
27 Henry Kissinger, Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003); Robert S. McNamara with Brian VanDeMark, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995).
28 C. D. Jones, “Just Wars and Limited Wars: Restraints on the Use of the Soviet Armed Forces,” World Politics 28, no. 1 (1975): 44–68; S. P. Rosen, “Vietnam and the American Theory of Limited War,” International Security 7, no. 2 (Fall 1982): 83–113; “Vietnam Reappraised: Debates,” International Security 6, no. 1 (Summer 1981): 3–27; Guan-Fu Gu, “Soviet Aid to the Third World: An Analysis of Its Strategy,” Soviet Studies 35, no.1 (January 1983): 71–89; W. Andrew Terrill, “Low Intensity Conflict in Southern Lebanon: Lessons and Dynamics of the Israeli-Shi’ite War,” Conflict Quarterly, Summer 1987, 22–35; Errol A. Henderson and David J. Singer, “Civil War in the Post-colonial World, 1946–92,” Journal of Peace Research 37, no. 3 (May 2000): 275–299; Mark P. Lagon, “The International System and the Reagan Doctrine: Can Realism Explain Aid to ‘Freedom Fighters’?,” British Journal of Political Science 22, no.1 (January 1992): 39–70.
29 The September 1995 issue of Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, titled “Small Wars,” was devoted to small wars. In addition to the theoretical aspects, the articles analyzed specific armed conflicts, the role of the United States, the problem of the arms trade, international law application, experiences with postconflict transformation, and reconciliation. See, in this issue, Roger Beamount, “Small Wars: Definitions and Dimensions,” 20–35; William V. O’Brien, “The Rule of Law in Small Wars,” 36–46; Stephanie G. Neuman, “The Arms Trade, Military Assistance, and Recent Wars: Change and Continuity,” 47–74; Richard H. Shultz Jr., “State Disintegration and Ethnic Conflict: A Framework for Analysis,” 75–84; Carnes Lord, “The Role of the United States in Small Wars,” 89–100; Michael Moodie, “The Balkan Tragedy,” 101–115; James Brown, “The Turkish Imbroglio: Its Kurds,” 116–129; Christine M. Knudsen and I. William Zartman, “The Large Small War in Angola,” 130–143; Edwin G. Corr, “Societal Transformation for Peace in El Salvador,” 144–156; Max G. Manwaring, “Peru’s Sendero Luminoso: The Shining Path Beckons,” 157–166; and Sumit Ganguly, “Wars without End: The Indo-Pakistan Conflict,” 167–178.
30 Pierre Allen and Albert A. Stahel, “Tribal Guerrilla Warfare against a Colonial Power: Analyzing the War in Afghanistan,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 27, no. 4 (1983): 590–617; Alexandre Bennigsen, The Soviet Union and Muslim Guerrilla Wars, 1920–1981: Lessons for Afghanistan (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., 1981); David Charters, “Resistance to the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan: Problems and Prospects,” Conflict Quarterly, Summer 1980, 8–15; idem, “Coup and Consolidation: The Soviet Seizure of Power in Afghanistan,” Conflict Quarterly, Spring 1981, 41–48; Lee Coldren, “Afghanistan in 1984: The Fifth Year of the Russo-Afghan War,” Asian Survey 25, no. 2 (February 1985): 169–179; Joseph Collins, “Soviet Policy toward Afghanistan,” Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science: Soviet Foreign Policy 36, no. 4 (1987): 198–210; idem, “The Use of Force in Soviet Foreign Policy: The Case of Afghanistan,” Conflict Quarterly, Spring 1983, 20–47; Richard P. Cronin, “Afghanistan in 1988: Year of Decision,” Asian Survey 29, no. 2 (February 1989): 207–215; Tad Daley, “Afghanistan and Gorbachev’s Global Foreign Policy,” Asian Survey 29, no. 5 (May 1989): 496–513; Erik P. Hoffman, “Soviet Foreign Policy from 1986 to 1991: Domestic and International Influences,” Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science 36, no. 4 (1987): 254–272; Efraim Karsh, “Influence through Arms Supplies: The Soviet Experience in the Middle East,” Conflict Quarterly, Winter 1989, 45–55; Mark N. Katz, “Why Does the Cold War Continue in the Third World?,” Journal of Peace Research 27, no. 4 (November 1990): 353–357.
31 Melvin R. Laird, “Iraq: Learning the Lessons of Vietnam,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2005; Barnett R. Rubin, “Saving Afghanistan,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2007; Robert M. Cassidy, Russia in Afghanistan and Chechnya: Military Strategic Culture and the Paradoxes of Asymmetric Conflict (Carlisle Barracks: PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2003); Martin Ewans, Conflict in Afghanistan: Studies in Asymmetric Warfare (New York: Routledge, 2005); Mark Galeotti, Afghanistan: The Soviet Union’s Last War (London: Cass, 2001); Eric Micheletti, Special Forces: War against Terrorism in Afghanistan, 2001–2003, trans. Cyril Lombardini (Paris: Histoire & Collections, 2003); Jules Stewart, The Khyber Rifles: from the British Raj to Al Qaeda (Sutton: Stroud, 2006).
32 Alexander Golts, “Military Reform in Russia and the Global War against Terrorism,” Journal of Slavic Military Studies 17, no. 1 (2004): 29–41; Anatol Lieven, Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999); John Russell, Chechnya: Russia’s “War on Terror” (London: Routledge, 2007); David French, The British Way in Warfare, 1688–2000 (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990); Daniel Isaac Helmer, “The Currency of Defeat: Asymmetric Warfare and Israel’s Loss of the War in Lebanon,” PhD diss., Oxford University, 2006; Adam Lowther, Asymmetric Warfare and Military Thought (London: Glen Segell, 2006); Rod Thornton, Asymmetric Warfare: Threat and Response in the Twenty-first Century (Cambridge: Polity, 2007); Womack, China and Vietnam; Ylva Isabelle Blondel, The Power of Symbolic Power: An Application of O’Neill’s Game of Honour to Asymmetric Internal Conflict (Uppsala: Uppsala University, 2004); Jürgen Mittelstrass, ed., Symmetry and Asymmetry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
33 Frank L. Jones, “Blowtorch: Robert Komer and the Making of the Vietnam Pacification Policy,” Parameters, Autumn 2005, 103–118; George Quester, “The Guerrilla Problem in Retrospect,” Military Affairs 39, no. 4 (December 1975): 192–196; D. Michael Shafer, “The Unlearned Lessons of Counterinsurgency,” Political Science Quarterly 103, no. 1 (Spring 1988): 57–80; Benjamin C. Schwartz, American Counterinsurgency Doctrine and El Salvador: The Frustrations of Reform and the Illusions of Nation Building. A Report for the National Defense Research Institute (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., 1991); Walter C. Soderlund, “An Analysis of the Guerrilla Insurgency and Coup D’État as Techniques of Indirect Aggression,” International Studies Quarterly 14, no. 4 (December 1970): 335–360; Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley, “Terror and Guerrilla Warfare in Latin America, 1956–1970,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32, no. 2 (April 1990): 201–237; Counterinsurgency: A Symposium, April 16–20, 1962, ed. Stephen Hosmer (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., 2006 ); Paul Christopher, Colin P. Clarke and Beth Grill, Victory Has a Thousand Fathers: Sources of Success in Counterinsurgency (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., 2010); idem, Victory Has a Thousand Fathers: Detailed Counterinsurgency Case Studies (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., 2010).
34 L. V. Deriglazova, “K voprosu ob zvopliuttsii fenomena partizanskoi voiny” [On the evolution of the partisan war (guerrilla warfare) phenomenon], Mirovaiia ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia 4 (April 2009): 95–103.
35 Mao Zedong, “Voprosi strategii partizanskoi voiny protiv iaponskikh zakhvatchikov,” “O zatiazhnoi voine,” Izbrannie proizvedeniia [Strategy of guerrilla war against Japanese invaders; On protracted war, in selected writings] (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo inostrannykh literatur,1953), vol. 2.
36 Ernesto Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1969); Lewis H. Gann, Guerrillas in History (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1971); Walter Laquer, Guerrilla: A Historical and Critical Study (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1977); idem, ed., The Guerrilla Reader: A Historical Anthology (London: Wildwood House, 1978).
37 T. E. (Thomas Edward) Lawrence, Secret Despatches from Arabia, foreword by A. W. Lawrence (London: Golden Cockerel Press, 1939).
38 John E. Mack, A Prince of Our Disorder: The Life of T.E. Lawrence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990); Jeffrey Meyers, The Wounded Spirit: T.E. Lawrence’s “Seven Pillars of Wisdom” (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989); Malcolm Brown and Julia Cave. A Touch of Genius: The Life of T.E. Lawrence (London: Dent, 1988); James Lawrence, The Golden Warrior: The Life and Legend of Lawrence of Arabia (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1990); Hart Liddell and Henry Basil, Lawrence of Arabia (New York: Da Capo, 1989).
39 Herfried Münkler, “Terrorizm sevodnia: Voina stanovitsia assymetrichnoi” [Terrorism today: War is becoming asymmetric], Internationale Politik 1 (2004); N. Komleva and A. Borisov, “Assimetrichnye voini: Geopoliticheskaia tekhnologiia sovremennogo terrorizma” [Asymmetric wars: Geopolitical technology of contemporary terrorism], Obozrevatel 11-12 (2002), http://rau.su/observer/N11-12_02/index.htm; H. Richard Schultz, Jr., and J. Andrea Dew, Insurgents, Terrorists, and Militants: The Warriors of Contemporary Combat (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006); Robert M. Cassidy, Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2006); Hy S. Rothstein, Afghanistan and the Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2006).
40 See Ruth Wedgwood and Kenneth Roth, “Combatants or Criminals? How Washington Should Handle Terrorists,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2004.
41 G. V. Malinovskii, Sovremennye pokal’nye voini imperializma protiv narodov, boriosh-chikhcia za natsional’nuiu nezavisimost: Uchebnoe posobie dlia slushatel’nei Voennoi Akademii khimicheskoi zashchity [Contemporary local wars of imperialism against peoples fighting for national independence: Textbook for the students of the Military Academy of Chemical Protection] (Moscow, 1972); R. A. Savushkin, Pokaln’ye voiny imperializma (1945–1978): Uchebnoe posobie [ Local imperialist wars (1945–1978): Textbook] (Moscow: BPA, 1979); I. I. Georgeadze, V. V. Larionov, and N. A. Antona, Pokal’nie voiny: Istoriia i sovremennost, pod red. I. E. Shavrov [Local wars: History and modernity, ed. I. E. Shavrov] (Moscow: Voenizdat, 1981).
