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Glossary

Terms are in chidzimbahwe, except where specifically indicated.

 

Abantu, bantu; sing. muntu: People (isindebele)

Abazingeli: Hunters (isindebele)

Amatsheomnyama: Black water (isindebele)

Bani, rupani; pl. mapani: Valley

Basa, mushando: A task or work to be done, employment

Bhurudhoza; pl. mabhurudhoza: Corruption of bulldozer

Butalifi: Special expertise (silozi)

Chakasviba: Dark

Chepfu: Poison

Chibhakera; pl. zvibhakera: Fist; plowing with the fist; zero tillage

Chibharo: Forced labor

Chidzimbahwe: Language, culture, and things of dzimbahwe

Chiguraura; pl. zviguraura: Literally, “the one that has cut off its intestines,” what vachena called larva

Chikopokopo; pl. zvikopokopo: Helicopter

Chikukwa; pl. zvikukwa: The insect at its worm or pupa stage, what vachena called puparia

Chimokoto; pl. zvimokoto: Quelea bird

Chimugondiya: Brown laundry bar soap

Chimukuyu: Dried meat

Chimumbure: Net

Chinanga: The hooked-thorn tree vachena called Acacia nigrescens

Chinhu; pl. zvinhu: Thing

Chinosvosvoma; pl. zvinosvosvoma: Crawler, reptiles

Chipfuyo; pl. zvipfuyo: Livestock

Chipukanana; pl. zvipukanana: Small animals, insects

Chirwere chegomarara: Disease of the mistletoe

Chisikwa; pl. zvisikwa: [God’s] creation

Chitatarimbo; pl. zvitatarimbo: The birdlime tree

Chivanhu: Culture; custom; ways of the people

Chokwadi; pl. zvokwadi: Truth

Danga: Kraal

Démó: Blade

Dewulana: Bat (xitsonga)

Dikgomo, kgomo: Cattle (setswana)

Diphôlôgôlô: Wild animal (setswana)

Diruiwa: Livestock (setswana)

Dondo, rutondo; pl. matondo: Forest

Dzimbahwe: Houses of stone; headquarters of kings; graves

Dzoma: Bushbuck

Ekhayeni, ekhaya: Village (isindebele)

Fanakaló or fanagaló: Hybrid language composed of some English, Nyanja, and Shona; also known derogatorily as Kitchen-Kafir, Mine-Kafir, Pidgin Bantu, Isikula (Coolie or Indian), Chirooroo, Fanikaroo, and Chiraparapa (Silapalapa)

Fenzi yemhuka: Game fence

Fenzi yemombe: Cattle fence, locally

Fenzi yetsetse: Tsetse fence

Frayi chemba: Fly chambers

Gareta: Bush cart

Gedhi retsetse: Tsetse gate

Goji: Holes (xitsonga)

Gomarara: Cancer; derived from a plant that usually grows on other plants, deposited in the fecal droppings of birds roosting or stopping over

Gondo; pl. makondo: Eagle

Gopé, hotsikotsi: Sleeping sickness

Gora, pl. magora: Vulture

Gudo, pl. makudo: Baboons

Gumba: White stork

Guta, pl. maguta: City

Hambautare: Iron tortoise (bicycle)

Hembe dzemapisi: Clothes from pieces

Honci-nhova: Warthog (xitsonga)

Hové: Fish

Hudzvanyiriri hwevachena: The downpression of white people

Hufrayi: The work of flycatching

Hufuro, mafuro: Pastures

Huku: Chicken

Hugocha: Game-destruction work

Hungwe: Fish eagle

Hunhapwa, hutapwa: Slavery, bondage

Hunhu: Behavior, being

Hunyanzvi: Expertise

Hunyanzvi hwekuvhima or huhombarume: Hunting expertise

Hupfu: Meal, ground grain

Hurimbo, urimbo: Birdlime

Hurumende: Government

Hurumende yehudzvanyiriri: The oppressive government

Hurumende yevachena: White government

Hutachiwana: Literally, “we have found it, the invisible sickness causer”

