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275APPENDIX

List of Armed Conflicts from the COSIMO Database Used in the Study

Following is the list of armed conflicts with at least 25 casualties, selected from COSIMO database of conflicts, for the years 1945–1999, the period covered in the study. Asymmetric conflicts are highlighted in light gray. Asymmetric conflicts with great power involvement are highlighted in dark gray. A key to country abbreviations is provided at the end of the table, as is a description of the variables used in the COSIMO publications.

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Note: Of the total of 259 armed conflicts with 25 minimum casualties selected from the COSIMO database of conflicts occurring in the years 1945–1999, 210 were asymmetric conflicts. Of these 210, 116 were asymmetric conflicts in which the great powers were involved.

COUNTRY CODE LIST

Country code

Country or area name

ABA

Antigua and Barbuda

AFG

Afghanistan

ALB

Albania

ALG

Algeria

AND

Opposition, autonomy/liberation movements, etc.

ANG

Angola

ARG

Argentina

ARM

Armenia

AUL

Australia

AZI

Azerbaijan

BAR

Barbados

BEL

Belgium

BNG

Bangladesh

BOL

Bolivia

BOS

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BRA

Brazil

BUI

Burundi

BUL

Bulgaria

BUR

Burma

CAF

Central African Republic

CAN

Canada

CAO

Cameroon

CHA

Chad

CHI

Chile

CHN

China

COL

Colombia

CON

Congo, Republic of the (Congo-Brazzaville)

COS

Costa Rica

CUB

Cuba

CYP

Cyprus

CZE

Czechoslovakia

DDR

(GDR) German Democratic Republic

DJI

Djibouti

DMA

Dominica

DOM

Dominican Republic

DRV

Vietnam, Democratic Republic of (North Vietnam)

ECU

Ecuador

EGY

Egypt

ERI

Eritrea

ETH

Ethiopia

FRA

France

GAB

Gabon

GHA

Ghana

GNB

Guinea-Bissau

GRC

Greece

GRN

Grenada

GUA

Guatemala

GUI

Guinea

GUY

Guyana

HAI

Haiti

HON

Honduras

HUN

Hungary

IND

India

INS

Indonesia

IRN

Iran, Islamic Republic of

IRQ

Iraq

ISR

Israel

ITA

Italy

IVO

Côte d’Ivoire

JAM

Jamaica

JOR

Jordan

KEN

Kenya

KHM

Cambodia

KUW

Kuwait

KYR

Kyrgyzstan

KZH

Kazakhstan

LAO

Laos

LBR

Liberia

LEB

Lebanon

LIB

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

MAA

Mauritania

MAG

Madagascar

MAL

Malaysia

MAW

Malawi

MEX

Mexico

MLI

Mali

MOR

Morocco

MZM

Mozambique

NEP

Nepal

NEW

New Zealand

NIC

Nicaragua

NIG

Nigeria

NIR

Niger

NTH

Netherlands

OMA

Oman

PAK

Pakistan

PAN

Panama

PAR

Paraguay

PER

Peru

PHI

Philippines

PLO

Palestine Liberation Organization

PNG

Papua New Guinea

POL

Poland

POR

Portugal

PRK

Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North Korea)

QAT

Qatar

RHO

Rhodesia

ROK

Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

RUS

Russian Federation

RVN

Vietnam, Republic of (South Vietnam)

RWA

Rwanda

SAF

South Africa

SAL

El Salvador

SAU

Saudi Arabia

SEN

Senegal

SER

Serbia

SIE

Sierra Leone

SOM

Somalia

SPN

Spain

SRI

Sri Lanka

STV

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

SUD

Sudan

SUR

Suriname

SYR

Syrian Arab Republic

TAJ

Tajikistan

TAW

Taiwan (Republic of China)