42 Malaiia voina: Opicannaia maiorom v sluzhbe korolia Prusskogo, per. c frantsuskogo I. F. Bogdanovitchem [Small war: Described by a major in the Prussian king’s service, translated from French by I. F. Bogdanovich] (St. Petersburg, 1768); Pravila maloii voiny i upotreblenie legkikh voisk: Ob’iasnenie primerami voiny maiorom Valentini, pred. s nem Gen.-Maior Gogel [Rules of small war and use of light armies: Major Valentini’s explanation by means of warfare examples, translated from German by Major General Gogel] (St. Petersburg, 1811); A. E. Engelgart, Kratkoe nachermanie maloi voiny dlia vsekh rodov opuzhiia, sost. General leitenant [A brief description of small warfare for all types of weapons, compiled by Lieutenant General] (St. Petersburg, 1850); A. E. Engelgart, Srazheniia. Malaia voina. Kurs po voennomu dely [Battles. Small War. Military Course. 1855] (B.M. Lit. Il’ina, 1855); V. Balk, Malaia voina (Samostoiatel’nyi vid voini, vedomoi slaboiu staronoiu protiv sil’nogo protivnika), iz vpechenie iz “Taktiki” Bapka, izd. Kak prakticheskoe rukovodstvo dlia komandnogo sostava [Small war (Separate type of war waged by a weak party against a strong one); extract from Tactics, by Balk. Published as a practical manual for officers, translated from German] (Moscow: Voennoe delo, 1919).
43 V. V. Kvachkov, retired colonel of the Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate, participated in combat operations in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, and Tajikistan; was accused of organizing an assassination attempt on Anatoly Chubais in 2005; and was acquitted by a jury in June 2008. Kvachkov is the author of Russian Special Task Force (Spetsnaz Rossii), which was made available through the Internet portal “Military Business” (http://militera.lib.ru). In 2007, the book was published in Moscow by Panorama Publishing House.
44 Philip Towle, Should the West Arm Guerrillas? (London: Council for Arms Control, 1988); Franklin Mark Osanka, ed., Modern Guerrilla Warfare: Fighting Communist Guerrilla Movements, 1941–1961, introduction by Samuel P. Huntington (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1962); Daniel S. Papp, “Soviet Unconventional Conflict Policies and Strategies in the Third World,” Conflict Quarterly, Fall 1988, 26–49.
45 “Lokal’nye voiny XX veka: Rol’ SSSR” [Local wars of the twentieth century: The role of the USSR], Otechestvennaia istoriia 4 (992): 3–3; Rossiia (SSSR) v lokal’nykh voinakh i vooryzhennykh konfliktakh vtoroi poloviny XX veka. [Russia (USSR) in local wars and armed conflicts in the second half of the twentieth century], pod red. V. A. Zolotarev (Moscow: Kuchkovo pole, Politgraphresursy, 2000); S. Kolomnin, Russkii spetsnaz v Afrike [Russian Special Task Force in Africa] (Moscow: Eksmo, 2005).
46 Ogranichennye voiny: Kratkii ukazatel literatury [Limited wars. Brief literature index], Military Scientific Library of the General Staff (Moscow, 1965), 17.
47 Afganski uroki: Vyvody dlia budushchevo v svete ideinogo naslediia A. E. Snesareva [Afghan lessons: Conclusions for the future based on the legacy of A. E. Snesarev] (Moscow: Voennii Universitet, Russkoe put, 2003); Problemy sotsial’noi reabilitatsii ychastnukov voiny v Afganistane (1979–1989 gg.) [Problems of social rehabilitation of the Afghan war participants (1979–1989)] (Moscow, 1993); O. A. Grinevskiy, Tainy sovietskoi diplomatii [Mysteries of Soviet diplomacy] (Moscow: VAGRIUS, 2000); I. Rotar, Pylaiushchie oblomki imperii: Zametki voennogo korrespondenta [Empire shatters ablaze: Notes of a military correspondent] (Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2001); 2001); M. Iu. Markelov, Voina za kabrom: Professiia—russkii zhurnalist [War offscreen: Profession—Russian journalist] (Moscow: Eksmo, Algoritm, 2004); Afganistan bolit b moei dushe: Vospominaniia, dnevniki sovietskikh voinov, vypolniavshikh internatsional’nii dolg v Afganistane [Afghanistan, a pain in my soul: Memoirs, diaries of Soviet soldiers fulfilling their international duty in Afghanistan] (Moscow: Molodaia gvardiia, 1990); A. D. Davydov, Afganistan: Voiny moglo ne byt. Krest’iastvo i reform [Afghanistan: War could be avoided. Peasantry and reforms (Moscow: Nauka, Vostochnaia literatura, 1993).
48 I. Kramnik, “Afganistan: Pokhod zapado po sovietskim grabliiam” [Afghanistan: The West repeating Soviet mistakes], RIA Novosti, February 15, 2009, http://www.rian. ru/analytics/20090215/162051686.html; “Russia Seeks Bigger Role in Afghanistan on Eve of BRIC Summit,” US Post Today, June 15, 2009, http://www.usposttoday.com/russia-seeks-bigger-role-in-afghanistan-on-eve-of-bric-summit/.
49 I. Busygina, “Asymmetrichnaia integratsiia b Evropeisckom coiuze” [Asymmetric Integration in the European Union], Mezhdunarodnye protsess 5, no. 3 (15, September–December 2007); Iu. A. Bulanikova, “Strategiia integratsii Balkanskikh gosudarstv v EC i NATO: Sravnitel’niĭ analiz (1989–2007 gg.)” [Strategy of Balkan states’ integration into the EU and NATO: Comparative analysis (1989–2007)], dissertation, MGIMO, Moscow, 2011.
50 A. R. Aklaev, Etnopoliticheskaia konfliktologiia: Analiz i menedzhment: Uchebnoe pocobie [Ethnopolitical conflict studies: Analysis and management: Textbook] (Moscow: Delo, 2005).
51 Ibid., 104.
52 Ibid., 107.
53 Robert Agranoff, Accommodating Diversity: Asymmetry in Federal States (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1999).
54 Aklaev, Etnopoliticheskaia konfliktologiia [Ethnopolitical conflict studies], 31.
55 S. K. Oznobishchev, V. Ia. Potapov, and V. V. Skokov, Kak gotovilcia “asimmetrichnii otvet” na “Strategicheskuiu oboronnuiu initsiativy” R. Reigana [How the asymmetric response to Ronald Reagan’s SDI was prepared] (Moscow: Lenand, 2008).
56 Iu. R. Khismatullina, “Simmetriia, asymmetrii i dissimmetriia v strukture I razvitii zhivoi materii” [Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry in the structure and development of the living matter], dissertation, Saratov, 2005; A. A. Sanglibaev, “Sovremenii politicheskii protsess na Severnom Kavkaze: Proiavlenie etnostatusnoi asimmetrii” [Contemporary political process in the North Caucasus: Manifestation of ethno-status asymmetry], dissertation, Rostovon-Don, 2001; E. A. Stepanova, “Terrorizm v asimmetrichnom konflikete na pokal’no-regional’nom global’nikh urovniakh (ideologicheskie I organizatsionnye aspekty” [Terrorism in asymmetric conflict at the local/regional and global levels (ideological and organizational aspects)], dissertation, Moscow, 2011; A. A. Sushentsov, “Politicheskaia strategiia SSHA v mezhdunarodnykh konfliktakh 2000-x godov (na primer situatsii v Afganistane i Irake)” [Political strategy of the USA in international conflicts in the 2000s (case studies of Afghanistan and Iraq)], dissertation, Moscow, 2011.
57 S. G. Chekinov and S. A. Bogdanov, Asimmetrichye deistviia po obospecheniiu voennoi bezopasnosti Rossii” [Asymmetric actions to ensure Russian military security], Voennaia mysl 3 ( 2010):13–22; E. A. Stepanova, “Asymmetrichnyi konflikt kak cilovaia, statusnaia, idiologicheskaia i strukturnaia asymmetria” [Asymmetric conflict as power, status, ideological and structural asymmetry], Voennaia mysl 5 (2010): 47–54; E. M. A. Khrustaev, “Diversionno–terroristicheskaia voina kak voenno-politicheskii feonomen” [Sabotage and terrorist war as a military-political phenomenon], Mezhdunarodnye protsessy 1, no. 2 (May–August 2003).
58 D. G. Baliuev, “Politika voine postindustrial’noi epokhi (Poniatie asimmetrii v voine I konflikte)” [Politics in war of the postindustrial era (The notion of asymmetry in war and conflict)], in Sovremennaia mirovaia politika: Prikladnoi analiz, otv. red. A. D. Bogutarov [Contemporary world politics: Applied analysis, ed. A. D. Bogaturov], sect. 1, chap. 11 (Moscow: Aspekt-Press, 2009); “Prikladnye aspektyanaliz global’noi bezopastnosti, gl. 5, v Global’naia bezopasnost: Innovatsionnye metody analiza konfliktov, pod. red. A. I. Smirnova [Applied aspects of global security analysis, chap. 5 in Global Security: Innovative Methods of Conflict Analysis, ed. A. I. Smirnov] (Moscow: Obschestvo “Znanie” Rossii, 2011), esp. sec. 5.3.
59 Owing to their close interconnection, asymmetric strategies can be separated from asymmetric tactics only tentatively. In general, however, strategy is the large-scale planning or organization of a military operation to achieve certain political and military objectives, while tactics have to do with the specific uses of troops and weaponry to achieve those objectives. As summed up in the frequently quoted words of Carl von Clausewitz, “Tactics is the art of using troops in battle; strategy is the art of using battles to win the war.” An asymmetric strategy aims to compensate for resource and power inequality and to exhaust the stronger adversary’s political ability to wage war, instead of unrealistically expecting military victory. Asymmetric tactics are actions designed to explore and attack a stronger opponent’s vulnerabilities while sidestepping its power structures and military forces. Protracted guerrilla and terrorist operations meet the criteria of asymmetric strategies and tactics, as they are intended to inflict noticeable damage using limited means while avoiding direct clashes with a superior adversary.
60 Cassidy, Russia in Afghanistan and Chechnya, 5.
61 Robert H. Scales, “Adaptive Enemies: Dealing with the Strategic Threat after 2010,” in Future Warfare: Anthology, rev. ed. (Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College Press, 2001): 43.
62 General Colin L. Powell, “A Doctrinal Statement of Selected Joint Operational Concepts,” November 10, 1992, 11, http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/doctrine/research/p146.pdf.
64 Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Doctrine Encyclopedia (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1997), 59, http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/dod/docs/encya_b.pdf
65 Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for Joint Interdiction Operations, April 10, 1997, Joint Publication 3-03 (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1997; rev. ed., 2007): I-1–I-2, http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/dod/jp3_03.pdf.
67 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Joint Strategy Review (Washington, DC, 1999), 2.
68 Robert Gates, Quadrennial Defense Review (Washington, DC: Department of Defense, February 2010), 80, 87, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/qdr-2010.pdf.
69 See, for instance, documents on the website of the Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College (http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/), and the website of the Center for Asymmetric Warfare, Naval Postgraduate School, Point Mugu, CA (http://www.cawnps.org).
70 See the serial publications Parameters, Military Review, Joint Forces Quarterly, and the like.
71 Lloyd J. Matthews, ed., Challenging the United States Symmetrically and Asymmetrically: Can America Be Defeated? (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 1998).
72 Steven Metz and Douglas V. Johnson II, Asymmetry and U.S. Military Strategy: Definition, Background, and Strategic Concepts (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2001), http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB223.pdf.
73 Cassidy, Russia in Afghanistan and Chechnya, 5-6; Steven Metz, “Strategic Asymmetry,” Military Review 81 (July–August 2001): 24.
74 Joint Chiefs of Staff, Doctrine for Joint Interdiction Operations, Joint Publication 3-0, 17 September 2006, Incorporating Change 1, February 13, 2008 (JP 3-0 (CH 1), GL-16.
