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Index

Accounts of first contact: Amerindians in, 43, 4748, 50, 5357, 58, 6364; Jacques Cartier’s, 22, 43, 4950, 58, 5960, 61; Columbus’s diaries and letters, 35, 38, 39, 4042, 4344, 63; Martin Frobisher’s, 5961; polyvocality of, 6668; Portuguese in Brazil, 4445, 4649

Acculturation and exogamy: in Chateaubriand’s novels, 14245; fear of, among Puritans, 12, 13

Acosta, José de, 48

Acuña, Cristóbal de, 51

Adams, John, 2223

Adorno, Rolena, 48, 6567

African culture, 24445; and the primitive, in Brazilian literature, 224

Age of Reconnaissance, The (Parry), 27n.49

Aimorés (O Guarani), 203, 204

Alencar, José de, 26, 18789; Amerindians in novels of, 19497, 203, 21417; and Cooper compared, 187, 197200, 201, 203, 213, 217, 21819; Iracema, 196, 197, 20610, 21314; O Guarani, 26, 189, 19698, 200206, 213, 214; Ubirajara, 197, 21417; and value of hybridism, 19092, 202, 2047, 21011, 21315

Allegories: in Macunaíma, 23435; of nationality, 68

Allemant, Father Charles, 57

America in Europe (Ardniegas), 37

American, The (James), 24648

American cultural independence. See Cultural independence

American democracy, as threat to Europe, 162

American Incarnation (Jehlen), 36

American redemption, 24647

Americas. See Latin America; New World

Amerindians, 1213, 1718, 65, 67, 216; in Alencar’s novels, 19497, 203, 21417; in Brazilian modernism, 226, 228; and cannibalism, 38, 60; Chactas (Atala), 98, 13336, 137, 148; in Cooper’s novels, 13, 175, 17879, 182; cultural power of, 1718; enslavement of, 52n.23, 63n.41; first accounts of, 43, 4748, 50, 5357, 58, 6364; and lack of history, 21, 29; language of, 91n.28; as noble savages, 73, 77, 7984, 93, 9799, 14546; smallpox decimation of, 40; views on property, 61n.37; and white contact, 195, 196. See also Cannibalism

Anchieta, José de, 5456

Anderson, Benedict, 5, 6n.12, 21, 29

Andrade, Mário de, 220, 221; and Brazilian culture, 22728, 23132; primitivism in novels of, 227, 22829, 230. See also Macunaíma

Andrade, Oswald de, 221, 22627, 230

Anthropophagi. See Cannibalism; "Manifesto antropófago"

Antihero, in Macunaíma, 23234

Appiah, Kwame, 24445

Archaic context, and lack of Amerindian history, 21

Archer, Gabriel, 61, 63

Arciniegas, German, 37, 65

Argentina, 71

Atala (Chateaubriand): Atala in, 13541; Chactas in, 98, 13336, 137, 148; Christian civilization in, 13941, 145; European politics in, 140, 141; exoticism in, 101, 102, 123, 126, 127; Father Aubry in, 140, 141, 145, 14647, 151; marriage plot in, 131, 13536, 142, 143; problem of history in, 13132, 133; social codes of conduct in, 13638

Atlantic Double-Cross (Weisbuch), 1011

Aubry, Father (Atala), 140, 141, 145, 14647, 151

Aymé, Marcel, 252

Azevedo, Aluísio, 224

Baczko, Bronislaw, 80, 82, 86, 99n.42

Barbéris, Pierre, 130, 144, 149

Barreto, Lima, 224

Baym, Nina, 5

Bear, The (Faulkner), 250

Bellegardes (The American), 246, 247

Berkhofer, Robert, 63, 64

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jacques Henri, 101, 102, 103, 106, 11920. See also Paul et Virginie

Biard, Father Pierre, 5657

Boom of Latin American literature, 221, 254, 258

Bopp, Raul, 225, 226, 238

Boundaries: in Cooper’s Lake Glimmerglass, 199200; and cultural identity, 256; geopolitical, in Macunaíma, 23839

Bové, Paul, 10

Braudel, Fernand, 27n.49, 68

Brazil: cultural independence of, 56, 207, 210, 22728, 24143; Dutch invaders of, 212, 213; French colony in, 5051; history of, in Ubirajara, 217; impact of French political theory in, 7172; modernism in, 22028, 23032; Portuguese accounts of, 4445, 4649; in Rousseau’s La nouvelle Héloïse, 86

