publisher colophon

Index

Alcott, Abby May. See Nieriker, May Alcott

Alcott, Abigail May, 54, 59

as inspiration to Louisa May Alcott, 50–52

self-sacrificial role in family, 50

Alcott, Bronson, 53

and Emerson, 48, 49, 50

and genius, 48

as model of selfish genius, 49–50, 165, 167–68

support of Louisa May Alcott, 48–49, 212

Alcott, Louisa May, 48–54, 72–73, 107–16, 165–73, 208–10, 211–15, 226–27, 236–37

and ambition, 2, 165–70, 173, 183, 202

authorial identity of, 2, 52–54, 165–70, 177, 183

as children’s author, 7, 165, 169, 228, 236–37

and Civil War, 45, 48, 53–54, 178

critical reputation in nineteenth century, 213–14, 222, 224, 225, 226–27, 236

critical reputation in twentieth and twenty-first centuries, 7, 237

early literary career of, 49, 52–54

European trips of, 49, 107–10

and genius, 23, 48, 166–70

and illness, 178, 179–80

as lesbian, 68

marginalization from high literary culture, 126

marriage in fiction of, 72, 172–73

marriage views of, 50, 64, 72–73

on Phelps’s Story of Avis, 5, 64

relationship with father, 48–50

relationship with mother, 50–52

relationship with sisters, 40, 53 (see also Nieriker, May Alcott);

sensation stories of, 7

as wage earner for family, 49

Woolson on, 181

youth of, 40, 48–53

Alcott, Louisa May, works of: Aunt Jo’s Scrap Bag. Shawl Straps, 109–10

“The Brothers,” 212

“Debby’s Début,” 209, 210, 211, 213

Diana and Persis, 112–16, 173, 201

Flower Fables, 52, 54, 167

“The Freak of a Genius,” 170

“Happy Women,” 42–43, 62–63, 72–73

Hospital Sketches, 52, 54, 108, 166, 211–12, 224

“An Hour,” 213

Life, Letters, and Journals, 181, 214

Little Women, 72, 108, 166, 177, 181, 213, 236

“Love and Self-Love,” 209

“M. L.,” 209, 210, 211

“A Modern Cinderella,” 165, 168–70, 209

A Modern Mephistopheles, 214

Moods, 12, 23, 52, 72, 108, 166, 167, 177, 212, 213, 222, 225, 226–27, 237

“To Mother,” 51

“Nelly’s Hospital,” 213

An Old-Fashioned Girl, 177, 213, 214

“Psyche’s Art,” 165, 170–73

“The Robin,” 52

“Thoreau’s Flute,” 212

Work, 72, 224, 227, 237

Alden, Henry Mills, 237

Aldine, 143

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, 243

as editor of Atlantic Monthly, 203, 216, 219

and Phelps, 216

and Richard Henry Stoddard, 59

and Woolson, 219

ambition: in postbellum women writers, 1–2, 183, 220 (see also under individual authors);

taboo against, 3, 4, 7, 134–36, 163–73, 178

American Academy of Arts and Letters, 244

American Men of Letters series, 245

Ammons, Elizabeth, 5

Appletons’Journal, 26, 30, 227, 230

artist: European conceptions of, 15–16, 18

gaze of, 147–49, 155, 156, 157, 162

as male, 18, 45

Transcendentalist, 19, 21

concept of, vs. “woman,” 33–34, 63, 80–104, 122. See also genius

artist, woman: as aloof, 148

bird as symbol for, 88, 97, 124

complete, 31–32

depictions of, 80–104, 112–16, 119–25, 138, 146–48, 155–63, 168–73, 174–77, 183

as different from ordinary women, 29, 39

and experience, 148

failure or death of, in women’s literature, 83, 91, 92, 94, 123–25, 145–46, 148, 149, 162–63

and imagination, 131–32, 137

incomplete, 148, 150, 173

as monster, 27

ostracism of, 27, 139–40, 142

and sexuality, 157–58, 197

suffering as key to success for, 127–28, 170, 176–77, 179

artists (visual), women: as copyists, 132

in Europe, 106–7, 110–11

training for, 142

Atlantic Club: dinners, 37, 203, 204, 205

exclusion of women from, 203

Atlantic Monthly, 1, 2, 13, 36–38, 117, 118, 127, 128, 177, 186, 187, 188, 190, 194, 202–20, 232, 235, 242