76 J. Paget, Counter-insurgency Campaigning (London, 1967), 176.
77 “Holistic” is a term used in science to stress the necessity of considering all aspects or parts of an object under investigation, evaluating it as a whole rather than as its constituent parts. Holistic analysis focuses on complete systems; a holistic analysis of warfare looks beyond individual strategies, tactics, and battles to consider the entire conduct of a war.
78 Williamson Murray, ed., A Nation at War in an Era of Strategic Change (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, September 2004), 3.
79 Chris Field, Asymmetric Warfare and Australian National Asymmetric Advantages: Taking the Fight to the Enemy, Working Paper 136 (Duntroon, Australia: Land Warfare Studies Centre, November 2009); “Gaza Operation Investigations: An Update” (Tel Aviv, Israel: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, January 2010), http://www.mfa.gov.il/NR/rdonlyres/8E841A98-1755-413D-A1D2-8B30F64022BE/0/GazaOperationInvestigationsUpdate.pdf.
80 Nicholas J. Newman, Asymmetric Threats to British Military Intervention Operations (London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 2000).
81 See Terrorism and Asymmetric Conflict in Southwest Asia, June 23–25, 2002: Conference Proceedings, RAND’s Center for Middle East Public Policy and the Geneva Center for Security Policy, ed. Shahram Chubin, Jerrold D. Green, and Andrew Rathmell (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp., 2002); War and Morality: Proceedings of a RUSI Conference, “Morality in Asymmetric War and Intervention Operations”: Held on 19–20 September 2002, including a new section on the Iraq War and its aftermath, ed. Patrick Mileham (London: Royal United Services Institute for Defence Studies, 2004).
82 Montgomery C. Meigs, “Unorthodox Thoughts about Asymmetric Warfare,” Parameters, Summer 2003, 4–18.
83 Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects, SIPRI Research Report 23 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 15–23.
84 J. G. Eaton, “The Beauty of Asymmetry: An Examination of the Context and Practice of Asymmetric and Unconventional Warfare from a Western/Centrist Perspective,” Defence Studies 2, no. 1 (2002): 76-77.
85 General David H. Petraeus was director of the Central Intelligence Agency from September 2011 to November 2012. Prior to that, he served as Commander, International Security Assistance Force and US Forces Afghanistan (USFOR-A) (June 2010–July 2011); Commander, US Central Command (October 2008–June 2010); Commander, Multi-National Force-Iraq (May 2007–October 2008); Commander of the US Army’s Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas (October 2005); and Commander of Multi-National Security Transition Command-Iraq (June 2004–September 2005). He also was the Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations of the NATO Stabilization Force and the Deputy Commander of the US Joint Counter-Terrorism Task Force-Bosnia. His biography is available on the Department of Defense website (http://www.defense.gov/bios/biographydetail.aspx?biographyid=166).
86 David H. Petraeus, “Lessons of History and Lessons of Vietnam,” Parameters 16, no. 3 (1986): 45–46.
87 “Editors’ Welcome to the Inaugural Issue of Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict (DAC),” Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict 1, no.1 (March 2008): 1.
88 Mittelstrass, Symmetry and Asymmetry; George Andrela and Anthony Dunning, eds., The Age of Asymmetry and Paradox: Essays in Comparative Economics and Sociology (London: Athena, 2007); Womack, China and Vietnam; Gary Witherspoon and Glen Peterson, Dynamic Symmetry and Holistic Asymmetry in Navajo and Western Art and Cosmology (New York: Peter Lang, 1995).
89 T. V. Paul, Asymmetric Conflicts: War Initiation by Weaker Powers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 12, 16, 20, 23–35.
90 Ibid., 168–170, 174.
91 T. V. Paul, “Why Has the India-Pakistan Rivalry Been So Enduring? Power Asymmetry and an Intractable Conflict,” Security Studies 15, no. 4 (October/December 2006): 600–630; idem, The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
92 Fischerkeller, “David versus Goliath,” 2–3.
93 Ibid., 10–13.
94 Ibid., 43.
95 Gil Merom, How Democracies Lose Small Wars: State, Society, and the Failures of France in Algeria, Israel in Lebanon, and the United States in Vietnam (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 3.
96 Ibid., 229–231.
97 See, for example, John Prados, Vietnam: The History of an Unwinnable War, 1945–1975 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009).
98 Ivan Arreguín-Toft, “How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict,” International Security 26, no. 1 (2001): 93–128; idem, How the Weak Win Wars.
99 Arreguín-Toft, How the Weak Win Wars, 31, 18.
100 Ibid., 222–223.
101 Ibid., 227.
102 Adam B. Lowther, Americans and Asymmetric Conflict: Lebanon, Somalia, and Afghanistan (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007), 14–15.
103 Ibid., 6.
104 Ibid., 143.
105 Ibid., 135–137.
106 Ekaterina Stepanova graduated from Moscow State University with a degree in history. She worked at a Moscow-based Russian research center that was established in the 1950s: the Institute of World Economy and International Relations. She led a research group in the study of military conflict at Stockholm International Peace Research Institute in 2006–2008. Her major research interest is international terrorism. The monograph primarily analyzes two main militant ideologies whose followers often rely on terrorism tactics: radical nationalism and religious extremism.
107 Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict, 153.
108 Ibid., 161–164.
109 William Zartman, “Dynamics and Constraints in Negotiations in Internal Conflicts,” in Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil War, ed. William Zartman (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1995), 3, 7–11.
110 Christopher Mitchell, “Asymmetry and Strategies of Regional Conflict Reduction,” in Zartman and Kremenyuk, Cooperative Security 33–37.
111 Morris R. Cohen and Ernest Nagel, An Introduction to Logic, 2nd ed. (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1962), 114.
112 Mitchell, “Asymmetry and Strategies of Regional Conflict Reduction,” 26.
113 General conflict theory identifies structural (sustainable) and dynamic (changing) characteristics of conflict situations that influence the struggle results. Structural elements include the participants, the environment of their interaction, the causes of the conflict, the nature of the interaction, and the consequences of the conflict. Dynamic characteristics include the duration and intensity of the interaction, as well as the strategies and tactics of the struggle.
114 Mack, “Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars,” 177–178.
115 Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995), 629.
116 Mack, “Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars,” 178.
117 Aron, Peace and War, 34–35.
118 L. V. Deriglazova and S. Minasyan, Nagorno-Karabakh: Paradoxes of Strength and Weakness in Asymmetric Conflict, Analytical Reports of the Caucasus Institute 3 (Yerevan, Armenia: Caucasus Institute, June 2011), 10–24.
119 L. V. Deriglazova, “Ideal’ny proval: Voina SSHA v Irake cherez prizmu teorii asymmetrichnogo konflikta” [Ideal failure: US war in Iraq through the prism of asymmetric conflict theory], Svobodnaia mysl 3 (2010): 5–16.
1 Andrew Mack, “Why Big Nations Lose Small Wars: The Politics of Asymmetric Conflict,” World Politics 27, no. 2 (January 1975).
2 Lewis F. Richardson, Statistics of Deadly Quarrels (London: Stevens & Sons, 1960); Pitirim A. Sorokin, Social and Cultural Dynamics: Fluctuation of Social Relationships, War and Revolution (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1937), vol. 3; Quincy Wright, A Study of War, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965).
3 Great Power Wars, 1495–1815, data set, Jack S. Levy and T. Clifton Morgan, producers, 1989 (Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994), doi:10.3886/ICPSR09955.v1, http://www.icpsr.umich.edu; Jack S. Levy, War in the Modern Great Power System, 1495–1975 (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1985).
4 Dyadic Militarized Interstate Disputes (DYMID 2.0) Dataset—Version 2.0, developed by Zeev Maoz, University of California, Davis (last released June 3, 2008), http://psfaculty.ucdavis.edu/zmaoz/dyadmid.pdf (a dyadic version of the Militarized Interstate Dispute of Bremer, Jones, and Singer ).
6 Minorities at Risk Project (2009): Minorities at Risk Dataset, developed by Ted Robert Gurr (College Park, MD: Center for International Development and Conflict Management, 2009), http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/data.asp; Ted R. Gurr, Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts (Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace, 1993).
7 UN Collective Security System, a collective security database developed by Ernst Haas, University of California, Berkeley, http://www.usc.edu/dept/ancntr/Paris-in-LA/Database/haas.html/.
8 Major armed conflicts (1945–1995) data set, developed by Kalevi J. Holsti, University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kalevi J. Holsti, The State, War and the State of War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
9 André Miroir, Éric Remacle, and Olivier Paye, Les conflits armés de 1945 à nos jours (Paris: Services fédéraux des affaires scientifiques, techniques et culturelles, 1994).
10 Database on third-party interventions, developed by Patrick M. Regan, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, New York, http://bingweb.binghamton.edu/~pregan/; Patrick M. Regan, “Third Party Interventions and the Duration of Intrastate Conflict,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, February 2002.
12 Kristine Eck, A Beginner’s Guide to Conflict Data: Finding and Using the Right Dataset, UCDP Paper 1 Uppsala: Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala University, December 2005, 9, http://www.pcr.uu.se/digitalAssets/18/18128_UCDP_paper1.pdf.
13 Ibid., 64
15 UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset, http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/datasets/ucdp_prio_armed_conflict_dataset/
17 Code Manual to Excel Data Bank Kosimo1 (COSIMO 1, database, National and International Conflicts,1945–1999, developed by Frank R. Pfetsch, University of Heidelberg, Germany), http://www.hiik.de/en/kosimo/data/codemanual_kosimo1b.pdf.
18 UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset Codebook, Version 4–2007, 4, http://www.prio.no/sptrans/2119005713/UCDP_PRIO_Codebook_v4-2007.pdf.
19 Nils Petter Gleditsch, Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, et al., “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset,” Journal of Peace Research 39, no. 5 (2002): 617.
20 Nils Petter Gleditsch, Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, et al., Armed Conflict 1946–2000: A New Dataset. A Joint Report from the Conflict Data Project in the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University and the Conditions of War and Peace Program at the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) (Oslo: PRIO, 2001), 4.
21 UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset Codebook, Version 4–2007, 3–4.
22 F. R. Pfetsch and C. Rohloff, National and International Conflicts, 1945–1995 (London: Routledge, 2000), 27.
23 Ibid., 32.
24 Richardson, Statistics of Deadly Quarrels, 29–31, 73.
25 UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict Dataset Codebook, Version 4–2007, 8-12.
26 Code Manual to Excel Data Bank Kosimo1b, 1–12, http://www.hiik.de/en/kosimo/data/codemanual_kosimo1b.pdf.
27 For an explanation of the research methodology, see Pfetsch and Rohloff, National and International Conflicts, 1945–1995, 49.
28 Ibid., 50.
29 Calculations throughout this chapter were made based on the UCDP data for 1946–2006 (http://www.pcr.uu.se/publications/UCDP_pub/Conflict_List_1946-2006.pdf).
30 Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 113–179.
31 Raymond Aron, Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1966), 98–99.
32 R. Kagan, Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003); I. Ia. Zebelev and M. A. Troitskii, Sila i vliianie v amerikanorossiiskikh otnosheniiakh: Semioticheskii analiz, Ocherki tekushchey politiki vypusk 2 [I. A. Zevelev and, Mikhail Troitskiy. “Power and Influence in U.S.-Russian Relations: A Semiotic Analysis,” Essays on Current Politics 2]. (Moscow: NOFMO [Scientific and International Forum on International Relations], 2006), 72.