TAZ

Tanzania, Republic of

THI

Thailand

TIB

Tibet

TKM

Turkmenistan

TOG

Togo

TUN

Tunisia

TUR

Turkey

UGA

Uganda

UKI

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

UNO

United Nations

UPP

Burkina Faso

USA

United States of America

USB

Uzbekistan

USR

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

VAN

Vanuatu

VEN

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)

YAR

Yemen Arab Republic

YPR

People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen

YUG

Yugoslavia

ZAI

Zaire

ZAM

Zambia

ZIM

Zimbabwe

KEY TO SOME VARIABLES AS USED AND EXPLAINED IN THE COSIMO MANUAL, 19993

Variable “Disputed issues in a conflict”

1. Territory, borders, sea borders

2. Decolonization, national independence

3. Ethnic, religious, or regional autonomy

4. Ideology, system

5. Internal power

6. International power

7. Resources

8. Others

Variable “Intensity of conflicts”

1. Latent conflict; completely nonviolent

2. Crisis; mostly nonviolent

3. Severe crisis; sporadic, irregular use of force, “war-in-sight” crisis

4. War; systematic, collective use of force by regular troops

Variable “Instruments of initiator / Instruments of affected party”

Ten types of instruments are specified that can be used positively or negatively in a conflict: (1) bilateral diplomacy; (2) multilateral diplomacy; (3) information, propaganda; (4) economic instruments; (5) military instruments; (6) secret agencies and services; (7) informal, subversive instruments; (8) alliances; (9) regional or universal integration or isolation; (10) internal instruments.

Several types of instruments were used for the purpose of this research: “military” and “internal” could have the following meaning:

5. Military instruments:

5A+

dispatching military observers

5B+

delivery of arms

5C+

peacekeeping forces

5D+

withdrawal of troops

5A–

dispatching troops or vessels

5B–

concentration of troops at borders

5C–

mobilization

5D–

alerts

5E–

maneuvers

5F–

sporadic military incidents

5G–

intervention or invasion

5H–

blockade

5I–

ending military support

5K–

terrorist attacks

5L–

full-fledged war

10. Internal instruments:

10A+

government talks with opposition

10B+

ending of state of emergency

10C+

amnesty

10D+

recognition of opposition

10E+

change of government

10F+

fulfilling demands

10G+

agreement on settlement policy

10A–

demonstration pro/contra the government

10B–

street blockades, terrorist assaults

10C–

bribery, corruption

10D–

ideological mobilization, populism, charismatic leadership

10E–

censorship

10F–

unorganized resistance, street battles

10G–

arrests, police action

10H–

state of emergency, martial law

10I–

expulsion of citizens, exile

10K–

coup d’état

10L–

liquidations

10M–

military force

10N–

organized resistance, rebellion

10O–

antiregime demands

10P–

boycott actions

10Q–

nonviolent resistance

10R–

ethnic cleansing, resettlement

10S–

manipulation of elections

Variable “Outcomes, results and settlements”

Territorial outcome:

T1

separation of territory

T2

territorial loss

T3

annexation, unification, incorporation of territory

T4

denouncement of territorial claims T5 status quo; initiator upholds territorial claims

Military outcome:

M1

stalemate, ceasefire, indecisive outcome

M2

victory of initiator

M3

defeat of initiator

M4

continuation of fighting

M5

withdrawal of troops

Political outcome:

P1

no agreement reached, status quo ante

P2

some issues still in dispute

P3, P4

conclusion of a consensual agreement

P5

change of regime

P6

formation of two different independent regimes

P7

fall of regime

P8

government position weakened

P9

government position strengthened

P10

strengthening of opposition

P11

suppression of opposition

P12

admission or inclusion of opposition into the government

[P13

this indicator is missing in the data set and its manual]

P14

denouncement of claims

P15

increased influence of an external power

P16

decreased influence of an external power

P17

compromise

Additional Information

ISBN
9781421428512
Related ISBN
9781421429120
MARC Record
OCLC
1049800492
Pages
275-328
Launched on MUSE
2018-08-29
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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