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251 Notes Introduction 1. Mário de Andrade, O banquete (São Paulo: Livraria Duas Cidades, 1977), 61–­62. 2. Décio de Almeida Prado, “O teatro e o modernismo,” in Peças, pessoas, personagens : O teatro brasileiro de Procópio Ferreira a Cacilda Becker (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1993), 15. 3. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play (New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications, 1982), 13. 4. Leon Trotsky, “Peculiarities of Russia’s Development,” in History of the Russian Revolution, trans. Max Eastman (New York: Pathfinder, 1980), 31. 5. Hal Foster, The Return of the Real: The Avant-​ Garde at the End of the Century (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996), 8. 6. Mauricio Tenorio, “A Tropical Cuauhtemoc: Celebrating the Cosmic Race at the Guanabara Bay,” Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas 65 (1994): 93–­137. 7. Tenorio mentions these details, but see also José Vasconcelos, La raza cósmica : Misión de la raza iberoamericana (Barcelona: Agencia Mundial de Librería, 1925), 58–­ 66, for his visit to São Paulo. 8. For the prologue (the only part still commonly read), see José Vasconcelos, The Cosmic Race: A Bilingual Edition, trans. Didier T. Jaén (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). 9. Tenorio, “A Tropical Cuauhtemoc,” 93. 10. Toward the end of the 1920s Brazilian modernistas associated with the Verde-​ Amarelista group, some of whom later founded the fascist Integralist Party, would approvingly cite Vasconcelos’s notion of the cosmic race (see, for instance, Plínio Salgado’s“Revolução da Anta”), but there is no indication of earlier contact. 11. In the past decade or so there has been a growing number of compara‑ tive studies on Mexico and Brazil that deal with topics ranging from literature, film, and urban protest to environmentalism, judicial reform, and multinational corporations. For the most relevant, see Esther Gabara, Errant Modernism: The Ethos of Photography in Mexico and Brazil (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2008); Rielle Navitski, Public Spectacles of Violence: Sensational Cinema and Journalism in Early Twentieth-​ Century Mexico and Brazil (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2017); Sergio Delgado Moya, Delirious Consumption: Aesthetics and Consumer Capitalism in Mexico and Brazil (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2017); and Paulo Moreira, Literary and Cultural Relations between Mexico and Brazil: Deep Undercurrents (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013). 12. Immanuel Wallerstein, The Capitalist World-​Economy (Cambridge: Cam‑ bridge University Press, 1979). 252 Notes to Pages 9–13 13. Roberto Schwarz, “As idéias fora do lugar,” Estudos CEBRAP 3 (1973): 151–­ 161. For a translation see “Misplaced Ideas: Literature and Society in Late-​ Nineteenth-​ Century Brazil,” in Misplaced Ideas, trans. John Gledson (London: Verso, 1992), 19–­ 32. 14. For a broad look at the Export Age and restructuring after 1929, see Victor Bulmer-​Thomas, The Economic History of Latin America since Independence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 50–­ 254; and Tulio Halperín Donghi, The Contemporary History of Latin America, trans. John Charles Chas‑ teen (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1993), 158–­ 246. 15. Giovanni Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times (New York: Verso, 2010), 64. 16. Although there is no room to explore this topic here, it is worth noting that the appearance of “avant-​ garde” movements in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s coincides with the Vietnam War and a perceived decline in U.S. world power, exacerbated by the economic recession of the early 1970s. 17. Peter Bürger, Theory of the Avant-​ Garde, trans. Michael Shaw (Minneapo‑ lis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984). 18. Foster, The Return of the Real, 8. 19. Ericka Beckman, Capital Fictions: The Literature of the Export Age (Min‑ neapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), 42–­ 79. 20. Julio Ramos, Divergent Modernities: Culture and Politics in Nineteenth-​ Century Latin America, trans. John D. Blanco (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2001). 21. George Yúdice points to this problem in his argument for a “conjunctural” understanding of the avant-​ garde that would take into account the struggle for local autonomy and the “logic of community building” in explaining the pro‑ modernization and statist tendencies of many peripheral avant-​ gardes (56). From my perspective, however, Yúdice is too willing to overlook the contradictions of these “community-​ building” projects, and we need to guard against taking the state (or the local) as the only means of resistance to imperialism.“Rethinking the Theory of the Avant-​ Garde from the Periphery...


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