Hutachiwana hwegopé: Used when referring to sleeping sickness

Hutachiwana hwen’gana: N’gana; animal trypanosomiasis

Hutongi hwavachena: White rule

Hutsi: Smoke

Hutsiny’e hwemabhunu: The cruelty of the Boer

Hutunga: “The one that gores”; varungu’s mosquito

Hwayi: Sheep

Hwema: Odor, olfactory

Hwiza, mhashu, ndongwe, domboji, dzviti: Swarming locust, grasshopper

Idlelo: Pasture (isindebele)

Imbuzi: Goat (isindebele)

Imbwa: Dog

Imvu: Sheep (isindebele)

Inda: Louse

Inja: Dog

Inkomo, izinkomo: Cattle (isindebele)

Intesi: Tsetse, corruption of ndedzi (xitshangana)

Inyamazana: Animal (isindebele)

Inyanga: Healer, diviner, doctor, physician

Inyongo: Fever (isindebele)

Isibungu: Insect (isindebele)

Izinkomo, inkomo: Cattle (isindebele)

Kabhunu: Thin, emaciated Boer/white man

Kasiri: Cattle breed indigenous to vedzimbahwe

Khumba: Bushpig (xitsonga)

Kitsô: Knowledge, knowing (setswana)

Kubika: To cook, cooking

Kuchenesa, kuchenura: Cleaning

Kudheruka: To come from nowhere

Kuenda kusango: Going to the bush (urinating or defecating)

Kufamba: Mobility, walking, traveling, moving

Kufamba kweruzivo: The mobility of knowledge

Kufamba kwevanhu nemhuka: Human and animal traffic

Kugadzira: Making

Kugarisika kwevanhu: Human settlement

Kugobora: Stumping

Kugumha hurimbo: Tapping birdlime

Kuhugocha: At magocha work (at the work of tsetse control hunting)

Kumafrayi: The place of the fly people

Kumusha: In/at the village

Kupa: Giving

Kupamba ivhu nehupfumi hwavatema: Abducting the land and wealth of blacks

Kupesvedzera, kupesva: Inciting

Kupihwa: Receiving, being given

Kupisa sora: Burning weed/grass

Kurodza: Sharpening

Kuroyiwa: To be bewitched

Kusangana: Encountering, coming into contact

Kusangana kweruzivo: Encounter between knowledges

Kushanda, kuita basa: Working, doing work, efficacy

Kutemwa nemusoro: Headache; literally, “being chopped by the head”

Kuziva: Knowing

Kuziva kwevachena: Knowledge of the white people

Kuzvisunungura: Untying, freeing oneself, self-liberation

Likomu; sing. komu: Cattle (silozi)

Limbweletete: Human excrement (silozi)

Lisu: Sun-dried cattle dung (silozi)

Mabisi: Milk (silozi)

Mabwidi: Those from Northern Rhodesia in chidzimbahwe (colloq.)

Madheruka magochamiti: Newcomers who roast trees (colloq.)

Madhibhi, sing. dhibhi: Dip tanks

Madzviti, sing. dzviti: Pillagers

Mafrayi, sing. mufrayi: Fly men, fly catchers

Mafulô: Pastures (setswana)

Mafuro, sing. hufuro: Pastures

Magandanga, sing. gandanga: Terrorist (colloq.)

Magirosa or zvitoro: Grocery store

Magobo: Stumping

Magocha, sing. mugocha: Those who are always roasting meat; black hunters employed by the government to kill wild animals to starve mhesvi

Magora, sing. gora: Vultures

Magwa, sing. igwa: Canoes

Mahlomalavisi: Pupa, chrysalis (xitsonga)

Maitiro: Ways of doing

Majerenyenje, sing. jerenyenje: Anteaters

Majuru: Termite

Makandiwa, madhunduru: Contours

Makarwe, sing. garwe: Crocodiles

Makonzo, sing. gonzo: Rats

Makorekore: Those vedzimbahwe who live or hail from Gorekore, who taboo gudo the baboon or soko the monkey

Makwayi, sing. gwai: Sheep

Mangwa: Zebra (xitsonga)

Manhuwe: Repellents

Manyasarandi: Those from Nyasaland in chidzimbahwe (colloq.)