33 Correlates of War project. National Material Capabilities Data Documentation. Version 4.0 (last update June 2010), 4, http://www.correlatesofwar.org/COW2%20Data/Capabilities/NMC_Codebook_4_0.pdf.
34 T. V. Paul, Asymmetric Conflicts: War Initiation by Weaker Powers (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994).
35 Gil Merom, How Democracies Lose Small Wars: State, Society, and the Failures of France in Algeria, Israel in Lebanon, and the United States in Vietnam (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003); Ivan Arreguín-Toft, How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005); Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects, SIPRI Research Report 23 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008).
36 Both Jewish and Arab (Palestinian) organizations have used terrorist methods.
37 Indicator 13 is absent from the list and the database.
38 The United States, the USSR/Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom are considered to be the great powers of the post–World War II era. The active participation of some regional leaders, such as Israel and India, in armed conflicts 83–119 also requires taking the indicators for those countries into account, but in the present research these countries are not included among the great powers.
39 George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 1925–1950 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1967), 322.
40 I. Kende, “Wars of Ten Years (1967–1976),” Journal of Peace Research 15, no. 3 (1978): 232–234.
1 Raspad Britanskoi imperii, pod. red. A. G. Mileikovskogo [The dissolution of the British Empire, ed. A. G. Mileikovsky] (Moscow: Nauka, 1964), 633.
2 Royal Institute of International Affairs, The British Empire: A Report on Its Structure and Problems by a Study Group of Members of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (London: Oxford University Press, 1939), 1, 13.
3 Imperial Conference 1926: Inter-imperial Relations Committee, Report, Proceedings and Memoranda (Balfour Declaration). Printed for the Imperial Conference, and transferred to the National Archives from the Commonwealth Department of Foreign Affairs, 1926, p. 2. Commonwealth documents, Museum of Australian Democracy, Canberra, http://foundingdocs.gov.au/scan-sid-13.html.
4 Royal Institute of International Affairs, The British Empire, 133–167.
5 G. S. Ostapenko, Britanskie konservatory i dekolonizatsiia [British Conservatives and decolonization] (Moscow: Institut vseobshchei istorii RAN [RAS Institute of World History], 1995), 73.
6 Royal Institute of International Affairs, The British Empire, 219, 236.
7 Ibid., 237–238.
8 Ibid., 249–252.
9 Royal Institute of International Affairs, British Security: A Report by a Chatham House Study Group (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1946), 26, 29, 39.
10 Ibid., 47–49.
11 Ibid., 61–62.
12 Ibid., 82–89.
13 Ibid., 90–101.
14 Ibid., 129.
15 B. Porter, The Lion’s Share: A Short History of British Imperialism, 1850–2000 (London: Pearson Longman, 2004), 291.
16 K. Jeffery, “The Second World War,” in The Oxford History of the British Empire, edited by W. Roger Louis, vol. 4: The Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 326.
17 W. Roger Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 1941–1945: The United States and the Decolonization of the British Empire (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977), 134–136.
18 “Defence in the Mediterranean, Middle East and Indian Ocean: Memorandum by Mr. Bevin for Cabinet Defence Committee,” March 13, 1946, CAB 131(2), DO (46)40, in British Documents on the End of Empire (BDEE), Ronald Hyam, general editor, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 3: Strategy, Politics and Constitutional Change (London: HMSO, 1992), 215–218; “Financing of Colonial Defence: Letter from Mr. Creech Jones to Sir S. Cripps (Exchequer),” January 10, 1949, DEFE 7/413, ibid., 365–367; “Strategy and Current Defence Policy in South-East Asia and the Far East: JPS Report (JP(50)47) to COS,” April 6, 1950, DEFE 4/31, COS 70(50)4, May 2, 1950, ibid., 394–401.
19 I. I. Zhigalov, “Ob osobennostiakh britanskogo rabochego dvizhenie v period Vtoroii mirovoi voiny” [On the British Labour movement during World War II], in Problemy Britanskoi istoriografii (Moscow, 1982), 11].
20 Consul-General Wall to Sir R.W. Bullard (Tehran). Communicated by Tabriz dispatch no. 9, 17th Jan. Received in Foreign Office 30th Jan. “Soviet Policy in the Middle East: Analysis of the Effect on the Middle Eastern Problems of the New Soviet Approach Towards All Questions of Foreign Policy.” In British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office, Confidential Print, pt. 4: From 1946 through 1950, ser. B: Near and Middle East, vol. 1: Turkey, January 1946–December 1946 and Eastern Affairs, January 1946–March 1946 (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1999), 1–9, 190–197.
21 “‘Commonwealth Nomenclature’: Cabinet Memorandum by Mr. Attlee,” December 30, 1948, CAB 129/31, CP (48) 307, in BDEE, ser. A, pt. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 4 (London: HMSO, 1992), 179.
22 “Churchill Assails New Empire Title,” New York Times, October 29, 1948, 18.
23 Louis, preface to The Oxford History of the British Empire, edited by W. Roger Louis, vol. 4: The Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), xi–xii.
24 David French, The British Way in Warfare, 1688–2000 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 202.
25 William Roger Louis, “The Dissolution of the British Empire in the Era of Vietnam: Presidential Address to the American Historical Association,” American Historical Review 107, no. 1 (2002): 5–6.
26 Calculated based on Mileikovsky, Raspad Britanskoi imperii [The dissolution of the British Empire], 633–635.
27 Commonwealth Secretariat, Communication and Public Affairs Division, Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles (London: Marlborough House, 2004), Arts. 1, 5, 6, 8, 9 (pp. 1–3).
28 In February 1942 the Japanese forces managed to inflict a devastating defeat on the British troops and conquered well-defended Singapore. British losses were around 25,000, versus 5,000 Japanese. The loss of Singapore was considered not only a military defeat but also a source of visible moral damage to the United Kingdom’s standing in the world and in the region.
29 C. E. Carrington, “Decolonization: The Last Stages,” International Affairs 38, no. 1 (January 1962) 29.
30 Ibid., 35–36, 39.
31 In 2006, the British press published excerpts from Prince Charles’s diary. Prince Charles was present at the handover ceremony. On the flight back from China he discovered that he was the only one not seated in first class, unlike Foreign Secretary Robin Cook and other dignitaries. He then made the following entry: “Such is the end of Empire, I sighed to myself.” “Charles’ Diary Lays Thoughts Bare,” BBC News, February 22, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4740684.stm.
32 BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1: High Policy and Administration, D. J. Murray and S. R. Ashton, part editors (London: HMSO, 1992), vii.
33 Trevor Owen Lloyd, The British Empire, 1558–1995 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005).
34 The Oxford History of the British Empire, xii.
35 R. Hyam, “Introduction,” in BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1: High Policy and Administration, xxiii–lxxviii.
36 Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Order (New York: Basic Books, 2003), xxv.
37 W. J. Bryan, preface to British Rule in India Condemned by the British Themselves (London: Indian National Party, 1915), 14.
38 Mileikovsky, Raspad Britanskoi imperii [The dissolution of the British Empire], 13.
39 See K. B. Vinogradov, Na oblomkakh imperii (Kolonial’naia politika Anglii na sovremennom etape) [On the wrecks of empire (Colonial policy of England in its present stage)] (Leningrad, 1964); A. M. Glukhov, Britanskii imperialism v Vostochnoi Afrike (1945–1960 gg.): Angliiskaia kolonial’naia politika [British imperialism in East Africa (1945–1960): English colonial policy] (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo Instituta mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenii, 1962); Mezhdunarodnye otnosheniia posle Vtoroi mirovoi voiny, t. 3 (1956–1964 gg.), red. D.E. Mel’nikov i D. G. Tomashevskii [International relations after World War II, vol. 3 (1956–1964), ed. D. E. Melnikov and D. G. Tomashevski] (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literaturi, 1965); Politka Anglii v Iuzhnoi i Iugo-Vostochnoi Azii [English policy in South and Southeast Asia] (Moscow: Nauka, 1966); Kolonializm vchera i segodnia [Colonialism yesterday and today] (Moscow: Nauka, 1964); Kolonializm I mezhimperialisticheskie protivorechiia v Afrike [Colonialism and inter-imperialist contradictions in Africa (Moscow: Izdatel’stvo vostochnoi literaturi, 1962); V. G. Trukhanovskii, Vneshiaia politika Anglii posle Vtoroi mirovoi voiny [English foreign policy after World War II] (Moscow: Gosudarstveno izdatel’stvo politicheskoi literaturi, 1957); A. G. Sudeikin, Kolonial’naia politika leiboristskoi partii Anglii mezhdu dvumia mirovymi voinami [Colonial policy of the English Labour Party between the two world wars] (Moscow: Nauka, 1976).
40 See M. D. Nikitin, Chernaiia Afrika i britanskie kolonizatory: Stolknoveniie tsivilizatsii [Black Africa and the British colonizers: Clash of civilizations] (Saratov: Nauchnaya kniga, 2005).
41 Ostapenko, Britanskie konservatory i dekolonizatsiia [British Conservatives and decolonization], 11.
42 W. Churchill, “Enclosure to R-483/2. Teheran, Iran. 21st December 1943,” in Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence, vol. 3: Alliance Declining: February 1944–April 1945, edited by Warren F. Kimball (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), 6–7.
43 D. Kaiser, “Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Limits of Power,” International Security 10, no. 1 (1985): 218–219.
44 Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 513.
45 From the 1600s to the 1950s, more than 20 million people left the British Isles to start a new life overseas, and very few of them returned: Ferguson, Empire, xxv.
46 Alan Burns, In Defence of Colonies: British Colonial Territories in International Affairs (London: Allen & Unwin, 1957), 54–71.
47 “The Colonial Empire Today: ‘Summary of Our Main Problems and Policies’: CO International Relations Dept. paper. Annex: Some Facts Illustrating Progress to Date,” May 1950, CO 537/5689, no. 69, in BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1: High Policy and Administration, 335.
48 Ibid., ix, xxiii.
49 H. Macmillan, Pointing the Way, 1959–1961 (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 476.
50 A. Horne, Harold Macmillan, vol. 2: 1957–1986 (New York: Penguin Books, 1991), 195–196.
51 Quoted in M. Jones, Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia, 1961–1965: Britain, the United States and the Creation of Malaysia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), 26.
52 Starting in the 1970s, the quantitative and qualitative parameters of war as defined by the Correlates of War project, led by J. David Singer of the United States, have become widely used. War is understood as an armed conflict between two or more political entities, one of which is represented by the state, in which at least 1,000 military troops sustain battle-related casualties in the course of a year or in the course of the whole conflict: D. Singer and M. Small, The Wages of War, 1816–1965: A Statistical Handbook (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1972), 35.
53 Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper, Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain’s Asian Empire (London: Penguin Books, 2008), xxviii.
54 J. Paget, Counter-insurgency Campaigning (London: Faber and Faber, 1967), 13, 180.
55 Ibid., 181.
56 Ivan Arréguin-Toft, How the Weak Win Wars: A Theory of Asymmetric Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 231–232.
57 “It was difficult to act using violent methods, when the Indian troops exceeded the British fivefold”: Mileikovsky, Raspad Britanskoi imperii [The dissolution of the British Empire], 83–84.