Alcott and, 37, 168–69, 202, 206, 208–10, 211–15, 236

and canon, 38, 204, 220, 245

“Contributors’ Club,” 117, 213, 217, 218, 221

Rebecca Harding Davis and, 37–38, 151

dinners, 126, 203–5

as high cultural periodical, 6, 36, 38, 185, 202

as hospitable to women writers in early years, 36–38, 205

as masculine magazine, 204–5

Phelps and, 37, 202, 214–17

Spofford and, 37

Stoddard and, 206–8, 211

treatment of women’s writings, 206

women writers’ awe of, 202–3

Woolson and, 44, 118, 203, 217–20, 221, 229

Austen, Jane, 10

authorship, models for women, 3

Avallone, Charlene, 243, 249

Balzac, Honoré de, 139, 191, 232

Barker, Deborah, 130, 132, 157

Barton, Cynthia, 49

Bassil, Veronica, 165

Battersby, Christine, 131

Baym, Nina, 3, 8, 10, 35

Bedell, Madelon, 51

Beecher, Catharine, 62, 65

Beer, Thomas, 237

Bender, Thomas, 244

Bendixen, Alfred, 235

Bennett, Paula, 151

Bernstein, Susan Naomi, 165

Bildungsroman, female, 80–82

Boker, George: Elizabeth Stoddard and, 56, 59, 199, 200

and Richard Henry Stoddard, 59

Bonheur, Rosa, 111, 142, 221

Bonner, Sherwood (Katharine Bonner McDowell), 56, 247

and Emerson, 19, 22

and Longfellow, 186, 187

Bookman, 238

Book News Monthly, 245

Boott, Francis, 118

Boott, Lizzie, 118

Boston, 16, 107, 111, 127

Alcott and, 53

as elite literary center, 6, 53, 126

literary elite of, 188, 203, 206, 218

Boston Commonwealth, 211, 213

Boston Daily Advertiser, 204

Boston Globe, 237

Bowen, Edwin, 243

Boyeson, H. H., 243

Bremer, Frederika, 14

Brodhead, Richard, 165, 168, 210

Bronson, Walter, 242

Brontë, Charlotte, 6, 10, 14, 25, 28–29, 32, 34, 75, 88, 136, 146, 151, 181, 230, 246

Alcott and, 4, 28–29

Jane Eyre, 25, 28, 29, 88, 102, 139

Stoddard and, 2, 139, 146, 148, 181

Brontë, Emily, 10, 28, 136, 151

Wuthering Heights, 231

Brooks, Van Wyck, 239, 243

Browne, Junius, 231

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 14, 25, 26, 28, 29–30, 32, 34, 101, 104, 128, 181, 244

Aurora Leigh, 26, 30, 63, 64, 82, 84–87, 88–89, 91, 96, 97, 98, 100–1, 102, 103, 105, 106, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 128, 131–32, 137, 144, 147, 181

and genius, 136, 137

as ideal of woman artist, 29–30

Phelps and, 30

Stoddard and, 30

Wool-son and, 119

Browning, Robert, 29

Bryant, William Cullen, 3

Buell, Lawrence, 10, 25

Buonomo, Leonardo, 106

Burton, Richard, 242

Buzard, James, 106

Byron, (George Gordon) Lord, 181

Childe Harold, 119

Cambridge History of American Literature (Trent et al., eds.), 242

Campbell, Donna, 247

canon, 234

of American women writers, 247–50

Atlantic Monthly’s influence on, 204, 245

formation of American, 241–46

women’s exclusion from, 242–46

Carlyle, Thomas, 16

Carter, Arabella, 69–70, 71

Cary, Alice, 56

Cary, Phoebe, 56

Casper, Scott E., 245

Cassatt, Mary, 111

Cather, Willa, 247, 248

Century, 230

Chambers-Schiller, Lee Virginia, 68

Cheney, Ednah, 214, 236

Chesebro’, Caroline: Victoria, or The World Overcome, 142–43, 144

Chesterton, G. K., 236–37

Child, Lydia Maria, 26, 32, 35, 37, 62, 107, 151

Alcott and, 40, 53

authorial identity of, 34

Hobomok, 33, 35

on George Sand, 34

Chopin, Kate, 249

Clemens, Samuel, 244. See also Twain, Mark

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 133, 147

Collins, Wilkie, 230

Concord, Mass.: Alcott and, 53

May Alcott Nieriker and, 111

Cone, Helen Gray, 33, 34–35, 37

Conrad, Susan Phinney, 34

Cooke, Rose Terry, 239

and Atlantic Monthly, 37, 203

Cooper, James Fenimore, 3, 33

as Woolson’s great-uncle, 43

Cooper, Susan Fenimore, 43

Coultrap-McQuin, Susan, 42, 189, 215, 216, 235, 240

Crane, Anne Moncure: Emily Chester, 226

Critic, 29, 222, 223, 232, 237, 238, 243–44

critics, 220–33

bias against women writers, 142, 161, 221

importance to women writers, 184–85, 220

power over women writers, 220, 228

refusal to take women writers seriously, 160, 161, 185, 221

ridicule of women writers, 221–23

role in formation of high literary culture, 185

Cushman, Charlotte, 106

Daily Alta California, 28, 30, 141, 142

Daily Cleveland Herald, 44

Davis, L. Clarke, 236

Davis, Rebecca Harding, 5, 6, 63, 64, 148, 174, 177, 179, 224, 238, 247

and Alcott, 37–38, 126

and ambition, 135, 136

and Atlantic Monthly, 37–38, 203, 211

and Emerson, 19

“Life in the Iron Mills,” 37, 38, 151, 211, 235

literary legacy of, 235–36

Margaret Howth, 211

and Phelps, 38

Waiting for the Verdict, 211

“Women in Literature,”136

Davis, Richard Harding, 236

Dean, Sharon, 42, 71, 149, 247

DeForest, John W., 211

De Quincey, Thomas, 181

De Staël, Madame (Anne Louise Germaine Necker), 26–27, 34, 75, 101, 104, 120, 121, 123, 128, 136, 137, 149