Many’atera: Sandals

Manyepo: Falsehoods

Mapete, sing. bete: Cockroaches

Maprofita: Prophets

Mapundu: Boils

Mapurazi, sing. purazi: Farms, ranches; from the Portuguese word prazo

Marengeny’a: Tattered clothes

Mari: Money

Marukisheni, sing. rukisheni: Locations

Mashuramurove, sing. shuramurove: The bird that portends waterlogging; stork

Matanga emombe, sing. danga remombe: Cattle stockades

Matore, sing. dore: Walking carcasses

Mazizi: Owls

Mbavala: Bushbuck (xitsonga)

Mbeva: Wild (therefore edible) rodents, mice

Mbudzi: Goat

Mbumburu: Bullet

Mbuwe, mbuwo, uo: Blind fly

Mfenhe: Baboon (xitsonga)

Mhangele: Guinea fowl (xitsonga)

Mhara: Impala

Mhelembe: Rhinoceros (xitsonga)

Mhene: Duiker

Mhesvamukono: The one that drives the bull (mukono) crazy

Mhesvi: From the word kupesva; tsetse

Mhesvirupani: Mhesvi that lives in the valley; varungu’s Glossina pallidipes and Glossina palpalis

Mhesvirutondo: Mhesvi that lives in the forest; varungu’s Glossina morsitans

Mhopfu: The blind one; eland (xitsonga)

Mhuka: Animal of the forest

Mhuka yomurukova, pl. mhuka dzomurukova: Animal that lives in water

Mhunduru: Armyworm

Mhunga: Millet

Mhunti: Little blue duiker (xitsonga)

Mhuri: Family

Mibhemhe, sing. mubhemhe: Donkeys

Midziyo, sing. mudziyo: Instruments

Migodhi, sing mugodhi: Mines

Mikono, sing. mukono: Bulls

Mirhi, sing. murhi: Tree (xitsonga)

Misengwa, sing. musengwa: Luggages, loads

Misha, sing musha: Villages, homes, homesteads

Mishini, sing. mushini: Machines

Mishini yekupureya: Spraying machines

Mishonga, sing. mushonga: Poisons, medicines

Misika yemabhazi, sing. musika wemabhazi: Marketplaces for buses (bus stations)

Mlilo: Fire (isindebele)

Mogare: Pathogens (setswana)

Mombe: Cattle

Monang: Mosquito (setswana)

Moto: Fire

Motokari: Motorcar

Motse: Village (setswana)

Mpukane: Tsetse (isindebele)

Mpukane zegangeni: Tsetse of the forest (isindebele)

Mubhemhe: Donkey

Muchena, pl. vachena: White person

Muchetura, pl. michetura: Poison

Mudziti: Stick around which birdlime is wound, set to catch birds

Mudzviti: Magistrate

Mufambi, pl. vafambi: Traveler, walker

Mufrayi, pl. mafrayi: Fly man

Mugocha, pl. magocha: The ones who are always barbequing

Mugwagwa, pl. migwagwa: Road

Mukonde: Euphorbia ingens

Mulaha: Liquid cow dung (silozi)

Mulilo: Fire (silozi)

Mulumbeti: The devil (xitsonga)

Mumusha: In the village

Munhu, pl. vanhu: People, those who are familiar, kin, or known

Munhu mutema, pl. vanhu vatema: Black person

Munhuwi wemunhu: Human odor

Munyori ari kuzvinyora: A writer writing about him/herself

Mupani, musharu: Mopane (setswana)

Mupembere, mubondoroko: Vachena’s Combretum bushland

Mupfuti: All vachena’s Brachystegia

Murungu, pl. varungu: White person

Musha: Village, homestead

Mushini, pl. mishini: Machine

Mushini wekupureya, pl. mishini yekupureya: Knapsack sprayer

Mushonga, pl. mishonga: Poison, medicine

Mushonga wezvipukanana (shortened to mushonga), pl. mishonga yezvipukanana: Pesticide

Musvo: Metabolites; literally, “residue”

Muswe: Tail

Mutema, pl. vatema: A black person

Mutemo, pl. mitemo: Law

Muteyo, pl. miteyo: Trap

Mutsetse: In the Tsetse Department

Muvatli: Carpenter or sculptor (xitsonga)

Muvengahonye: Literally, “the maggot hater”

Mvubu: Hippo (isindebele/isizulu)