Brazilian literature: characteristics of, 193; influences in, 18790; and national identity, 22324. See also specific titles

Brébeuf, Father Jean de, 57

Brendan, Saint, 42

Buarque de Holanda, Sérgio, 4445, 47

Buendías (One Hundred Years of Solitude), 258

Bumppo, Natty (Leather-stocking series), 16768, 169, 172, 17879, 199, 21819; as hybrid, 17374, 17677; mythification of, 167, 17071, 178, 18182, 183

Burns, E. Bradford, 71n.5

Cadwallader (Notions of the Americans), 161, 163

Caliban (journal), 1415

Caminha, Pero Vaz de, 30, 45, 4648

Camōes, Luís de, 59

Cândido, Antônio, 189, 192, 193, 228n.12, 244, 245

Cannibalism, 45, 46, 57, 60, 61; in Brazilian modernism, 22627; and the exotic other, 1415; truth of, 38; in Ubirajara, 216

Carpentier, Alejandro, 255

“Carta ao Dr. Jaguaribe” (Alencar), 188

Cartier, Jacques, 22, 43; observations of, and Frobisher compared, 5861; voyages of, 4950

Ceci (O Guarani), 198, 200, 2012, 204, 205

Certeau, Michel de, 33, 65

Chactas (Atala), 98, 13336, 137, 139, 143, 148, 150

Chateaubriand, René de, 93, 98; and cultural transformation of nature, 15153; and exogamy as acculturation, 14245; exoticism of, 101, 102, 10331; and problem of history, 14749, 150; travels in Americas by, 126, 12729. See also Atala

Chaunu, Pierre, 30

Childhood, Rousseau’s idea of, 8687

Christianity, 67, 84, 135, 13941; in Alencar’s novels, 203, 205, 206, 216, 217; in Cooper’s novels, 174, 182; missionary zeal of, 41, 42, 54

Civilization: in Atala, 125, 126, 132, 13435, 13941, 145; vs. wilderness in Cooper’s novels, 169, 17274, 199200

Civilization and Capitalism (Braudel), 27n.49

Colombia, García Márquez’s history of, 257

Colonial writers, European acceptance of, 16

Colonization: discourse of, 37, 66; and fiction of emptiness, 30; by French in Brazil, 5051; injustices of, in Paul et Virginie, 108; by Portuguese, 5859

Columbus, diaries and letters of, 35, 38, 4041, 4344, 63

Commager, Henry Steele, 20n.37, 21, 81n.19

Compassion, and sodalization, 9798

Conquête de l’Amérique, La (Todorov), 3637

Cooper, James Fenimore, 9, 91, 159n.9, 167; and Alencar compared, 187, 197200, 201, 203, 213, 217, 21819; and American cultural independence, 15456, 158, 185; and American history, 18081, 182; Amerindians in novels of, 13, 175, 17879, 182; influence of, on Latin American writers, 18687, 254. See also Leather-stocking series; Travelling Bachelor, The, or Notions of the Americans

Cora (The Last of the Mohicans), 175, 176

Correio da manhã (newspaper), 222

Cortez, Hernando, 30, 40

Cortiço, O (Azevedo), 224

Cowan, Bainard, 23

Cultural identity, 34; African, 24445; American, 32, 33; Brazilian, 18990; in Hemingway’s writing, 249; in Iracema, 207, 210; and Garda Márquez’s novels, 256, 258

Cultural independence, 2, 3, 9, 155; Brazilian, 56, 210, 23943; New World, 2, 3, 152; North American, 2, 3, 2021, 7779, 15456

Cultural parity, American, 82

Cultural power, 911, 1718, 19, 25354; and exotidsm, 33, 25859; of the United States, 246, 25354

Culture, and nature in Paul et Virginie, 11315

Dedaration of Independence: Brazil, 47; United States, 81

Découverte du nouveau-monde, La (Rousseau), 83

Deerslayer, The (Cooper), 174, 180, 199200

Defoe, Daniel, 92

Degeographication, in Macunaíma, 237, 23839

Demographic catastrophe, of Amerindians, 40

Dénis, Ferdinand de, 188

Dernier Abencérage, Le (Chateaubriand), 143, 148

Dickens, Charles, 34

Dippel, Horst, 72

Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l'inégalité (Rousseau), 71, 73, 94nn.33–35, 97, 110; primitivism in, 82, 83, 93n.31