Corinne, or Italy, 26, 63, 82–84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 96, 99, 100, 104, 105, 106, 120–25, 128, 130, 144, 152, 181

influence on postbellum women writers, 26

De Tocqueville, Alexis, 66

Dial, 237, 240

Dickens, Charles, 49

Dickinson, Emily, 5, 6, 43, 55, 63, 67, 68, 135, 146

and ambition, 7, 249

and Emerson, 22

and European women writers, 25, 29, 30, 31

excluded from this study, 7–8

and Higginson, 186, 187, 198, 220

household duties vs. writing, 41

as model of women’s authorship, 8, 249

Dickinson, Susan Gilbert, 68

Dobson, Joanne, 4, 66

Dodge, Mary Mapes, 118

domestic literature, 247, 249

Dorr, Julia, 232, 233

Douglass, Frederick, 6

Duff, William, 129

Duveneck, Frank, 118

Edel, Leon, 190, 194, 195, 198

editors. See Fields, James T.; Howells, William D.; Lowell, James

Eggleston, Edward, 29

Elbert, Monika M., 8, 10

Eliot, George (Mary Ann Evans), 10, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30–32, 34, 79, 101, 104, 112, 128, 151, 181, 224, 229, 230, 244, 246

Adam Bede, 75

Armgart, 91–93, 96, 98–99, 100, 104, 113, 128

and genius, 136, 137

Middlemarch, 75, 156, 159–60

The Mill on the Floss, 31

Phelps and, 4, 31–32, 74–75, 228

Romola, 75, 119

Woolson and, 4, 25, 31, 70–71, 150, 153, 181

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 6, 9, 13, 18–21, 22–24, 38, 47, 90, 128, 144, 168, 219, 241, 243, 244, 245, 246