Mvura: Water, rain, rainfall

Mvuu: Hippo

N’anga: Traditional healer

Nare: Buffalo (setswana)

Ndedzi: Tsetse (xitsonga)

Ndege: Fixed-wing aircraft

Ndlopfu, tindlopfu: Elephant (xitsonga)

Ndlovu: Elephant (isindebele)

Ndunguza: Antelope

Ndzilo: Fire (xitsonga)

Ngamboto: A matter of common knowledge (kilozi)

N’gana: Animal trypanosomiasis

Ngano: Fable

Nghala: Lions (xitsonga)

Nghwari: Crested francolin (xitsonga)

Ngongoni: Wildebeest

Ngoroyemoto, pl. ngorodzemoto: Carriage of fire (motorcar)

Nguruve: Bushpig

Nguruve yemusango: Bushpig

Ngwahle: Monitor lizards, iguana (xitsonga)

Ngwarati: Sable

Ngwenya, garwe, gambinga: Crocodile

Nhéma, chipembere, mhembere: Rhinoceros

Nhimura: Literally, “the slashing”; the term vedzimbahwe gave to the Native Land Husbandry Act

Nhoro: Kudu

Nhoveni: Forest (xitsonga)

Nhungu: Kudu (xitsonga)

Nhunzi: Housefly

Njiri: Warthog

Nkawu: Monkey (xitsonga)

Ntsandza: Poles (xitsonga)

Ntsi, pl. lintsi: Housefly (setswana)

Ntsutsu: Egret (xitsonga)

Nyama: Meat

Nyarhi: Buffalo (xitsonga)

Nyati: Buffalo

Nyaudzosingwi: Ideophone

Nyemba: Beans

Nyimo: Round nuts, Bambara nuts

Nyoka: Snake

Nyong’o: Fever, malaria

Nyongororo: Parasite

Nyongorosi: Earthworm

Nzira: Footpath, way

Nzira nemaitiro: Ways and means

Nzou, zhou: Elephant

Nzungu: Peanuts

Pabasa, pamushando: The workplace, being at work

Pesva: The action of plunging a sharp object like a needle or thorn into flesh (ideophone of kupesva, to probe; hence, proboscis)

Pfungwa dzavatema: Ideas, idioms of black people

Purazi: See mapurazi

Ronda rinongobva pasi risingapori: A wound that emerges from the ground and never heals; a wound with no explicable origin

Rukodzi: Falcon

Rusosa, ruzhowa: Fence

Ruzevha: Native reserve (transliteration)

Ruzivo: Knowledge

Ruzivo chairwo: True knowledge

Ruzivo rwemhesvi: Knowledge of mhesvi

Ruzivo rwemombe: Knowledge of cattle

Ruzivo rwevachena: Knowledge of whites

Ruzivo rwevarungu: Knowledge of whites

Ruzivo rwevatema: Knowledge of black people

Ruzivo rwezvehurimbo: Birdlime knowledge

Rwendo: Journey

Sango, pl. masango: Forest

Setshidinyana: Insect (setswana)

Shayishayi: Monarch butterfly

Shiri: Bird

Shumba: Lion

Sinuka: Odorous grasses (silozi)

Sondela enkosini: Draw near to the king (xitshangana)

Stupa, chitupa: An identity document (Fanakalo, Chiraparapa, chid­zimbahwe)

Sutelezi: Repellent (silozi)

Svexilungwini: The things of the white people (xitsonga)

Svidvelo, sing. xidvelo: Pastures (xitsonga)

Svifufunhunhu, sing. xifufunhunhu: Insects (xitsonga)

Svifuri, sing. xifuri: smiths (xitsonga)

Svigalanyundzu, sing. xigalanyundzu: Hammers (xitsonga)

Sviharhi, sing. xihloka: Animal (xitsonga)

Svihloka, sing. xihloka: Axe (xitsonga)

Svikokovi, sing. xikokovi: Reptiles

Svimun’wana, sing. ximun’wana: Springs (xitsonga)

Svindlu svasvifuri, sing. xindlu xaxifuri: Forge (xitsonga)

Svinyenyana, sing. xinyenyana: Birds

Tau: Lion

Tawana: Cub, from the word tau (adult lion; setswana)

Tihomu, homu: Cattle (xitsonga)