Discoverers, Explorers, Settlers (Franklin), 3536

Dom Pedro I, 195

Doha Perfecta (Pérez Galdós), 35

Dryden, John, 85

Du contrat social (Rousseau), 70, 72, 73, 77, 82, 85, 96

Echevarría, Roberto González, 255, 256

Eden, in Paul et Virginie, 1067, 113, 115

Edinburgh Review, 16465, 166

Education: in Paul et Virginie, 113; of Rousseau’s natural man, 70, 8792

Ellison, Ralph, 253

Emile (Rousseau), 70, 73, 85; concept of childhood in, 8687; education of the natural man in, 70, 8792; garden image in, 96; and Paul et Virginie compared, 104, 105, 10810, 113

Emptiness, of the Americas, 81, 82

Enlightenment, the, 37, 39, 71, 75n.11

Ethnidsm, 19

Europe: and American cultural independence, 2021, 7779, 14142; and American exotic, 2728, 1012, 13031; critiques of, 57, 84; cultural power of, in Atala, 140, 141, 14647; cultural theory of, 1922; decadence of, 24647; New World discourse, 8385; progress, and New World, 68; rivalry in New World, 5051, 5758; in Ubirajara, 21516; view of America, 3438, 16265

Exogamy, 11, 9495; in Alencar’s novels, 204, 209, 210, 211; in Atala, 131, 135, 14245; in Cooper’s novels, 176; in Macunaíma, 236; in Paul et Virginie, 110, 111, 117. See also Hybridism; Incest

Exoticism, 65, 244; of Chateaubriand, 121127, 13031, 136, 15153; in Cooper’s novels, 158, 159, 16566, 18687; and cultural power, 33, 25859; definition of, 2829; Europeanization of, 1012, 13031, 15153; in Faulkner’s novels, 251; language of, in Macunaíma, 230; in Latin American literature, 255; marriage as metaphor for contact with, 11, 12; in Paul et Virginie, 103, 11619; and power, 25859; Rousseau’s use of, 7376, 78; and self-definition, 1317. See also Primitivism

Exu (Macunaíma), 236, 237

Fall, the, 8990

Faoro, Raymundo, 58

Faulkner, William, 24952

Feminist historidsm, 122n.2

Fernández Retamar, Roberto, 6465

Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 24849

Flaubert, Gustave, 34

Formação (Cândido), 189

Foucault, Michel, 10, 52n.22, 66n.45

France: colony in Brazil, 5051; impact of Rousseau’s works in, 70; political theories in, 7172

Frankenstein (Shelley), 35, 38

Franklin, Benjamin, 87, 88

Franklin, Wayne, 35, 162

Frêle bonheur (Todorov), 74

French Revolution, 70, 72n.5, 76, 124

Freyre, Gilberto, 191, 195n.18, 214

Frobisher, Martin, 5961

Fuentes, Carlos, 254, 256

Funke, Hans Gunter, 7475

Gandavo, Pero de Magalhães, 46, 5152

García Márquez, Gabriel, 221, 256, 257, 258

Gates, Henry Louis, 15

Génie du christianisme (Chateaubriand), 132

Germany, and expression of nationality, 20

Gold, search for, 4344, 60

Golden age, in Cooper’s novels, 179, 183

Great Britain, 220; influence of Rousseau in, 76; and United States literary relations, 11

Great Gatsby, The (Fitzgerald), 24849

Guarani, O (Alencar), 26, 189, 19698, 200206; and Cooper’s novels compared, 197200; hybridism in, 202, 204, 2056, 210, 211, 213, 214

Gulliver’s Travels (Swift), 62

Hard Times (Dickens), 34

Harriot, Thomas, 5253

Hegelianism, 2325

Hemingway, Ernest, 249

História da literatura brasileira (Romero), 191

História da província de Santa Cruz (Gandavo), 46

History: and allegories of nationality, 67; and American cultural independence, 160; of Americas and Old World, 2122, 39; Amerindian lack of, 21, 29; Hegelian concept of development, 2325; problem of, 13132, 133, 14749, 150; Rousseauean debate on, 81, 82

History of Brazil, A (Burns), 71n.5

Holland: accounts of New World in, 6364; invasion of Brazil by, 212, 213

Homer, 3031

“Horizon of expectations,” 32, 155

Hudde, Hinrich, 110, 118

Huguenots, 45, 50

Hulme, Peter, 4, 35, 53; on cannibalism, 14, 45; and story of Pocahontas, 13, 3839