58 Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 1941–1945, 149.
59 Ibid., 188.
60 Kaiser, “Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Limits of Power,” 218.
61 Field Marshall Viscount Wavell to Lord Pethick-Lawrence, “Note on the Results to the British Commonwealth of the Transfer of Political Power in India, 13 July 1946,” in Nicholas Mansergh and E. W. R. Lumly, series eds., The Transfer of Power, 1942–7: Constitutional Relations between Britain and India, vol. 8: The Interim Government, 3 July–1 November 1946, volume editor Penderel Moon, assisted by David M. Blake and Lionel Carter (London: HMSO, 1979), 49–52.
62 R. Hyam, “Introduction,” in BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1: High Policy and Administration, xxv.
63 Quoted in I. D. Parfenov, Angliiskie leiboristi i kolonializm [English Labour and colonialism] (Saratov: Izdatel’stvo Saratovskogo gosudarstvena universiteta, 1969), 45.
64 “India: Minutes of Cabinet Committee on Commonwealth Relations on India’s Future Relations with the Commonwealth,” January 7, 1949, CAB 134/119, CR 1 (49), in BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2:The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 4, 182.
65 S. G. Desiatskov and A. G. Sudeikin, “Angliiskaia politika v Palestine v 1917–1939 gg.” [English policy in Palestine, 1917–1939], in Problemy britanskoi istoriografii (Moscow, 1982), 43.
66 Jakob Abadi, “The British Experience in Palestine: A Decade of Jewish Cooperation and Resistance, 1936–1946,” Conflict Quarterly, Winter 1992, 63.
67 “Palestine: Military Implications of Future Policy; Political Implications of Future Policy. Cabinet Conclusions (Confidential Annexes),” January 15, 1947, CAB 128/11, CM 6(47) 3 & 4, in BDEE. ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1, 45, 47.
68 The Earl of Halifax to Mr. Bevin, “Annual Survey, 1944. Washington, 12th Feb. 1946.” In British Documents of Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office, Confidential Print, pt. 4, ser. C: North America, 1946, vol. 1 (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1999), 9.
69 A. Clayton, “‘Deceptive Might’: Imperial Defence and Security, 1900–1968,” in The Oxford History of the British Empire, edited by W. Roger Louis, vol. 4: The Twentieth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999),298.
70 “Memorandum of the Comparative Treatment of the Arabs during Disturbance of 1936–1939 and of the Jews during Disturbance of 1945 and Subsequent Years. Enclosed in 19 June 1947. High Commissioner for Palestine to Secretary of State for Colonies,” in Bruce Hoffman, The Failure of British Military Strategy within Palestine, 1939–1947 (Jerusalem: Daf-Chen Press, 1983), 76–81.
71 Hoffman, The Failure of British Military Strategy within Palestine, 1939–1947, 33–34.
72 D. Charters, The British Army and Jewish Insurgency in Palestine, 1945–47 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988).
73 The problem of separating these territories and creating ethnic states is implied.
74 “Palestine: Cabinet Conclusions on Relinquishing the Mandate and the Line to Be Taken at the UN,” September 20, 1947, CAB 128/10, CM 76 (47)6, in BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1, 78.
75 “Palestine: Joint Cabinet Memorandum by Mr. Bevin and Mr. Creech Jones on Attitude to Be Taken at the UN, 3 December 1947.” CAB 129/22, CP (47)320. In BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 1, 79.
76 “Memorandum on the Present State of Jewish Affairs in the United States. Communicated in Washington dispatch no.344 of 25th February; received 12th March, 1946” (E 2198/14/31), in British Documents on Foreign Affairs. Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office, Confidential Print, pt. 4: From 1946 through 1950, ser. B: Near and Middle East, 1946, vol. 1: Turkey, January 1946–December 1946, and Eastern Affairs, January 1946–March 1946, 170.
77 Donald Mackay, The Malayan Emergency, 1948–60: The Domino That Stood (London: Brassey’s, 1997).
78 “Strategy and Current Defence Policy in South-East Asia and the Far East. JPS Report (JP(50)47) to COS, 6 April 1950,” DEFE 4/31, COS 70(50)4, May 2, 1950, in BDDE, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 3: Strategy, Politics and Constitutional Change (London: HMSO, 1992), 397.
79 “Policy in Regard to Malaya and Borneo: Cabinet Memorandum by Mr. Hall (Including Sarawak),” August 29, 1945, CAB 129/1, CP (45)133, in BDEE, ser. A, vol. 2: The Labour Government and the End of Empire, 1945–1951, pt. 3: Strategy, Politics and Constitutional Change, 153–156.
80 Clayton, “Deceptive Might,” 296.
81 Memorandum, “Current Situation in Malaya.” Central Intelligence Agency. ORE 33-49, published November 17, 1949, pp. 13, 6.
82 Mackay, The Malayan Emergency, 1948–60, 148.
83 Louis, “The Dissolution of the British Empire in the Era of Vietnam,” 11, 13.
84 Jones, Conflict and Confrontation in South East Asia, 1961–1965.
85 Clayton, “Deceptive Might,” 296–298.
86 Mackay, The Malayan Emergency, 1948–60, 148.
87 Ibid., 150.
88 “The English colonial policy in East Africa was distinguished by large fluctuations, from mass repressions and the use of armed force to constitutional maneuvers and flirtation with the national bourgeoisie, from pro forma, superficial concessions to real ones. But the most important was that British imperialism took a defensive position and gradually began giving ground under the pressure of the ever-growing national liberation movements”: Glukhov, Britanskii imperializm v Vostochnoi Afrike [British imperialism in East Africa], 192–193.
89 French, The British Way in Warfare, 1688–2000, 216–217.
90 Charles W. Gwynn, Imperial Policing, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1939), 10–12.
91 Paget, Counter-insurgency Campaigning, 14–15.
92 Ibid., 16–19.
93 Ibid., 68, 176.
94 Ibid., 177–179.
95 Frank Kitson, Low-Intensity Operations: Subversion, Insurgency and Peacekeeping (London: Faber and Faber 1971), 15, 27.
96 Ibid., 49, 50.
97 Ibid., 144.
98 Ibid., 25.
99 Ibid., 152.
100 Ibid., 165–169.
101 Ibid., 200.
102 R. Stubbs, Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency, 1948–1960 (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989); T. Mockaitis, British Counterinsurgency, 1919–1960 (London: Macmillan, 1990); R. Thompson, Defeating Communist Insurgency: Experiences from Malaya and Vietnam (London: Chatto & Windus, 1966); Charters, The British Army and Jewish Insurgency in Palestine, 1945–47; I. Beckett, ed., The Roots of Counter-insurgency: Armies and Guerilla Warfare, 1900–1945 (London: Blandford,1988); idem, ed., Modern Counter-insurgency (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007).
103 R. Smith, The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World (London: Penguin Books, 2005).
104 General Rupert Smith also participated in the military operation in Iraq in 1991, commanded UNPROFOR in Sarajevo in 1995, was General Officer Commanding Northern Ireland in 1996–1998, and was Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Europe in 1998–2001.
105 A. Bullock, Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary, 1945–1951 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1983), 233.
106 Memorandum by Chancellor of Exchequer, “Defence Requirements and United States Assistance,” July 31, 1950, C.P. (50) 181, pp. 2 (171)–3 (172), http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-129-41-cp-181.pdf.
107 “Conclusions of a Meeting of the Cabinet, 25 July 1950,” C.M. (50) 50th Conclusions, pp. 173, 175, http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-128-18-cm-50-50-10.pdf.
108 “Conclusions of a Meeting of the Cabinet, 1 August 1950,” C.M. (50), pp. 189, 190, http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-128-18-cm-50-52-12.pdf.
109 Most of these funds were allocated under the British loan. The Mutual Security Program, created by the Mutual Security Act of 1951, signed into law by President Harry S Truman, authorized nearly $7.5 billion to build military, economic, and political strength among nations that were American allies, mostly Western European nations, as a counterpoise to the perceived threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War (see http://www.archive.org/stream/reporttocongress1952unit/reporttocongress1952unit_djvu.txt).
110 Table 1114, “Mutual Security Program—ICA Aid Allotments, By Regions and By Country: 1949–1955,” in Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1956, 77th annual ed. (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1956), 896.
111 Ibid., 884.
112 Cabinet Conclusion 2, “Statement of Defence, 1957,” March 18, 1957, C.C. (57), 21st Conclusions, 5 (165), http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-128-31-cc-57-21-21.pdf.
113 Cabinet Memorandum, “Statement of Defence, 1957,” March 15, 1957, C. (57) 69. Note by the Minister of Defence, “Outline of Future Policy,” 3rd proof (London: HMSO), 138, http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-129-86-c-57-69-19.pdf.
114 National Service, entailing a mandatory two-year military service for men starting from age 18, was canceled in 1963.
115 Cabinet Memorandum, “Statement of Defence, 1957.” March 28, 1957, C. (57) 80. Note by the Minister of Defence, “Outline of Future Policy,” 6th proof (London: HMSO), 212, 220, http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-129-86-c-57-80-30.pdf.
116 K. Hartley, “The British Experience with an All-Volunteer Force,” in Service to Country: Personnel Policy and the Transformation of Western Militaries, ed. Curtis Gilroy and Cindy Williams (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), 4, 6.
117 Cabinet Memorandum, “Statement of Defence, 1957,” March 28, 1957, C.(57) 80, 214–218.
118 French, The British Way of Warfare, 1688–2000, 216.
119 “Conclusions of a Meeting of the Cabinet held at 10 Downing Street, S.W. 1, on Tuesday, 2nd April, 1957, at 11 a.m,” C.C. 28 (57), National Archives, Catalogue reference CAB/128/31, p. 3, http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-128-31-cc-57-28-28.pdf.
120 According to the data in The Oxford History of the British Empire, India mobilized 2.4 million personnel for participation in World War II, Canada 1.06 million, Australia 995,000, South Africa 410,000, New Zealand 215,000, and other dependent territories combined 500,000 people: The Oxford History of the British Empire, Vol. 4, 308.
121 Clayton, “Deceptive Might,” 281.
122 French, The British Way in Warfare, 1688–2000, 216.
123 Louis, The Dissolution of the British Empire in the Era of Vietnam, 8.
124 Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Defence, “Defence: Draft White Paper,” July 4, 1967, C(67) 117. 3–8 (275–280), http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-129-131-c-117.pdf.
125 In 1968, the number of military and civilian personnel working for the British armed forces in the Far East or under contract was 80,000 according to the document. Ibid., 7 (279).
126 Ibid., 3–8 (275–280).
127 Cabinet Memorandum, “Defence Withdrawals. Memorandum by the Lord President of the Council,” July 4, 1967, C(67) 116, 2 (270), http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/small/cab-129-131-c-116.pdf.
128 French, The British Way of Warfare, 1688–2000, 220–221.
129 G. Peele, “The Changed Character of British Foreign and Security Policy,” International Security 4, no. 4 (Spring 1980): 194.
130 Churchill to Roosevelt, “Enclosure to R-483/2. Teheran, Iran, 21 December 1943,” in Churchill and Roosevelt. The Complete Correspondence, vol. 3: Alliance Declining, February 1944–April 1945, edited by Warren F. Kimball (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), 10.