Tiko: Land, village, country

Timbuti: Goats (xitsonga)

Timbyana, sing. mbyana: Dogs (xitsonga)

Timhala: Impala (xitsonga)

Tlou: Elephant (setswana)

Tsangadzi: Runner grass, which vachena called Loudetia superba

Tsetse: Mhesvi (setswana)

Tsika: Culture, custom

Tsika, chivanhu: Culture, custom

Tsika dzevachena: White culture

Tsika dzevatema, chivanhu: Ways or culture of black

Tsoko, shoko: Monkey

Tsvina: Dirt

Twiza: Giraffe

Twukodzi, sing. rukodzi, hodzi, kakodzi: Hawks

Ukulagisa: Whereby izinkomo are lend to relatives to look after in exchange for milking, manure, and draft power (isindebele)

Vachena, sing. muchena: Whites

Vadzimu, sing. mudzimu: Ancestors

Vadzvanyiriri, sing. mudzvanyiriri: Downpressor, oppressor

Vafambi, sing. mufambi: Travelers, walkers, itinerants

Valungu, sing. mulungu: Whites (xitsonga)

Vanhu, sing. munhu: People, person

Vanhu vachena: White people

Vanhu vatema, sing. munhu mutema: Black people

Vanhu vetsetse: Tsetse people, people who work for the Tsetse Department/Branch

Vantima, sing. muntima: Black people (xitsonga)

Vapambepfumi, sing. mupambepfumi: Abductors of wealth

Vapambevhu, sing. mupambevhu: Abductor of the land/soil

Varungu, sing. murungu: Whites

Varwi verusununguko, murwi werusununguko: Freedom fighters

Vashandi vatema: Black workers

Vatema, sing. mutema: Blacks

Vazungu, sing. muzungu: Whites

Vechishangwe: colloquial shangwe people, actual name vakorekore

Vedzimbahwe: Those of dzimbahwe

Vekupureya: Spraymen

Vutivi: Knowledge (xitsonga)

Vutivi bya valungu: The knowledge of whites (xitsonga)

Waya nemakurundundu: Crude wire fence made of felled tree poles

Waya yehurumende: Government fence

Xekolodi: Millipede (setswana)

Xifufunhunhu, pl. svifufunhunhu: Insects

Xiharhi: Mhuka (xitsonga)

Xikanyakanya: Bicycle, named from the sound of pedaling, kanya-kanya-kanya (xitsonga)

Xindedzi xa nhoveni, pl. svindedzi sva nhoveni: Mhesvi of the forest (xitsonga)

Xindedzi xa nkova, pl. svindedzi sva nkova: Mhesvi of the valley (xitsonga)

Xinyenyana, pl. svinyenyana: Bird (xitsonga)

Xitivi, pl. svitivi: Expert (xitsonga)

Xitsongwatsongwana, pl. svitsongwatsongwana: The microorganism that caused it (xitsonga)

Zambuko, pl. mazambuko: Drift

Zengeni, shengezhu: Tall sweet grass, what vachena called Hyparrhenia spp.

Zeze: Kokolo name for mhesvi

Zimbabwe: Big house of stone

Zimunhuwenhuwe: Smelly plant

Zumbani, sumba: Both indigenous mint varieties

Zuva: Day, sun

Zvakatikomberedza: Surroundings, vachena’s “environment”

Zvechirungu: Literally, “the things of the white people”

Zvenhando: Trivia

Zviguraura, sing. chiguraura: Literally, “the ones that cut off their intestines”; larva

Zvikepe, sing. chikepe: Boats

Zvikopokopo, sing. chikopokopo: Helicopter

Zvikukwa, sing. chikukwa: Chrysalises, puparia

Zvikwekwe: Ticks

Zvimokoto: Quelea birds

Zvinhu, sing. chinhu: Things

Zvipfukuto, sing. chipfukuto: Weevil

Zvipfuyo, sing. chipfuyo: Livestock

Zvirimwa, sing. chirimwa: Crops

Zvokwadi, sing. chokwadi: Truths, facts

Additional Information

ISBN
9780262345859
Related ISBN
9780262535021
MARC Record
OCLC
1042473242
Pages
321-336
Launched on MUSE
2018-07-07
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
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