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Notes introduction: From Risk to Remedy 1. ​ Cragin, “Conservatism in Obstetrics.” Cragin has long been credited with this maxim, but ­ there is evidence that it was medical custom long before 1916. Birch, “What You Should Know about Cesareans”; Gieske and Smith, “Boy Is Born to the Kennedys”; Perry, Jacqueline Kennedy, 63. 2. ​ Placek and Taffel, “Recent Patterns in Cesarean Delivery”; Corea, “The Caesarean Epidemic”; Haseltine, “­ There Is No Mystery.” 3. ​Leaming, Mrs. Kennedy, 13–14; Christopher Anderson, Jack and Jackie, 183; “How Many Caesareans?”; Marley, “Cesarean Baby Dangers.” 4. ​Perry, Jacqueline Kennedy, 169–170; Smith, Grace and Power, 393–399; Leaming, Mrs. Kennedy, 296–304. 5. ​“The Whys of Caesareans.” For a description of the effect of Patrick Kennedy’s death on the development of a cure for hyaline membrane disease, see Haliday, “Surfactants,” and Altman, “A Kennedy Baby’s Life and Death.” For a description of the public reaction to the birth and death of Patrick Kennedy, see Levingston, “For John and Jackie Kennedy.” 6. ​The perspective of the few proponents of cesarean surgery in this era is best exemplified by Robert P. Harris’s writings, discussed in chapter 1. The vast majority of physicians dismissed cesarean surgery as “sacrificial midwifery.” Barnes, Lectures on Obstetric Operations, 312, 315. 7. ​ David and David, “One in Five”; Placek and Taffel, “Recent Patterns”; Hamilton, Martin, and Ventura, “Births,” 2; Grady, “Caesarean Births Are at a High”; for recent cesarean data consistently compiled from Centers for Disease Control statistics, see www​ .­cdc​.­gov​/­nchs​/­fastats​/­delivery​.­htm. 8. ​ Cord prolapse occurs in from 0.14 to 0.61 ­ percent of births; most articles cite a 0.28 ­ percent rate. See Uygur et al., “Risk ­ Factors and Infant Outcomes.” Placenta previa occurs in about 0.4 ­ percent of births. See Faiz and Ananth, “Etiology and Risk ­ Factors.” Placental abruption occurs in 0.65 ­ percent of births. See Ananth and Wilcox, “Placental Abruption and Perinatal Mortality.” Transverse lie occurs in 0.12 ­ percent of births. See Gardberg, Leonova, and Laakkonen, “Malpre­ sen­ ta­ tion”; Strong, Expecting Trou­ble, 3; Althabe and Belizán, “Caesarean Section.” Some of the side effects of a high cesarean rate are discussed in World Health Organ­ ization, “WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates”; MacDorman et al., “Infant and Neonatal Mortality”; “Physiology of Fetal Lung Fluid Clearance”; Hansen et al., “Elective Caesarean Section”; Grolund et al., “Fecal Microflora in Healthy Infants”; Russell and Murch, “Could Peripartum Antibiotics Have 214   Notes to Pages 5–8 Delayed Health Consequences for the Infant?”; Penders et al., “­ Factors Influencing the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Early Infancy”; Renz-­ Polster et al., “Caesarean Section Delivery”; Salam et al., “Mode of Delivery”; Deneux-­Tharaux et al., “Postpartum Maternal Mortality and Cesarean Delivery.” 9. ​Ulrich, A Midwife’s Tale, 170–171; de Kruif, The Fight for Life, 100; Hooker and the New York Acad­emy of Medicine Committee on Public Health Relations, Maternal Mortality in New York City, 116. 10. ​ Cragin, “Conservatism in Obstetrics”; Williams, “Cesarean Section at the Johns Hopkins Hospital,” 526. 11. ​Interview of obstetrician by author, Chicago physician interview 2, October 1, 2012, Chicago, IL, transcribed from digital recording. 12. ​ Interview of ­ mother by author, Chicago ­ mother interview 2, March 13, 2012, Chicago, IL, transcribed from digital recording. 13. ​World Health Organ­ization, “WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates”; MacDorman et al., “Infant and Neonatal Mortality”; Jain and Eaton, “Physiology of Fetal Lung Fluid Clearance”; Hansen et al., “Elective Caesarean Section”; Grolund et al., “Fecal Microflora in Healthy Infants”; Russell and Murch, “Could Peripartum Antibiotics Have Delayed Health Consequences for the Infant?”; Penders et al., “­ Factors Influencing the Composition of the Intestinal Microbiota in Early Infancy”; Renz-­ Polster et al., “Caesarean Section Delivery”; Salam et al., “Mode of Delivery.” The importance of the ­human microbiome has now received so much attention that swabbing the newborn in a “vaginal microbial transfer” ­ after a cesarean birth is ­ under study. See Dominguez-­ Bello et al., “Partial Restoration of the Microbiota.” On economic costs of cesareans, see Sakala and Corry, Evidence-­ Based Maternity Care. 14. ​ Leth et al., “Risk of Selected Postpartum Infections”; MacDorman et al., “Infant and Neonatal Mortality”; Hansen et al., “Elective Cesarean Section”; Bréart, “Postpartum Maternal Mortality and Cesarean Delivery”; Nisenblat et al., “Maternal Complications Associated with Multiple Cesarean Deliveries”; Yang et al., “Association of Caesarean Delivery for First Birth.” In 2002, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists warned that the incidence of placenta accreta had increased and suggested that if a physician...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781421425535
Related ISBN
9781421425528
MARC Record
OCLC
1034527080
Pages
368
Launched on MUSE
2018-05-08
Language
English
Open Access
No
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