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Acknowledgments This social history of cesarean sections in the United States is a complicated one. During the research phase of this book, the list of ­ factors relevant to the increase in cesareans kept growing. Amassing that amount of data requires a good deal of help. On the most basic level, historians cannot find what they are looking for without the help of librarians and archivists. I am indebted to Debra Scarborough and Mary Hyde of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . On my many visits to their library, Debra gave me the run of ACOG’s unparalleled collection of books and ephemera in ­ women’s health and medicine. Mary responded quickly over the years to my stream of requests for ACOG policies on every­thing from electronic fetal monitoring to maternity coverage to ­labor induction to vaginal birth ­ after a previous cesarean. Elaine Challacombe, Lois Hendrickson, and Chris Herzberg helped make my visits to the Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine at the University of Minnesota especially productive. Elaine had the foresight to purchase the marvelous Robert Harris papers and scanned items from the collection for me. At one point, while perusing the Harris papers, I made a stunning find: a letter written in the 1880s by a ­woman expressing gratitude for her unspecified 1843 surgery. Initially, I thought I had discovered a ­ woman’s description of her own cesarean section. Lois and Chris ­ were on it immediately. Within minutes, Lois had verified that the ­woman’s surgeon had graduated from the University of Pennsylvania medical school in 1820 and that the surgeon’s son, the recipient of the ­woman’s letter, was indeed the son of the original surgeon. Meanwhile, Chris went to track down the 1844 article about the­ woman’s surgery written by the original surgeon. Alas, the surgery was not a cesarean section but an oophorectomy. Nevertheless, discovering a nineteenth-­ century patient’s firsthand description of her reproductive surgery, without anesthesia , was thrilling. And watching a team of crackerjack archivists tracking down clues to substantiate the letter was equally exciting. Stacey Peeples, lead archivist of the Pennsylvania Hospital historic collections, was unwavering in her attempts to open up as much of their collection to me as 210  Acknowledgments pos­ si­ ble. She, too, was frustrated by HIPAA, a law which never considered the needs of the historian to study the medical rec­ ords of ­ people long dead, the obligation of institutions to share their archives with historians, and the care historians of medicine take to protect all patients’ privacy. Sue Sacharski, the archivist at Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, is as delighted by the Joseph DeLee papers and the Chicago Maternity Center papers as the historians she guides through them. Russell Koonts, director of the Duke University Medical Center archives, pointed me to appropriate collections during my visits and, before I arrived, shepherded my application through the internal review board so that I could view ­those collections. His colleague, Rebecca Williams, quickly transcribed part of an oral history interview for me when I realized, long ­after I came home, that the original transcript was incomplete. Arlene Shaner, the historical collections librarian at the New York Acad­ emy of Medicine, directed me to some marvelous collections ­ there. Brian McNerney at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum patiently explained to me the art of “drilling down” to find what I was looking for in collections that did not appear immediately relevant to my work. Thanks, too, to Jim Gehrlich of New York–­ Presbyterian/Weil Cornell Medical Center Archives, who had dozens of cesarean section casebooks waiting for me upon my arrival. I am also indebted to Alex Welborn, head archivist at the University Kansas Medical Center, who made my brief time ­ there so productive. Kristen Lynn Chinery at the Walter Reuther Library at Wayne State University was helpful, as ­were the reference staffs for the Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College and the Schlesinger Library at Harvard University. Debi Orr, medical librarian extraordinaire at the Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, has been my lit­ er­ a­ ture search hero. I only had to give her a topic, however vague, and she would find a trove of articles for me, often within hours. And then she would invariably follow up to see if I needed anything ­else. Dozens of physicians in the Chicago area and in southern Ohio who performed cesareans between the 1940s and ­today, and dozens of ­mothers in the Chicago area...


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