131 R. Ovendale, “Introduction,” in The Foreign Policy of the British Labour Governments, 1945–1951, ed. Ritchie Ovendale (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1984), 3–4, 16–17.
132 French, The British Way in Warfare, 1688–2000, 212.
133 Jeffery, “The Second World War,” 326.
134 C. P. Kindleberger, A Financial History of Western Europe (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1984), 431–432.
135 Cited in Ferguson, Empire, 354.
136 Table no. 1111, “US Government Foreign Grants and Credits, by Program: 1945–1955,” in Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1956, 77th annual ed. (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1956), 890.
137 “The British Loan: What It Means to Us,” radio broadcast, NBC University of the Air, January 12, 1946, http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072849037/35264/01_2_brit_loan.html.
138 “Relief Assistance. December 1, 1948,” in Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, 1776–1949, vol. 12: United Kingdom–Zanzibar (Washington, DC: US State Department, 1974), 920–924.
139 V. G. Trukhanovskii, Vneshniaia politka Anglii posle Btoroi mirovoi voiny [English foreign policy after World War II], 69, 73–74.
140 A. Milward, War, Economy, and Society, 1939–1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), 351–352.
141 Churchill and Roosevelt: The Complete Correspondence, 3:7.
142 Kaiser, “Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Limits of Power,” 205, 219.
143 Mr. Paul Mason to Mr. Wright (Washington), Foreign Office, December 22, 1945. In British Documents of Foreign Affairs: Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office, Confidential Print, pt. 4, Series C: North America, 1946, vol. 1 (Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1999), 3.
144 “Report to the Secretary of State by the Under Secretary Stettinius on his mission to London, April 7–29, 1944,” in Foreign Relations of the United States, 1944, vol. 3: The British Commonwealth and Europe (Washington, DC: US State Department, Office of the Historian, 1944), 2, 17.
145 Glukhov, Britanskii imperialism v Vostochnoi Afrike [British imperialism in East Africa], 79.
146 Kindleberger, A Financial History of Western Europe, 425, 443.
147 A. Williams, Liberalism and War: The Victors and the Vanquished (London: Routledge, 2006), 121.
148 S. Abouzahr, “The Tangled Web: America, France and Indochina, 1947–1950,” History Today 54, no. 10 (October 2004): 50.
149 Data from table 1111, “U.S. Government Foreign Grants and Credits, by Program: 1945–1955,” and table 1112, “U.S. Government Foreign Grants and Credits, by Country: 1945–1955,” in Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1956, 77th annual ed. (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1956), 890–894.
150 Table 373, “Military Assistance Program—Value of Grant Aid Deliveries: 1950–1969,” in Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1970, 91st annual ed. (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, 1970), 249.
151 P. Ovendale, “Macmillan and the Wind of Change in Africa, 1957–1960,” Historical Journal 32, no. 2 (1995): 458.
152 I. D. Parfenov, Angliiskie leiboristy i kolonializm [English Labour and colonialism] (Saratov: Izdatel’stvo Saratovskogo gosuniversiteta, 1969); Sudeikin, Kolonial’naia politika leiboristskoi partii Anglii [Colonial policy of the English Labour Party]; Ryzhikov, Britanskii leiborizm segodnia [British Labour today]; Ostapenko, Britanskie konservatory i dekolonizatsiia [British Conservatives and decolonization].
153 Ryzhikov, Britanskii leiborizm segodnia [British Labour today], 41–42.
154 Ovendale, “Introduction,” 1–2.
155 D. K. Fieldhouse, “The Labour Governments and the Empire-Commonwealth, 1945–1951,” in The Foreign Policy of the British Labour Governments, 1945–1951, 83–84, 116–118.
156 Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 549.
157 Peele, “The Changed Character of British Foreign and Security Policy,” 190–193.
158 Ibid., 197.
159 Ovendale, Macmillan and the Wind of Change in Africa, 1957–1960, 455–459.
160 Ferguson, Empire, 341.
161 “Joint Statement by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill, August 14, 1941,” Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/at10.asp. “The Atlantic Conference: Memorandum of Conversation, by the Under Secretary of State (Welles), August 11, 1941,” Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/at08.asp
162 “The Atlantic Conference: Resolution of September 24, 1941,” Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/at17.asp.
163 Kaiser, “Churchill, Roosevelt, and the Limits of Power,” 207.
164 Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 147.
165 “Restatement of Foreign Policy of the United States,” address by President Harry S. Truman, press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, released October 27, 1945, http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072849037/35264/01_8_truman.html.
166 Louis, Imperialism at Bay, 567–568.
167 Burns, In Defence of Colonies, 5–6.
168 Ibid., 124.
169 Ibid., 297–298.
170 Ibid., 134–142.
171 Ibid., 6.
172 Ibid., 90–91.
173 “Macmillan Plea Made U.S. Abstain in U.N. Vote against Colonialism,” Washington Post, December 22, 1960, A1.
174 Horne, Harold Macmillan, vol. 2: 1957–1986, 273.
175 Williams, Liberalism and War, 55.
176 “A Report to the National Security Council. Memorandum for the Secretary of Defence. Implication of a Possible Chinese Communist Attack on Foreign Colonies in South China,” July 26, 1949, p. 2, Digital National Security Archive, http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/nsa/documents/PD/00150/all.pdf.
177 A Report to the National Security Council. Disposition of the Former Italian Colonies in Africa,” August 4, 1948, NSC 19/2, p. 2, Digital National Security Archive, http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/nsa/documents/PD/00061/all.pdf.
178 “A Report to the National Security Council by the Secretary of State on U.S. Position on the Disposition of the Former Italian Colonies,” July 26, 1949, NSC 19/4, pp. 9, 3–4. Digital National Security Archive. http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/nsa/documents/PD/00063/all.pdf.
179 “Current Situation in Malaya,” Central Intelligence Agency. ORE 33-49, November 17, 1949, pp. 1, 2, 9.
180 Ferguson, Empire, 351.
181 Ibid., 346–354.
182 Ovendale, “Introduction,” 17.
183 A. D. Bogaturov, Velikie derzhavy na Tikhom okeane [The great powers in the Pacific Ocean] (Moscow: Moskowskyj Obsshestvennyj Nauchyj Fond, 1997), 80–84,117.
184 P. Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987), 393–394.
185 “British Military Intervention in Laos; For Foreign Secretary Douglas-Home from Prime Minister Macmillan,” March 26, 1961, Digital National Security Archive, http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/nsa/documents/VI/00383/all.pdf; “British Support in Laos; From the Prime Minister,” March 26, 1961, Digital National Security Archive, http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/nsa/documents/VI/00385/all.pdf; “SEATO Plan,” March 28, 1961, Digital National Security Archive, http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/nsa/documents/VI/00394/all.pdf.
186 Louis, The Dissolution of the British Empire in the Era of Vietnam, 7–8.
187 Mileikovsky, Raspad Britanskoi imperii [The dissolution of the British Empire], 3, 4.
188 A. Rothstein, Vneshniaia politika Anglii i ee kritiki, 1830–1950 [British foreign policy and its critics, 1830-1950] (Moscow: Progress, 1973), 48–49.
189 A. M. Rodriguez, Istoriia stran Azii i Afriki v noveishee vremia [History of Asian and African countries in contemporary time] (Moscow: Prospect, 2006), 75–76.
190 Ferguson, Empire, 351–352.
1 Barack Obama, “An America Built to Last,” 2012 State of the Union address, press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, Washington, D.C., January 1, 2012, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/01/24/remarks-president-state-union-address.
2 The United Nations Special Commission on Iraq, or UNSCOM, was established to inspect and verify the destruction of Iraqi chemical and biological weapons, as well as production and storage facilities for these weapons and for conventional ballistic missiles.
3 “Timeline: Iraq,” BBC News, March 31, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/737483.stm.
4 Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, Pub. L. No. 105-338, 112 Stat. 3178 (1998).
5 Bob Woodward, Plan of Attack (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004), 9–11.
6 “Timeline: Iraq,” March 31, 2009.
7 Woodward, Plan of Attack, 36–37.
8 “Planning Begins,” in Hard Lessons: The Iraq Reconstruction Experience, draft of a federal report by the Office of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR) (Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office, 2009), chap. 1, 3–17.
9 J. Kampfner, Blair’s Wars (London: Free Press, 2003), 167–169.
10 George W. Bush, “President’s Remarks at the United Nations General Assembly,” September 12, 2002, http://merln.ndu.edu/merln/pfiraq/archive/wh/20020912-1.pdf.
11 UN Security Council meetings, no. 4707, February 14, 2003, S/PV.4707; UN Security Council meetings, no. 4717, March 7, 2003, S/PV4714; UN Security Council meetings, no. 4717, March 12, 2003; S/PV4717; UN Security Council meetings, no. 4721, March 19, 2003, S/PV4721.
12 UN Security Council meetings, no. 4717, March 12, 2003, S/PV4717, p. 18, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/PRO/N03/276/62/PDF/N0327662.pdf.
13 UN Security Council Resolution, adopted by the Security Council at its 4644th meeting, on November 8, 2002, S/RES/1441 (2002), http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N02/682/26/PDF/N0268226.pdf.
14 “President Pleased with U.N. Vote,” remarks by the President on the United Nations Security Council resolution, November 8, 2002, press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, November 8, 2002, http://merln.ndu.edu/merln/pfiraq/archive/wh/20021108-1.pdf.
15 “The National Security Strategy of the United States,” The White House, September 2002, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/nsc/nss/2002/.
16 UN Security Council meetings, no. 4707, February 14, 2003, S/PV.4707, pp. 19, 21, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/PRO/N03/248/19/PDF/N0324819.pdf.
18 “President Delivers ‘State of the Union,’” press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, January 28, 2003, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/01/20030128-19.html.
19 “Polling Report—Iraq,” PollingReport.com, htttp://www.pollingreport.com/iraq.htm.
20 M. Gordon, “Bush Enlarges Case for War by Linking Iraq with Terrorists,” New York Times, January 29, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/29/world/state-union-iraq-issue-bush-enlarges-case-for-war-linking-iraq-with-terrorists.html?pagewanted=2&src=pm.
21 “Debate over Iraq Fires Passions Not Seen since the Vietnam War,” USA Today, March 6, 2003, http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-03-05-anti-war-usat_x.htm.
22 G. Husinger,” Invading Iraq: Is It Justified?,” in Would an Invasion of Iraq Be a “Just War”?, 11.
23 S. Kull, “Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War,” Program on International Policy Attitudes (University of Maryland, Baltimore) / Knowledge Networks (Menlo Park, CA), October 2, 2003, 3, PIPA.org, http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/Iraq/IraqMedia_Oct03/IraqMedia_Oct03_rpt.pdf.
24 Would an Invasion of Iraq Be a “Just War”?, 1–13.
25 Joint Resolution Concerning the War Powers of Congress and the President, Public Law 93-148, 93rd Congress, H.J. Res. 542 (November 7, 1973).
26 US Senate Roll Call Votes, 107th Congress, 2nd session: Vote Summary on the Joint Resolution (H.J. Res. 114), http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d107:HJ00114.
27 Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces against Iraq, October 2, 2002, H.J. Resolution 114, 107th Congress, 2nd Session (October 11, 2002).
28 Department of Defense briefing. Secretary Rumsfeld and General Myers, March 20, 2003, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2003/iraq-030320-dod01.htm
29 George W. Bush, “Presidential Letter,” text of a letter from the President to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and President Pro Tempore of the Senate, press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, March 21, 2003, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030321-5.html.