Humanism, 45

Hybridism, 251; in Alencar’s novels, 19092, 202, 2047, 21011, 21315; in Leather-stocking series, 17374, 176, 177; in Macunaíma, 23536; miscegenation, 11, 174n.34, 192n.13, 250, 251

Imagined Communities (Anderson), 5

Incas, Les (Marmontel), 93n.32, 99100, 119

Incest, 11, 12, 144, 145, 247n.5; in Atala, 142, 143; in Cooper’s novels, 176; in Faulkner’s novels, 250, 251; in O Guarani, 204; in García Márquez’s novels, 258; in New World fiction, 11, 95; in Paul et Virginie, 106, 110, 111, 11516, 117. See also Exogamy

Independence, American, 2, 3, 4, 10, 71; claims for, 68; Rousseau’s impact on, 7173, 76

“Indianists,” 187, 188

Indian novels of Alencar, 19497, 203. See also Guarani, O; Iracema; Ubirajara

Indians. See Amerindians

In Search of a Usable Past (Commager), 20n37

Intermarriage, racial, 11, 174n.34, 192n.13, 250, 251. See also Hybridism

Invisible Man (Ellison), 253

Iracema (Alencar), 196, 197, 20610; hybridism in, 207, 21314

Isabel (O Guarani), 201

James, Henry, 24648

James, Wiliam, 36

Jameson, Fredric, 67, 67n.46

Jauss, Hans Robert, 20, 155

Jay, Gregory, 23

Jehlen, Myra, 4, 23, 36

Jesuit missionaries, 37, 54, 5657

Kazin, Alfred, 25657

Keats, John, 3031

Kelly, William, 167, 170

Koch-Grünberg, Theodor, 230

La Fontaine, Jean de, 90, 92

Lane, Ralph, 50

Language, in Macunaíma, 221, 223, 241, 242

Larsen, Neil, 223n.6, 226n.10

Las Casas, Bartolomé de, 37

Last of the Mohicans, The (Cooper), 13, 171, 178, 199n.27

Latin America, European rivalry in, 5051, 5758

Latin-American literature boom, 221, 254, 258

Lawrence, D. H., 167, 182, 183

Leafstorm and Other Stories (Garda Márquez), 256

Leather-stocking series (Cooper), 159, 18182; exotidsm in, 158, 159, 16566, 18687; hybridism in, 17374, 176, 177; and Notions of the Americans compared, 91, 156, 158, 160, 18385; race-religion boundaries in, 17476

Léry, Jean de, 46, 50a 17, 53, 59n.34, 209n.36, 216n.44

Letter to the Icamiabas (Macunaíma), 24142, 254

Lévi-Strauss, Claude, 12, 80

Liberalism, European, and Brazilian literature, 193

Light in August (Faulkner), 25051

Lindoso, Dirceu, 21

Lionel Lincoln (Cooper), 158

Literary Gazette, 164, 166

Literary systems, North American and Brazilian compared, 2

Locke, John, 64

Loredano (O Guarani), 200, 202

Lost Steps (Carpentier), 25556

Lukács, Georg, 182

Lusiad (Camōes), 59

Macunaíma (Andrade), 221, 22223, 227, 24546, 254; allegory of the sun in, 23435; cultural independence in, 23943; degeographication in, 237, 23839; modern antihero in, 23234; and national identity, 22324; nationalistic affirmation in, 22930, 231; racial distinctions in, 23536; and technology, 23941

McWilliams, John P., 160

McWilliams, Richebourg Gaillard, 129

Madame Bovary (Flaubert), 34

Magãlhes, Gonçalves de, 188, 189

Magical realism, 221, 255, 14

Malesherbes, Chrétien de, 125

Mandeville, Sir John, 42

“Manifesto antrópfago” (Anthropophagist manifesto), 226

Mariz, Dom Antônio de (O Guarani), 200201, 206

Marmontel, Jean François, 89, 93n.32, 99100, 119

Marriage plot: in Alencar’s novels, 208211, 215; in The American, 24647; in Atala, 131, 13536, 142, 143; and exoticism, 11, 12; miscegenation, 11, 174n.34, 192n.13, 250, 251. See also Hybridism