Bronson Alcott and, 48, 49, 50

Louisa May Alcott and, 22–23, 53, 169, 186

“The American Scholar,” 17, 19

and Atlantic Monthly, 202, 210

and gaze of artist, 147

and genius, 17, 19, 141, 148, 149

and individualism, 19–20

influence on women writers, 15, 19–21, 22–24

Emma Lazarus and, 20, 22, 186, 187

Nature, 147

Phelps and, 22, 180, 188

“Self-Reliance,” 19, 20, 23, 24

Stoddard and, 23

Woolson and, 22, 24

Europe: as destination for American writers and artists, 105–25

female visual artists in, 106–7, 110–11

freedom for American women in, 106–7, 109–11, 125

scrutiny of American women traveling in, 116–18, 125

Evans, Augusta Jane: St. Elmo, 80–82, 93, 104, 124

Everett, C. C., 29, 131, 137, 147

Fern, Fanny (Sara Payson Willis Parton), 2, 14, 32, 34, 248

Ruth Hall, 40, 80–82, 93, 102, 174

Fetterley, Judith, 3

Fields, Annie, 69

Alcott and, 126, 211, 212

Boston marriage with Sarah Orne Jewett, 68

and Brontë sisters, 29

as literary hostess, 188, 211

Phelps and, 68, 74, 214–15

Fields, James T., 68, 203

Alcott and, 126, 210, 211–13

as editor of Atlantic Monthly, 207–8, 210–13, 214–15, 220

as literary host, 188, 211

Phelps and, 74, 76, 214–15

Stoddard and, 207–8

Foerster, Norman, 242

Foucault, Michel, 154

Freeman, Mary Wilkins, 239, 247

Fuller, Margaret, 24–25, 32, 38, 43, 47, 61, 75, 80, 141, 149, 245, 249

Alcott and, 23, 50, 53

authorial identity of, 33

and Emerson, 19, 20

and Europe, 106

Phelps and, 21–22

Woman in the Nineteenth Century, 14, 18, 21–22, 25, 33, 133

and women’s genius, 21, 24–25, 133, 136

as the “Yankee Corinne,” 26

Galaxy, 27, 130, 210

Gaskell, Elizabeth: The Life of Charlotte Brontë, 28

gaze, of artist, 147–49, 155, 156, 157, 162

women artists and power of male, 154–55, 156, 158–60

genius: American, 14, 15–17, 221, 241

as androgynous, 133

competing nineteenth-century ideas of, 128

democratic conceptions of, 17, 18, 129

as divinely inspired, 18, 138

elite conceptions of, 17, 129

Enlightenment views of gender equality and, 35, 133

European women writers and, 26–32

feminine, 133–34, 140

history of concept, 129

as male, 14, 18, 33–34, 129

as masculine, 129, 139, 147

as result of hard work vs. inspiration, 140–41, 161, 172

romantic, 16, 127–38, 139, 140, 149, 166, 167, 174, 175, 177, 179, 183

and sexuality, 129, 130

Victorian views of sexual difference and, 35–36, 133

women and, 24–25, 33–34, 128–63, 173–74, 177, 181–83, 250. See also artist

Gilman, Arthur, 205

Glazener, Nancy, 243

Godey’s Lady’s Book, 62

Greenwood, Grace, 106

Haps and Mishaps of a Tour in Europe, 106

grief: linked to genius, 174, 175, 177, 179, 183

for women writers, 173–83, 192, 199

Grimké, Charlotte Forten, 5, 6, 179, 247

and ambition, 134, 135

and Aurora Leigh, 30

and Emerson, 22

Grimké, Sarah, 65, 67

Habegger, Alfred, 194

Hale, Sarah Josepha, 151

and genius, 35, 133, 136, 140, 153

Hamalian, Leo, 107

Hamilton, Gail, 210

Harper and Brothers, 218, 219, 237

Harper’s Bazar, 236

Harper’s New Monthly, 16, 37, 134, 227, 228, 232, 237

as high cultural periodical, 6

Woolson and, 44

Harper’s Weekly, 210, 224, 225, 227, 237

Harris, Mary Briggs, 68, 75

Harris, Sharon, 236

Hawthorne, Julian, 214, 238, 239

on Phelps, 239, 240

and Stoddard, 224–25, 231, 238, 239

on Woolson, 238

Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 9, 10, 13, 33, 38, 40, 44–45, 107, 128, 139, 176, 225, 226, 230, 243, 244, 245, 246

and Alcott, 53

and Atlantic Monthly, 211

The Blithedale Romance, 67

“The Custom House,” 17

“damned mob of scribbling women,” 9, 17, 18

Rebecca Harding Davis and, 187

as genius, 14, 16, 175

The House of Seven Gables, 67, 101

The Marble Faun, 105, 106, 119

model of artist of, 17

Phelps and, 175, 189

The Scarlet Letter, 10, 231

“A Select Party,” 16

spinsters in fiction of, 67

Stoddard and, 187, 200–201, 208

Hawthorne, Sophia, 212

Hay, John: on “Daisy Miller,” 117

and Woolson, 180, 181, 191, 198

Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 45, 182, 194, 218, 229

Hedrick, Joan, 203, 206

Henshaw, Sarah E., 133–34, 136, 140, 153

Hicks, Granville, 240, 242

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth: Alcott and, 186, 187, 236

Dickinson and, 186, 187, 198, 220

“Letters to a Young Contributor,” 186

“Literature as an Art,” 13

Phelps and, 186, 214

Spofford and, 204

support of women writers, 37, 186

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 38, 204, 211, 243, 245, 250