30 “The War Begins,” New York Times, March 20, 2003, A32.
31 “U.S. Issues Most Wanted List,” World, CNN.com, April 11, 2003, http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/04/11/sprj.irq.wanted.cards/index.html
32 “The Long Way from Victory,” New York Times, May 2, 2003, A32.
33 United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI), Fact Sheet, August 7, 2007, 1, http://www.uniraq.org/documents/UNAMI_FactSheet-02Aug07_EN.pdf.
34 UN Security Council Resolution, adopted by the Security Council at its 4844th meeting, on October 16, 2003, S/RES/1511 (2003), p. 3, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/563/91/PDF/N0356391.pdf.
35 UN Security Council Resolution, adopted by the Security Council at its 4987th meeting, on June 8, 2004, S/RES/1546 (2004), http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/381/16/PDF/N0438116.pdf.
36 UN Security Council meeting, no. 5189, May 31, 2005, S/PV.5189, pp. 3-4, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/PRO/N05/365/52/PDF/N0536552.pdf.
37 Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Paragraph 30 of Resolution 1546 (2004), Security Council, December 7, 2005, S/2005/766, p. 3, http://www.uniraq.org/FileLib/misc/SG_Report_S_2005_766_EN.pdf.
38 “‘High Turnout’ in Iraqi Election,” BBC News, December 15, 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4531904.stm.
39 The Iraq Study Group Report, James A. Baker III and Lee H. Hamilton, co-chairs (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 35.
40 P. Baker, “Bush Veto Sets Up Clash on Budget. Democrats Make War-Funds Threat,” Washington Post, November 14, 2007, A01.
41 Appendix II: “Levels of Violence and U.S. Force Levels in Iraq,” in Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight, report no. GAO-09-294SP (Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office, March 2009), 41.
42 Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq on the Withdrawal of United States Forces from Iraq and the Organization of Their Activities during Their Temporal Presence in Iraq, November 17, 2008,19–20, http://www.usf-iraq.com/images/CGs_Messages/security_agreement.pdf.
43 Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight, 9.
44 Strategic Framework Agreement for a Relationship of Friendship and Cooperation between the United States of America and the Republic of Iraq, § 8: Law Enforcement and Judicial Cooperation, November 17, 2008, 6, http://www.mnf-iraq.com/images/CGs_Messages/security_agreement.pdf.
45 Iraq and Afghanistan: Security, Economics, and Governance Challenges to Rebuilding Efforts Should Be Addressed in U.S. Strategies, Before the Committee on Armed Services, H.R. (testimony of Jacquelyn Williams-Bridges, Managing Director, International Affairs & Trade), March 25, 2009, 4 (GAO-09-476T); http://www.mnf-iraq.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9202&Itemid=128.
46 “Obama Sets Iraq Deadline, Unveils New Strategy,” Reuters, February 27, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/02/27/us-obama-iraq-idUSTRE51P0AY20090227.
48 Michael E. O’Hanlon and Ian Livingston, “Iraq Index: Tracking Variables of Reconstruction & Security in Post-Saddam Iraq,” Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, November 2011, 11, http://www.brookings.edu/iraqindex. According to the website, “the Iraq Index is a statistical compilation of economic, public opinion, and security data. This resource will provide updated information on various criteria, including crime, telephone and water service, troop fatalities, unemployment, Iraqi security forces, oil production, and coalition troop strength. The index is designed to quantify the rebuilding efforts and offer an objective set of criteria for benchmarking performance. It is the first in-depth, non-partisan assessment of American efforts in Iraq, and is based primarily on U.S. government information.”
49 5 years of the War in Iraq: Collection of Facts [in Russian], Washington ProFile. March 13, 2008, 2, http://www.washprofile.org/?q=ru/node/7505 (22 May 2009) http://noravank.am/rus/articles/detail.php?ELEMENT_ID=2792.
50 Stabilizing Iraq: DOD Cannot Ensure That U.S.-Funded Equipment Has Reached Iraqi Security Forces. Report to Congressional Committees, report no. GAO-07-711 (Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office, July 2007), 2, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07711.pdf.
51 Iraq Study Group Report, 6.
52 Ibid., ix, x, xiii.
53 Ibid., 12.
54 Ibid., 22.
55 Ibid., 27–32.
56 Ibid., 33–35.
57 Ibid., 40.
58 Ibid., 59–96.
59 “President’s Address to the Nation, January 10, 2007, press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, January 10, 2007, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/01/20070110-7.html.
60 “President Bush delivers State of the Union Address,” January 23, 2007, press release, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/01/print/20070123-2.html.
61 “General Petraeus’s Opening Statement,” transcript, New York Times, January 23, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/23/world/middleeast/24petraeustextcnd.html?_r=1.
62 Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight, 9.
63 “Remarks of President Barack Obama: Responsibly Ending the War in Iraq,” Camp Lejeune, NC, February 27, 2009, press release, White House Press Office, February 27, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-of-President-Barack-Obama-Responsibly-Ending-the-War-in-Iraq/.
64 S. Simon, “The Price of the Surge: How U.S. Strategy Is Hastening Iraq’s Demise,” Foreign Affairs 87, no. 3 (2008): 74.
65 “The Future of Global Engagement: A Discussion with Admiral Michael G. Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, May 18, 2009,” Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, URL: http://www.brookings.edu/events/2009/0518_global_engagement.aspx.
66 These problems were discussed in the UN Security Council, Congress, and the US State Department and were presented in reports of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. See UN Security Council meetings, no. 6087, February 26, 2009, S/PV.6087, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/PRO/N09/249/91/PDF/N0924991.pdf; Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq: Report to Congress in Accordance with the Department of Defense supplemental Appropriations Act 2008 (§ 9204, Public Law 110-252), March 2009, http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/pdfs/Measuring_Stability_and_Security_in_Iraq_March_2009.pdf; Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the U.S. Congress, by the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction, January 30, 2009, Arlington, VA; Iraq Status Report (Washington, DC: US Department of State, Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs, April 8, 2009), http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/121770.pdf.
67 According to data prepared by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, in 2008 Iraq hosted some 2.8 million internally displaced persons, of whom 1.2 million had been displaced before February 2006 and an additional 1.6 million in 2006–2008 (http://www.unhcr.org/4919572d45.html). At the UN Security Council meeting on February 26, 2009, it was noted that in 2008, 220,000 Iraqis had returned to the country and another 500,000 more were expected in 2009, though “millions” of Iraqis are still beyond Iraqi borders. See UN Security Council meetings, no.6087, February 26, 2009, S/PV.6087, pp. 8, 14. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/PRO/N09/249/91/PDF/N0924991.pdf.
68 According to UN data, 1 million Iraqis are not sufficiently provided with food and 6 million are provided through the state distribution of food; in 2008, breakouts of cholera were observed in Iraq. See UN Security Council meetings, no. 6087, February 26, 2009, S/PV.6087, p. 13. Moreover, according to UN data, around 15,500 physicians worked in Iraq, while around 100,000 physicians are needed for the population of 27.5 million; see “Iraqi Expatriate Professionals Back in Iraq for the First Conference on Iraq’s Capacities and Expertise,” UNAMI Focus 29 (December 2008): 5, http://www.uniraq.org/FileLib/misc/Focus_December2008.pdf.
69 Table 2.1, “U.S. Appropriated Funds,” in Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress, by the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (Washington, DC: US Government Accountability Office, January 30, 2009), 27.
70 Ibid., 14–15.
71 Ibid., 45.
72 Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, 20.
73 G. Bruno, “Finding a Place for the ‘Sons of Iraq,’” Washington, DC, Council on Foreign Relations, Backgrounder, January 9, 2009, 2, http://www.cfr.org/publication/16088/role_of_the_sons_of_iraq_in_improving_security.htm.
74 Quarterly Report and Semiannual Report to the United States Congress, by the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, January 30, 2009), 7.
75 Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight, 25, 28.
76 UN Security Council meetings, no. 6087, February 26, 2009, S/PV.6087, p. 9, http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/PRO/N09/249/91/PDF/N0924991.pdf.
77 “Rossiia vzbolgaet irakskuiu neft” [Russia will stir up the Iraqi oil], Kommersant 64, no. 4119 (April 10, 2009), http://www.kommersant.ru/doc.aspx?fromsearch=07d03dc5-e2b0-4568-a640-dda6a1a0c417&docsid=1152768.
78 Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight, 21, 22.
79 Effective Counterinsurgency: How the Use and Misuse of Reconstruction Funding Affects the War Effort in Iraq and Afghanistan, Hearing, Armed Services Committee, H.R., transcript, March 25, 2009, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111hhrg52944/html/CHRG-111hhrg52944.htm.
80 “Effective Counterinsurgency: How the Use and Misuse of Reconstruction Funding Affects the War Effort in Iraq and Afghanistan, Before the Committee on Armed Services, H.R. (testimony of Stuart W. Bowen Jr., Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction), March 25, 2009, SIGIR 09-002T.
81 Ibid., 15.
82 UN Security Council meetings, no. 6087, February 26, 2009, S/PV.6087, p. 14.
83 “Iraq Index,” November 30, 2011, 12.
84 J. Muir, “‘No Delay’ in US Withdrawal from Iraq,” BBC News, April 27, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/middle_east/8020815.stm.
85 Andrew W. Terrill, Regional Spillover Effect of the Iraq War (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, December 2008), 7, 4, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=901.
86 “Iraq Index,” section titled “Estimated Availability of Essential Goods,” November 30, 2011, p. 26.
87 “Business Environment Snapshot for Iraq,” Washington, DC, World Bank 2012, http://rru.worldbank.org/besnapshots/BecpProfilePDF.aspx?economy=iraq.
88 “Global Peace Index Rankings, 2011,” http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi-data/#/2011/scor/IQ.
89 Iraq Poll, February 2009. This survey was conducted for ABC News, the BBC, and NHK by D3 Systems of Vienna, VA, and KA Research Ltd. of Istanbul, Turkey (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/13_03_09_iraqpollfeb2009.pdf).
90 Brookings Institution, Saban Center for Middle East Policy, “Iraq Index,” 47–50. http://www.brookings.edu/about/centers/saban/iraq-index.
91 “Iraqis ‘More Upbeat about Future,’’’ BBC News, March 16, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7942974.stm.
92 International Republican Institute, “IRI Iraq Index: October 2010 Survey of Iraqi Public Opinion” (February 2, 2011) http://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/2011%20February%202%20IRI%20Index,%20October%2023-30,%202010.pdf.
93 International Republican Institute, “IRI Iraq Index” (June 16, 2011), http://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/2011%20June%2016%20IRI%20Iraqi%20Index,%20 April%2013-18,%202011.pdf.
94 UN Security Council meetings, no. 6747, April 10, 2012, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2012/sc10604.doc.htm.
96 US Department of Defense, “Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), U.S. Casualty Status: Fatalities as of: September 11, 2013” (Washington, DC: US Department of Defense, September 11, 2013), http://www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf.
97 T. Shanker, “Army Is Worried by Rising Stress of Return Tours to Iraq,” New York Times, April 6, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/06/washington/06military.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=april%206%202008%20thom%20shanker&st=cse.