Martim (Iracema), 207, 2089, 212

Martyrs, Les (Chateaubriand), 14243

Matriarchy, 1056 ; in Iracema, 20910

May, Karl, 178

Mémoires d'outre tombe (Chateaubriand), 124n.8, 12526, 128, 149

Metropoles, acceptance of colonial writers by, 16

Meyer, Augusto, 193

Mignolo, Walter, 29

Milhaud, Darius, 225

Miscegenation, 11, 143, 174n.34, 192n.13; in Faulkner’s novels, 250, 251. See also Hybridism

Moctezuma, 85

Modernism, Brazilian, 22028, 23032

Montaigne, Michel de, 90, 125

Moral universe, familiarity of, 84

Mythification: of Natty Bumppo, 17071, 167178, 18182, 183; in Cooper’s and Alencar’s novels compared, 21819

Natchez rebellion, 126, 130, 149

National identity, 3, 19; and Atala, 136; Brazilian, 47, 22324, 24243; and the exotic other, 1516; in The Great Gatsby, 24849; and Hegelianism, 2325; in Latin America, 25455; Rousseau’s influence on, 73

Nationality, literature of, 46, 31, 153, 18687, 259'; and allegory, 68; American, 5, 2529, 186; Brazil and United States compared, 220; and Cooper, 15456; creation of, in Brazil, 18889; and cultural power, 911; and European cultural theory, 1922; and Faulkner’s novels, 252; and Macunaíma, 223; and Garda Marquez’s novels, 258; writing itself, 29

Native Americans. See Amerindians

Nativism, 19

Natural man, 77, 88, 89, 99, 117; Chateaubriand’s view of, 127, 130; education of, 70, 8792; sodalization of, 9798, 99. See also Noble savage

Nature: and civilization, 199200; cultural transformation of, 15153; in the New World, 24n.43; in Paul et Virginie, 11315; Rousseau’s notion of, 78, 79; as wilderness, 132

Navigatio (Brendan), 42

New England colonies, writings of, 45

Newman, Christopher (The American), 24648

New society, Paul et Virginie as study of, 1046, 107, 118

New World, 102; and Cooper’s golden age, 179, 183; cultural independence of, 2, 3, 152; emptiness of, 81, 82; European literary images of, 3438; European rivalries in, 5051, 5758; as laboratory for Rousseau’s theories, 7374, 7778, 79, 9293, 96

Noble savage, 73, 77, 7984, 92, 93, 14546; in Cooper’s novels, 175, 177, 183; sodalization of, 9798, 99. See also Savagery

Nóbrega, Manuel da, 56

Notions of the Americans. See Travelling Bachelor, The, or Notions of the Americans

Nouvelle Héloïse, La (Rousseau), 73, 8586, 89, 107, 109n.9

Novels, Readers, and Reviewers (Baym), 5

One Hundred Years of Solitude (Garda Márquez), 256, 25758

Oral traditions, 133, 2067

Order of Things, The (Foucault), 66n.45

Orientalism (Said), 14

Otherness. See Exotidsm

“Out of Africa” (Appiah), 24445

Pagden, Anthony, 8485, 91n.28

Paradise, in Paul et Virginie, 1067, 113, 115

Paranassianism, 225

Parkman, Francis, 178

Parry, J. H., 27n.49, 42

Patagonians, 63, 86

Paul (Paul et Virginie), 107, 11213, 119

Paul et Virginie (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre), 101, 102; and Atala compared, 131; and Emile compared, 104, 10810, 113; exotidsm in, 103, 11619; and Les Incas compared, 119; paradisical innocence in, 1067, 113, 115; sexuality in, 10811, 112, 11516, 117; as study of new society, 1046, 107, 118

Penicault narrative, 129

Pérez Galdós, Benito, 35

Perfectibility, 23, 80n.17, 87

Peri (O Guarani), 198, 200, 2025

Perron, Paul, 54n.25

Philosophy of History (Hegel), 23

Pietro-Pietra/Piaimã (Macunaíma), 236, 237, 238, 240, 241

Pioneers, The (Cooper), 162, 182; Natty Bumppo in, 16768, 169

Pocahontas, 13, 3839

Polo, Marco, 42

Polyvocality, of first account discourse, 6668

Pop culture, American, 11n.18

Portugal: and conquest discourse, 5859; explorers’ accounts of Brazil, 4445, 4649; and French rivalry in Brazil, 50; power of, in Brazil, 213

Poverty, 52n.22

Power, discourse of, 243, 24546; and exotidsm, 230; in The Great Gatsby, 249

Prado, Dédo de Almeida, 188 Prairie, The (Cooper), 170, 171, 17475 Precaution (Cooper), 158

