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Index AAFP, 161 ABOG, 81 ACOG. See American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Advanced Diagnostic Research Corporation, and ultrasound marketing, 125 Affordable Care Act. See Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act American Acad­ emy of ­ Family Physicians, VBAC guidelines, 161 American Board of Obstetrics and Gyne­ col­ ogy, origin of, 81 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: on breech birth, 173; on cesarean delivery on maternal request, 199–200; on dystocia, 104–5; on electronic fetal monitoring, 137–39; on epidural anesthesia, 198, 252n50; on maternity coverage, 169; on placenta accreta, 214n14; response of, to government recommendations for obstetric practice, 155; on ultrasound, 126; on VBAC, 158–63, 245n20 American College of Surgeons, relationship with obstetricians, 82 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecol­ ogy: on birth defects, 120; introduction of Friedman curve in, 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists, on epidural anesthesia, 198 anesthesia. See obstetric anesthesia antibiotics: effect on birth safety, 76; effect on cesarean rate, 5, 16, 22, 76, 85, 123, 180 Apgar, ­Virginia, 108–13, 120–22; contribution to pediatrics of, 108; effect on obstetrics of, 108–13; letters from ­ mothers to, 119–20; and March of Dimes, 108, 114–19. See also Apgar score; James, L. Stanley; March of Dimes Apgar score, 99, 108–13, 121–22; adoption in Eu­rope of, 235n29; effect on perception of risk during birth, 99, 111–13, 120–22, 204; lay knowledge of, 111; obstetricians’ use of, 111–13; purpose of, 111. See also Apgar,­Virginia Arnold, Jill, 145–46 Atlee, John L., 18–19 baby boom, 84–85; birth rate during, 84; effect on birth practices of, 84–85, 142–44; effect on cesareans of, 84; ­ mothers’ attitude­ toward birth during, 183–84; ratio of births to obstetricians during, 168. See also birth: interventions during; birth rate Baker, Josephine: and eugenics, 58; on midwives, 61 Ballard, Martha, 20, 35. See also midwives Beckham, Victoria, cesarean births of, 216n34 Beecham, Clayton T., on natu­ ral birth vs. cesarean sections, 150 Benaron, Henry, on safety of home birth, 53 Bennett, Jesse, 217n1 Better Homes and Gardens, induction publicized in, 85–86 birth: benign methods to encourage, 19–20, 101, 155; and choice, 141, 174–76, 197–201; and class, 21, 23, 47, 66–67, 169; cost of, in nineteenth ­century, 65–66; definition of control during, 148, 185–86; and eugenics, 58–59, 74–75; hemorrhage during, 6–7, 21–22, 204; and hospital revenue, 14; interventions during, 75–76, 85–88, 98, 100, 142–44, 148–51, 177–82, 197–201, 217n37; move from home to hospital of, 70, 75–76, 224n24, 229n13; ratio of, to obstetricians, 168, 171; risk categories of, 9; safety of, 3, 19–21, 51–54; and technology, 85–88, 124–42. See also baby boom; birth defects; birth rate; birth reform; breech birth; cesarean section; home birth; hospital birth; risk 312  Index birth defects: campaign against, 114–19; government reaction to, 119–21; messages aimed at ­ women about, 115–16; rates of, 114–15, 120. See also March of Dimes; rubella; thalidomide birth rate, racist reaction to, 74–75. See also baby boom; birth: ratio of, to obstetricians birth reform, 124, 144–48, 177; effect of, on cesarean section rate, 124, 144–51, 169–70; effect of electronic fetal monitor on, 150–52; fallout of, 153; ­ mothers’ attitude­ toward birth during, 184. See also birth birthsuit, 86–87 Bishop, Edward, 106. See also Bishop score Bishop score, 106–7, 121–22; effect on perception of risk during birth, 99, 121–22, 204; and induction, 106–7. See also Bishop, Edward blood transfusions: effect on birth safety of, 21, 76; effect on cesarean rate of, 5, 16 Blue Cross/Blue Shield, 168. See also health insurance Blundell, James, 41 Boston Globe, on John Edwards, 165–66 Boston Lying-­ In Hospital: cesarean section rates at, 46; cesarean sections at, 59–60; pelvic deformity at, 54. See also hospital birth Brazil: cesarean sections in, 11, 12–13; health care system of, 215n28 breech birth, 174; training of obstetricians in, 172–73, 174, 248n49 Brickell, D. Warren, 23, 221n56 Buck v. Bell, 58 Caldeyro-­ Barcia, Roberto, on medical interventions during birth, 149 Car­ ter, Francis Bayard, 78–79, 90; on patience during ­labor, 79; on second opinions for cesarean sections, 72. See also Duke University Hospital CDMR. See cesarean delivery on maternal request cephalo-­pelvic disproportion, 77–78, 157, 158, 189, 195. See also pelvimetry; pelvis ce­ re­ bral palsy, and lawsuits, 165–67 cesarean delivery on maternal request, 10...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781421425535
Related ISBN
9781421425528
MARC Record
OCLC
1034527080
Pages
368
Launched on MUSE
2018-05-08
Language
English
Open Access
No
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