98 “Base Slayings Spur Probe of Mental Health Care,” Washington Post, May 13, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/05/12/AR2009051201127_pf.html.
99 Current Status of Suicide Prevention Programs in the Military, Hearing, Committee on Armed Services, H.R., 212th Congress, September 9, 2011, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg68463/pdf/CHRG-112hhrg68463.pdf.
100 The Military Personnel Subcommittee will meet to receive testimony on psychological stress in the Military: What steps are leaders taking?, July 29, 2009, House of Representatives, 111th Congress, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_house_hearings&docid=f:56936.pdf (July 8, 2009).
101 “Suicide Prevention Task Force Report. Executive Summary,” 2010, http://www.stripes.com/polopoly_fs/1.115776.1282666756!/menu/standard/file/Suicide%20Prevention%20Task%20Force_EXEC%20SUM_08-20-10%20v6.pdf
104 Iraq Family Health Survey Report, IFHS 2006/7 (Washington, DC: World Health Organization, 2007), http://www.emro.who.int/iraq/pdf/ifhs_report_en.pdf.
105 S. Hurst, “Iraqi Official: 150,000 Civilians Dead,” Washington Post, November 10, 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/10/AR2006111000164_pf.html.
106 “Iraqi Deaths from Violence 2003–2011,” IraqBodyCount.org, January 2, 2012, http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2011/.
107 Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts, “Mortality after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Cluster Sample Survey,” Lancet 368, no. 9545 (October 21, 2006): 1427.
108 “Iraqi Deaths due to U.S. Invasion,” JustForeignPolicy.org, http://www.justforeignpolicy.org/iraq/counterexplanation.html.
109 A. Belasco, The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations since 9/11, CRS Report for Congress, updated October 15, 2008 (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008), CRS-7, 12, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA489440.
110 “‘War on Terror’ May Cost $2.4 Trillion: Congressional Budget Office Expects the Funds Would Keep 75,000 Troops Fighting in Iraq and Afghanistan for the Next 10 Years,” CNN, October 24, 2007, http://money.cnn.com/2007/10/24/news/economy/cbo_testimony/index.htm?cnn=yes.
111 Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight, 1.
112 Hard Lessons, vii.
113 “Record Deficit Expected in 2009,” USA Today, July 28, 2008, http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-07-27-deficit_N.htm.
114 Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Overview Document: A New Era of Responsibility. Renewing America’s Promise (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2009), Summary Tables, p. 114, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/budget/summary.pdf.
115 Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Summary, 30–33, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/usbudget/fy10/pdf/fy10-newera.pdf.
116 Analytical Perspectives, Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2010, table 13–1, “Government Assets and Liabilities,” 188, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BUDGET-2010-PER/pdf/BUDGET-2010-PER.pdf.
117 A. A. Allawi, The Occupation of Iraq: Winning the War, Losing the Peace (North Yorkshire: Filey, 2007), 256, 257, 259, 260.
118 B. Knowlton, “It Rejects a House Inquiry That Found ‘Too Many Uncertainties’ on Iraqi Arms: White House Faces Tough Questioning,” New York Times/International Herald Tribune, September 29, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/29/news/29iht-defend_ed3_.html?pagewanted=all.
119 NBC, Meet the Press, May 16, 2004, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4992558/ns/meet_the_press/t/transcript-may/#.T6c7MTKhypc. The guests on the program included Secretary of State Colin Powell; Senator Joseph Biden (D-Del.), ranking member, Senate Foreign Relations Committee; and Senator John McCain (R-Ariz.), Senate Armed Services Committee.
120 “10 Questions for Madeleine Albright,” Time, September 22, 2003, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101030922-485697,00.html.
123 Figure 4.5: ABC News/Washington Post poll, May 29–June 1, 2007, http://www.pollingreport.com/iraq5.htm. N = 1,025 adults nationwide. Figure 4.6: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, April 18–22, 2007, http://www.pollingreport.com/iraq6.htm. The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International.
125 Charles A. Kupchan and Peter L. Trubowitz, “Grand Strategy for a Divided America,” Foreign Affairs 86, no. 4 (July/August 2007): 71.
126 USA Today/Gallup poll, July 6–8, 2007, 3–4, http://www.pollingreport.com.iraq3.htm; USA Today/Gallup poll, 2009. March 14–15, 2009; Gallup poll, August 5–8, 2010, http://www.pollingreport.com.iraq.htm.
135 Pew Research Center for the People & the Press survey, April 18–22, 2007, http://www.pollingreport.com/iraq5.htm; Pew Research Center for the People & the Press survey, June 18–29, 2008, http://www.pollingreport.com/iraq.htm. Both polls were conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International.
139 D. Rumsfeld, Known and Unknown: A Memoir (New York: Penguin Books, 2011), 393.
140 H. Kissinger, Diplomacy (New York: Touchstone Books, 1996), 701.
141 M. Laird, “Iraq: Learning the Lessons of Vietnam,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 6 (November/December 2005): 24.
142 “Vietnam Reappraised,” special issue, International Security 6, no. 1 (Summer 1981).
143 Ibid., 7.
144 “Wars of liberation, or guerilla wars, are always extraordinarily difficult for soldiers to fight; and they are particularly demoralizing for an army when the stakes are not very clear” (ibid., 10).
145 “Tendency of troops to become brutalized progressively by coping both with frustration and with an enemy itself acted in a way that was interpretable as brutal” (ibid., 12).
146 Ibid., 3–4.
147 Ibid., 9, 13.
148 Robert S. McNamara with Brian VanDeMark, In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam (New York: Times Books, 1995), xvi.
149 McNamara wrote, “We saw in them a thirst for—and a determination to fight for—freedom and democracy. We totally misjudged the political forces within the country” (In Retrospect, 322).
150 Ibid., 321–322.
151 Ibid., 331.
152 “The Age Factor: Older Americans Most Negative about Iraq War,” Gallup news service. May 11, 2007, http://www.gallup.com/poll/27562/Age-Factor-Older-Americans-Most-Negative-About-Iraq-War.aspx.
153 Kupchan and Trubowitz, “Grand Strategy for a Divided America,” 82.
154 Jeffrey Record and Andrew W. Terrill, Iraq and Vietnam: Differences, Similarities, and Insights (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004).
155 Clark C. Smith, Vietnam … in Iraq: Reflections on the New Quagmire (Berkley, CA: Winter Soldier Archive, 2004), 42–43, 48–55.
156 William G. Howell and Jon C. Pevehouse, “When Congress Stops Wars: Partisan Politics and Presidential Power,” Foreign Affairs 86, no. 5 (September/October 2007), 107.
157 Laird, “Iraq,” 39–40.
158 C. Gelpi and P. Feaver, Choosing Your Battle: American Civil-Military Relations and the Use of Force (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004); C. Gelpi, “The Cost of War: How Many Casualties Will Americans Tolerate?,” Foreign Affairs 85, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 2006); J. Mueller, “Response to C. Gelpi,” Foreign Affairs 85, no. 1 (January/February 2006).
159 J. Mueller, “The Iraq Syndrome,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 6 (November/December 2005): 45.
160 McNamara, In Retrospect, 323, 333.
161 L. Diamond, Squandered Victory: The American Occupation and the Bungled Effort to Bring Democracy to Iraq (New York: Times Books, 2005), 292.
162 D. Phillips, Losing Iraq: Inside the Postwar Reconstruction Fiasco (New York: Basic Books, 2005).
163 J. Dobbins, “Who Lost Iraq?,” Foreign Affairs 86, no. 5 (September/October 2007): 74.
164 A. Cordesman, The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003).
165 “What to Do in Iraq: A Roundtable,” Larry Diamond, James Dobbins, Chaim Kaufmann, Leslie H. Gelb, and Stephen Biddle, participants, Foreign Affairs 85, no. 4 (July/August 2006), 150–169.
166 S. Biddle, “Seeing Baghdad, Thinking Saigon,” Foreign Affairs 85, no. 2 (March/April 2006): 2–14.
167 M. Laird, “Iraq: Learning the Lessons of Vietnam,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 6 (November/December 2005): 22–43.
168 A. Krepinevich, “How to Win in Iraq?,” Foreign Affairs 84, no. 5 (September/October 2005): 87–104.
169 C. Kahl, “How We Fight,” Foreign Affairs 85, no. 6 (November/December 2006): 83–101.
170 John Dumbrell and David Ryan, eds., Vietnam in Iraq: Tactics, Lessons, Legacies, and Ghosts (London: Routledge, 2007).
171 “Spillover” is a term that is used in integration theory to describe the expansion of a phenomenon and its transition from one sphere of relations to other ones. For instance, the analysis of European integration is often regarded as the expansion of integration from economic to political and social spheres, as well as the geographic expansion of integration.
172 Andrew W. Terrill, Regional Spillover Effect of the Iraq War (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, December 2008), http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=901.
173 Thomas E. Ricks, Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq (New York: Penguin Press, 2006).
174 The Situation Room, Wolf Blitzer, interview with Thomas Ricks, CNN.com, March 7, 2009, http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0903/07/sitroom.01.html.
175 Thomas E. Ricks, The Gamble (New York: Penguin Press, 2009), 312.
176 “Afghan Taliban Spokesman: We Will Win the War,” Nic Robertson , interview with Taliban spokesman Zabiullah Mujahid, CNN.com, May 5, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/05/04/robertson.interview.zabiullah.mujahid/index.html#cnnSTCText.
177 R. N. Haass, War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009).
178 Brookings Institution, “War of Necessity, War of Choice,” transcript of a conference held on June 1, 2009, 10, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/events/2009/6/01%20iraq%20wars/20090601_iraq_war.pdf.
179 Ibid., 44–45.
180 Barack Obama, “Remarks by the President on a New Beginning,” speech delivered at Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, June 4, 2009, Office of the Press Secretary, The White House, http://i2.cdn.turner.com/cnn/2009/images/06/04/obama.anewbeginning.pdf.
181 Z. Brzezinski, “A Tale of Two Wars,” Foreign Affairs 88, no. 3 (May/June 2009).
182 “Obama Reverses Course on Alleged Prison Abuse Photos,” CNN, May 13, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/05/12/prisoner.photos/index.html.
183 An especially vocal critic of the Democratic administration and its policies in Iraq and Afghanistan was Dick Cheney, US vice president during the Bush administration, who was a “shadow” figure for a long time, as he avoided interviews and open debates.
184 “UK Combat Operations End in Iraq,” BBC News, April 30, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/8026136.stm.
185 Gavin Hewitt, “Uncertainty over UK Iraq Legacy,” BBC News, April 29, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/8023876.stm.
186 “Terrorism Statistics: Terrorists Acts, 1968–2006: Fatalities (Most Recent) by Country,” graph, NationMaster.com, http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ter_ter_act_196_fat-terrorist-acts-1968-2006-fatalities.
1 The COSIMO manual defines the variable “Indirect or external participants” as “parties that become involved during a conflict” and labels the involvement as (1) diplomatic, political, and/or economic support; (2) weapons sales; or (3) military intervention. For example, the first of the Indochina wars was fought between FRN,RVN,LAO//DRV,AND(PATHET LAO),AND(KHMER ISSARAK), and the external parties were USA(2),UKI(2)//CHN(2).
2 The COSIMO data set spells this information as “Russia (Czechnia)” and “CZECH LEADERSHIP.” The spelling has been revised to fit the common romanization.