Atlantic birthday party for, 126, 127, 205

and Atlantic Monthly, 202, 210

Phelps and, 188–89

Hooper, Ellen Sturgis, 171

Hooper, Lucy, 117–18

Hosmer, Harriet, 106–7, 112

Houghton, Henry, 205

Phelps and, 215, 216

Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 245

Howe, Julia Ward: and Atlantic Monthly, 37, 203

and Europe, 106–7

on George Sand, 27, 32, 250

Howells, William Dean, 107, 204, 238, 239, 243

awe of Atlantic Monthly, 202

as editor of Atlantic Monthly, 194, 215–16, 218, 220

and Henry James, 194, 215

Phelps and, 189, 215, 216

Stoddard and, 60, 220, 224, 231

Woolson and, 189, 191, 194, 218, 229–30

Huf, Linda, 81

Hutchinson, Ellen Mackay, 242

illness, for women writers. See grief, for women writers

immortality, literary: for male writers, 243–45

for women writers, 2, 32, 128, 226, 244, 248

Independent, 189, 224, 232, 240

individualism, 18–20

women and, 19–22, 39, 129

Irving, Washington, 3, 33, 243

Jackson, Helen Hunt, 5, 6, 174, 235, 244, 247

and Atlantic Monthly, 203

A Century of Dishonor, 235

and Emerson, 20

and Higginson, 186

Ramona, 235

James, Alice, 7, 178

James, Henry, Jr., 178, 218, 224, 226, 234, 238, 239, 243, 246

The American, 106

and Atlantic Monthly, 211

correspondence with Woolson, 149, 150, 198–99

“Daisy Miller,” 117, 156–58, 191, 195, 196

The Europeans, 190

friendship with Woolson, 45, 118, 187, 189–99

“Greville Fane,” 152

as model for male characters in Woolson’s fiction, 156, 191, 196–97, 199

Phelps and, 189, 215

The Portrait of a Lady, 195, 199

portrayal of female characters, 196–97

review of Alcott’s Moods, 222, 227

Roderick Hudson, 106, 196–97

on Woolson, 199, 224

James, William, 178

Jewett, Sarah Orne, 5, 6, 43, 68, 179, 186, 234, 239, 247

and ambition, 135

and Boston marriage with Annie Fields, 68

and Brontë sisters, 29

The Country of the Pointed Firs, 87, 248

and Emerson, 22

excluded from this study, 7–8

guilt about writing, 168

literary legacy of, 248–49

as model of women’s authorship, 7–8, 248

as tomboy, 40

Johnson, Patricia E., 156, 159

Kant, Immanuel, 129, 130

Kaplan, Amy, 248

Karcher, Carolyn, 34

Kelley, Mary, 43

Kern, John Dwight, 238

Kessler, Carol Farley, 75, 104

Kirk, Ellen Olney: National Exposition Souvenir: What America Owes to Women, 36

Kirkland, Caroline, 56

Künstlerroman, female, 80, 82–104, 105, 112–16, 120–25

Lacan, Jacques, 154

Ladies’Magazine, 35

Larcom, Lucy, 186, 213

Lathrop, George Parsons: and Alcott, 214

and Stoddard, 224–25, 232

Lazarus, Emma, 5, 6, 151, 186, 235, 247

and George Eliot, 31, 63

and Emerson, 20, 22, 186, 187

and genius, 63

“The New Colossus,” 235

and George Sand, 27–28

on spinsterhood, 63

Lemmon, Leonard, 238, 239, 240

Lewes, George Henry, 31, 71, 74, 75

Lippincott’s, 191, 210, 232

literary culture, high: emergence of, 4, 36–37, 185

exclusion of women from, 8–10, 244

gendered, two-tiered structure of, 9, 32, 38, 250

masculinization of, 243

in periodicals, 6, 185

vs. low literary culture, 185, 246. See also Atlantic Monthly; canon; male literary elite

literary nationalism: democratic vs. elitist, 16

liberal model of, 15–16, 33–34

as “manly,” 14, 34

republican model of, 15. See also canon

literary value, question of, 10

Literary World, 57, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 230, 232, 244

Livermore, Mary, 215

local color literature, 218, 235, 238, 246, 247, 249

Lombroso, Cesare, 129

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 38, 168, 211, 218–19, 241, 243, 244, 245

and Atlantic Monthly, 202, 210

Bonner and, 186, 187

Phelps and, 182, 186, 188

on Stoddard, 231

support of women writers, 186

Lowell, James Russell, 38, 188, 243, 245, 210

Alcott and, 202–3, 208, 211

as editor of Atlantic Monthly, 202, 206–7, 211, 220

on genius, 16

Stoddard and, 201, 203, 206–7

Lowry, Richard, 204

Lukens, Maggie, 169

Lynn, Kenneth, 210

male literary elite: and Atlantic Monthly, 203–5, 206

bias against women writers, 235

desire for recognition from, 184–86

and formation of canon, 243–46

relationships with women writers, 186–202

Woolson’s critique of, 192, 194–95. See also critics

marriage: Boston, 67–68

depictions of, in literature, 63, 71–73, 76, 80–104, 112–16, 123–24

rates after Civil War, 64

for women in nineteenth century, 63, 64–67

for women writers and artists, 5, 41, 42–43, 46–47, 62–64, 66, 74–80

Matlack, James, 56, 77

Mattapoisett, Mass., and Stoddard, 54, 55, 56, 77–78, 139

McCarthy, Justin, 27, 130

Melville, Herman, 10

“Hawthorne and His Mosses,” 17

Meredith, George, 232

Milton, John, 29, 39, 135

Mintz, Stephen, 67

Moers, Ellen, 26

Moss, Mary, 238, 247

motherhood, 65, 67

decline of birth rates in nineteenth century, 65

depiction in women’s artist narratives, 102, 113–14, 175–77

difficulty of combining writing career with, 46–47, 76–79

Moulton, Louise Chandler, 68

Juno Clifford, 142

mythology, Greek and Roman, influence on gendered split of high literary culture, 32

narrators, women writers use of male or asexual, 138, 149, 151–53, 156–63, 192, 195–95

Nation, 222–23, 226, 227, 228, 231, 232

National Institute of Arts and Letters, 244

naturalism, 249

Newbury, Michael, 9

New Century for Women, 31

New Women, 39, 244

New York City: as elite literary center, 6

periodicals in, 16

Stoddard and, 56, 201

New York Evening Post, 204

New York Times, 222, 223, 232, 236, 237, 238, 240

New York Tribune, 106, 230

Nieriker, Ernest, 111

Nieriker, Lulu, 116

Nieriker, May Alcott, 5, 6, 40, 48, 64

and Louisa May Alcott, 5, 68, 108–16

An Artist’s Holiday, 110

and Europe, 105, 108–17

Nordhoff, Charles, 169

Norris, Frank, 243

North American Review, 14, 16, 25, 26, 28, 29, 131, 206, 221, 227, 232

North British Review, 132

Norton, Charles Eliot, 206

Ochse, R., 39

Olsen, Tillie, 236

Osgood, James R., 215

Our Young Folks, 213

Painter, F. V. N., 238, 239, 242

Parrington, Vernon Louis, 238, 240

Parsons, Theophilus, 26, 137

Pattee, Fred Lewis, 238, 239, 240

Payne, Flora, 69–70

Peabody, Elizabeth, 50

Perry, Alice: Esther Pennefather, 221

Perry, Bliss, 208

Perry, Thomas Sargeant, 218

Peterson’s, 62

Phelps, Austin, 46, 47–48

Phelps, Elizabeth [Wooster] Stuart (mother), 45–47, 180

The Angel Over the Right Shoulder, 46, 95

authorial identity of, 46–47, 62

“The Husband of a Blue,”93–95, 102

influence on her daughter, 45–46

The Last Leaf from Sunny Side, 46

Phelps [Ward], Elizabeth Stuart (Mary Gray Phelps), 45–48, 73–76, 95–104, 126–28, 164–65, 175–77, 214–17, 227–29, 240–41

adoption of mother’s name, 45, 47

and ambition, 164–65, 175, 183

authorial identity of, 2, 164–65, 179, 180, 183

critical reputation in nineteenth century, 216–17, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227–29, 239

critical reputation in twentieth and twenty-first centuries, 7, 240

on critics, 228

dreams of Europe, 105

early writing career of, 41, 42, 47–48, 164–65

and family, 14

and father, 47–48

and genius, 181–82

and illness, 174, 180, 178, 179, 181

lesbian themes in fiction of, 68

loss of beau in Civil War, 42

marriage to Henry Dickinson Ward, 63, 75–76

marriage views of, 46, 62, 64, 66, 73–76

and mother, 45–46, 93–95, 180

relationships with male writers and editors, 182, 186, 187–89, 214–15, 216

and sentimentalism, 216, 228, 240, 243

on spinsterhood, 73

and Woolson, 174

writing as unsanctioned activity for, 47–48

youth of, 40–41, 45, 47–48

Phelps [Ward], Elizabeth Stuart (Mary Gray Phelps), works of: Beyond the Gates, 217

Chapters from a Life, 75, 188, 228

Dr. Zay, 74, 179

Friends: A Duet, 215, 225

The Gates Ajar, 48, 165, 175, 214, 223, 228, 239

Hedged In, 216, 217, 223, 228

Men, Women, and Ghosts, 188, 223

“A Plea for Immortality,” 126–28, 142, 170, 177

Poetic Studies, 216

“A Rejected Manuscript,” 175–77, 193

“A Sacrifice Consumed,” 42

The Silent Partner, 73, 215, 227–28, 240

A Singular Life, 216

The Story of Avis, 5, 63–64, 76, 91, 93, 95–104, 105, 112, 113–14, 122, 124, 129–30, 144, 154–55, 158, 215, 216–17, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 239

“The Tenth of January,” 214

“The True Woman,” 21–22, 73–74

“Unhappy Girls,” 38–39, 44, 49

Philadelphia Press, 225

Piatt, Sarah, 5, 6

Poe, Edgar Allan, 17

Poems (Emerson), 22

Preston, Harriet, 216–17

professionalization of women writers, 34, 62, 124, 150

Protestantism, evangelical, 18

pseudonyms, masculine, adopted by European women writers, 136, 151

Putnam’s, 36, 142, 231

realism, 11, 226, 229, 230, 231, 240, 246, 247, 249, 250

Alcott and, 236

in Atlantic Monthly fiction, 211, 218

and conceptions of authorship, 138, 150

Davis and, 235, 236

Howells and, 218

Stoddard and, 230

Woolson and, 153, 229–30

Ream, Vinnie, 106

Récamier, Madame, 120

Redpath, James, 170, 212, 213

regionalist literature, 218, 235, 238, 246, 247, 249

Reid, Whitelaw, 141

reviewers. See critics

Rhodes, Albert, 117

Richardson, Charles F., 242

Ripley, George, 230–31

romanticism, 11, 178, 226, 229, 230, 247, 249, 250

British, 128

and conceptions of authorship (see genius, romantic); European, 3, 6, 18

Neoromantics, 138

Wool-son and, 229–30

Romero, Lora, 9

Rosenfeld, Natania, 112, 114

Round Table, 230

Ruskin, John, 111

Sand, George (Aurore Lucie Dudevant), 6, 14, 25, 26, 27–28, 32, 34, 88, 90 130, 151

Alcott and, 27

and genius, 136, 137

Histoire de ma vie, 27

influence on later women writers, 27–28

Stoddard and, 27, 142

Sangster, Margaret, 237

Santayana, George, 243

Saturday Club, and formation of Atlantic Monthly, 203

Saturday Press, 207

Schriber, Mary Suzanne, 107

Scott, Sir Walter, 30

Scudder, Horace, 243, 245

and Phelps, 216, 217

and Woolson, 218–20

Sedgwick, Catharine Maria, 2, 14, 32

Sedgwick, Ellery, 202, 206

sentimentalism, 174, 178, 249

Alcott and, 236, 243, 247

Phelps and, 216, 240, 243

separate spheres, literary, 8–10, 14, 241, 246, 247, 249, 250

Shakespeare, William, 2, 9, 17, 24, 29, 52, 135, 168

Showalter, Elaine, 4, 178

Sigourney, Lydia, 3, 132

Southern Review, 137

Southworth, E. D. E. N., 248

Spectator, 30

Sphinx: riddle of, 12

in women’s literature, 88, 100–101, 102–3

spinsterhood: Alcott and, 42–43, 67, 73

after Civil War, 64, 67

nineteenth-century views of, 67

Phelps and, 73

for postbellum women writers, 41, 42–43

Woolson and, 69, 70, 71

Spofford, Harriet Prescott, 5, 6, 186, 208, 224, 235, 244, 247

Alcott and, 37

“Amber Gods,” 38

and Atlantic Monthly, 37, 38, 203–4

“In a Cellar,” 38

and Jane Eyre, 29

Phelps and, 37, 38

Stadler, Gustav, 178

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 65

Stebbins, Emma, 106

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, 185, 201, 204, 242

on Emerson, 24

Elizabeth Stoddard and, 60, 61, 76, 139, 186, 201, 242

on Elizabeth Stoddard, 231–32, 238

and Richard Henry Stoddard, 59, 139

Victorian Poets, 149–50

Woolson and, 24, 44, 45, 119, 149–50, 174, 186, 189, 242

on Woolson, 237, 238

Steele, Jeffrey, 20

Stoddard, Elizabeth Barstow, 54–61, 76–79, 87–91, 139–48, 206–8, 230–33, 238–39

and ambition, 2, 56–61, 139–43, 183

authorial identity of, 2, 56–61, 76–79, 90, 145, 146, 183

conflict between roles of, 56–58, 63, 76–79, 146

critical reception in nineteenth century, 208, 222–23, 224–25, 230, 239

critical reception in twentieth and twenty-first centuries, 7, 10, 238, 239

on critics, 221

critiques of other women writers, 141, 142–43

dreams of Europe, 105

early writing career of, 41, 57–58

ending of career of, 61, 63, 79, 233

and family, 54–56

and genius, 139–43, 181

and illness, 174, 178, 181

journal of, 77–79, 89, 141, 147

marriage and courtship in fiction of, 76, 145

marriage to Richard Henry Stoddard, 56–61, 76

marriage views of, 57

relationships with brothers, 56, 77

relationships with male writers and editors, 58–61, 199–201, 206–7

relationships with women, 69

on religion, 55

republication of novels of, 140, 201, 208, 231–33

and romanticism, 207–8, 211, 230

and Transcendentalism, 54, 55, 76, 144

Woolson on, 5, 174

youth of, 40, 54–55

Stoddard, Elizabeth [Barstow], works of: “The Chimneys,” 139

“Collected by a Valetudinarian,” 28, 87–91, 104, 105, 112, 146–48, 173

“A Literary Whim,” 139–40, 184

Lolly Dink’s Doings, 79

“Me and My Son,” 143–46, 158

“Mercedes,” 151

The Morgesons, 26, 28, 54, 57, 77, 140, 185, 187, 200, 201, 208, 225, 230, 233

“My Own Story,” 207

“Nameless Pain,” 77

“Phases,” 57

“The Poet’s Secret,” 59–60, 170

“The Prescription,” 12, 179

Temple House, 79, 140, 151, 208, 222, 231

“Tuberoses,” 57

Two Men, 23, 139, 140, 151, 201, 224, 230, 231

“Woman and Art,” 141

“Woman in Art.—Rosa Bonheur,” 142, 221

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 25, 54, 57, 58, 185, 199, 200, 239, 243

literary circle of, 59, 139

marriage to Elizabeth Stoddard, 56–61, 76–79

and Elizabeth Stoddard’s literary career, 201, 207

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 2–3, 14, 32, 34, 43, 62, 106, 136, 168, 174, 211, 239, 240, 244, 248, 249

and Atlantic Monthly, 37, 202, 203, 205–6, 210

and Europe, 106

Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 36, 106, 136, 151

Strickland, Charles, 51, 115

Sweat, Margaret: on Charlotte Brontë, 28

Stoddard and, 23, 56–60, 69, 140

Taylor, Bayard: Elizabeth Stoddard and, 56, 59, 199, 200

and Richard Stoddard, 59

Thaxter, Celia, 186

Thoreau, Henry David, 13, 19, 21, 76, 144, 206, 243

Alcott and, 53

Stoddard and, 76, 77

Walden, 19, 77

Ticknor, Howard: Alcott and, 169, 209, 210, 212

as editorial assistant at Atlantic Monthly, 169, 206

Ticknor and Fields, 213

Tompkins, Jane, 8

Torsney, Cheryl, 42, 120, 159, 160, 174

Tracey, Karen, 101

Transcendentalism: Bronson Alcott and, 50

concept of artist, 19, 21

as masculine, 19

Stoddard and, 54, 55, 76, 144

and women, 18, 19, 21. See also Emerson, Ralph Waldo; Fuller, Margaret; Thoreau, Henry David

Trusta, H. (pseudonym). See Phelps, Elizabeth [Wooster] Stuart

Twain, Mark, 204. See also Samuel Clemens

United States Review, 221

Vaux, Molly, 34

Vedder, Henry C., 238, 239

Walker, Cheryl, 174

Wallace, S. E., 134–35, 164

Walton, Priscilla L., 196

Ward, Henry Dickinson, marriage to Phelps, 63, 75–76

Warner, Charles Dudley, 230

Warner, Susan: The Wide, Wide World, 185

Wells, Kate, 1, 2

Wharton, Edith, 247, 248

Whipple, E. P., 208

Whiting, Lillian, 140

Whitman, Walt, 6, 187

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 241, 243, 245

Atlantic birthday dinner for, 204

and Atlantic Monthly, 202, 211

Phelps and, 74, 164–65, 182, 186, 187–89, 214

support of women writers, 186

Williams, Deborah Lindsay, 248

Wilson, Jack H., 104

Wolfson, Susan, 133

womanhood: Enlightenment theories of, 35, 133

Victorian theories of, 35–36, 133

woman writer. See artist, woman

women in nineteenth century: and Boston marriages, 67–68

and Europe, 107

household duties of, 65–66

and illness, 178

marriage and motherhood for, 64–67

self-sacrifice vs. individualism for, 3

and spinsterhood, 67.

women writers, antebellum: achievements of, 3, 32–36

and ambition, 3

authorial identities of, 2, 3–4, 32–36, 46–47, 53, 62

depictions of women writers, 80–82

and duty to family, 14

lack of accomplished female role models for, 43

paving way for postbellum women writers, 24, 32–36

perceived as dominant in American literature, 14, 17, 25

and public sphere, 2, 35–36

and republican model of authorship, 32–33

taboo against ambition, 3

women writers, European: achievements of, 15

and genius, 136–37

inspirations for postbellum women writers, 25–32, 137

as models of woman artist, 14

women writers, postbellum: and ambition, 1–2, 39, 135–36, 151, 163–73, 183

authorial identities of, 2, 4, 47, 53, 61, 62–63, 126–28, 138–43, 173–74, 177–83

desires for recognition from critics, 184–86, 220–21

desires for self-sufficiency, 41–42

diversity of, 6

feelings of difference from other women, 39–41

as generation, 4–5

and genius, 181–83

immortality for, 226, 234–50

importance of Atlantic Monthly to, 37–38

incompatibility of roles of, 62–64, 79–80

inspired by Emerson, 15, 19–21, 22–24

inspired by European women writers, 25–32, 137

inspired by talented mothers, 39, 44, 45–47, 48

literary legacies of, 234–41, 246–50

making room in canon for, 246–50

marginalization from high literary culture, 199, 241

masculine qualities in writing of, 138, 139

rejection of heterosexual relationships, 67–69

relationships with male writers, 182–83, 186–202

self-sacrifice vs. self-reliance for, 38

and spinsterhood, 41, 42–43, 63

support by families of, 38–39, 43

writing as unsanctioned activity, 41, 134–35. See also individual authors

Woolson, Clara, 44, 69

Woolson, Constance Fenimore, 43–45, 69–71, 116–20, 149–63, 189–99, 217–20, 229–30, 237–38

on Alcott, 181

and ambition, 149, 150, 153, 183

authorial identity of, 2, 149–50, 179, 182, 183

and Civil War, 44–45

correspondence with Henry James, 149, 150, 198–99

critical reputation in nineteenth century, 218–20, 222, 223–24, 229–30, 237–38

critical reputation in twentieth and twenty-first centuries, 7, 238

on critics, 221–22, 229

critiques of other women writers, 152–54

on “Daisy Miller,” 117

depiction of marriage in fiction of, 71, 123, 163

depression and, 179, 182

early literary career of, 43–45, 150

and Europe, 45, 70, 116, 118–20, 125, 190

and family, 43–44

and genius, 149–53, 181

and illness, 178, 180

and Henry James, 45, 118, 187, 189–99

lesbian themes in fiction of, 68

loss of beau in Civil War, 42

male narrators in fiction of, 149–53, 156–63, 192, 195–96

marriage views of, 69–71

and mother, 14, 43–44, 45, 68

and Phelps, 174, 229

realism and romanticism in fiction of, 229–30

relationship to James Fenimore Cooper, 43–44

on relationships between women, 68–69

relationships with women, 69–70

and sister, 44, 68, 69

and spinsterhood, 69, 70, 71

and Stoddard, 5, 174

suicide of, 180

views on women as artists, 149–50

views on writing, 45, 153–54

youth of, 44

Woolson, Constance Fenimore, works of: Anne, 12, 44, 196, 218, 219, 222, 223, 230

“At the Château of Corinne,” 26, 120–25, 132, 149, 152, 158, 189, 191, 192, 199

Castle Nowhere, 45, 218, 229, 230, 238

East Angels, 149, 219

“A Florentine Experiment,” 117, 119, 181

For the Major, 219, 223

The Front Yard and Other Italian Stories, 237

Horace Chase, 180

“In Sloane Street,” 119

“In Venice,” 117

Jupiter Lights, 222

“Miss Elisabetha,” 149

“‘Miss Grief,’”120, 149, 152, 189, 190–98, 226, 229

Rodman the Keeper: Southern Sketches, 218, 230

“The Roman May, and a Walk,” 117

“The Street of the Hyacinth,” 120, 149, 152, 154, 155–63, 170, 173, 189, 191, 192, 193, 197, 199

“To George Eliot,” 25, 31, 153

Woolson, Hannah Cooper Pomeroy, 43–44, 45

Wordsworth, William, 78

Yonge, Charlotte, 122

Young, Bette Roth, 151

Zagarell, Sandra, 10

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Bibliographic Essay

Additional Information

ISBN
9781421428031
Related ISBN
9781421401775
MARC Record
OCLC
1046615898
Pages
295-305
Launched on MUSE
2018-08-09
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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