Primitivism: of Alencar, 206, 233, 239; of Andrade, 227, 22829, 230; of Chateaubriand, 127; of Cooper, 177, 178; and incest, 95; in Paul et Virginie, 118; of Rousseau, 75, 7879, 80, 83, 92, 9394

Print, importance of, 29

Protestantism, 24

Quinn, David B., 49, 50

Race, 25051; in Andrade’s Macunaíma, 23536; in Cooper’s novels, 17476. See also Hybridism

Rama, Angel, 6667, 254n.13

Rans, Geoffrey, 167, 169n.26, 170

Rebellion, right of, 81

Redemption, American, 24647, 249

Relations des Jésuites, 57

Renan, Ernest, 25

René (Atala), 133, 14445

Rent (Chateaubriand), 123, 142

Ribeiro, Darcy, 23031

Richard, Jean-Pierre, 14445

Robinson Crusoe (Defoe), 91, 9293

Roddier, Henry, 76

Romantidsm: French, 123, 124; and noble savage, 77; and Paul et Virginie, 103

Romero, Sílvio, 191

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 101, 104, 109, 11920; Du contrat social, 70, 72, 73, 77, 82; influence of, 6973; influence on Chateaubriand, 125, 130, 131; noble savage concept of, 73, 77, 7984, 92, 93, 9799; La nouvelle Héloïse, 73, 8586; use of the exotic by, 7376, 78. See also Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l’inégalité; Emile

Sahagún, Bernardino de, 4849

Said, Edward W., 14, 122n.1

Saint-Preux (La nouvelle Héloïse), 86

Santiago, Silviano, 198nn.25–26, 217

São Paulo (Brazil), 22122

Savagery: vs. dvilization in Atala, 13435; and Rousseau’s Emile, 88, 90. See also Amerindians; Noble savage

Scammell, G. V., 45

Schwarz, Lawrence, 25152

Schwarz, Roberto, 190n.8, 193, 194, 196

Scott, Sir Walter, 160, 170

Self-definition, role of exotic other in, 1317

Sexuality: in Atala, 13538; in Iracema, 209; in Paul et Virginie, 10811, 112; in Rousseau’s primitivism, 9495. See also Incest

Shakespeare, Wiliam, 123

Shelley, Mary, 35, 38

Simms, William Gilmore, 160

Slavery, 52n.23, 63n.41, 107, 188n.7, 192n.13, 195; of Chactas in Atala, 134

Slotkin, Richard, 1213

Smallpox, decimation of Amerindians by, 40

Social codes of conduct: in Atala, 13638; in Paul et Virginie, 105

Social contracts, 77

Socialization, and Rousseau’s noble savage, 9798, 99

Sommer, Doris, 7

Sound and the Fury; The (Faulkner), 251

Southern identity, literature of, 251

Spain: impact of Rousseau’s ideas in, 7071; and possession of Brazil, 50, 51

Spencer, Benjamin, 20, 26

Spiller, Robert E., 156

Spy, The (Cooper), 158

Staden, Hans, 64

Starobinski, Jean, 89

Subaltern, 1819

Sundquist, Eric, 250, 252n.11

Swift, Jonathan, 62

Tanner, Helen, 18

Technology, in Macunaíma, 23941

Temple, Judge (The Pioneers), 168, 169

“Third World Literature in the Era of Multinational Capitalism” (Jameson), 67, 67n.46

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 2223

Todorov, Tzvetan, 36, 3940, 62, 65, 74, 80

Tompkins, Jane, 8, 9

Tratado da terra do Brasil (Gandavo), 46

Travel accounts. See Accounts of first contact

Travelling Bachelor, The, or Notions of the Americans (Cooper), 157, 159, 161, 179, 18687; and European view of Americas, 16265; and Leather-stocking series compared, 91, 156, 158, 160, 18385; negative reviews of, 16465, 184

Travels (Polo), 42

Treaty of Tordesillas, 46

Triste fim de Policarpo Quaresma (Barreto), 224

Tupis, Brazilian, 216

Ubirajara (Alencar), 197, 21417

Uncas (The Last of the Mohicans), 175, 178

United States: Cooper’s influence on literature of, 158, 186; cultural independence of, 2, 3, 2021, 7779, 15456; cultural power of, 246, 25354; English influence on, 11, 220; lack of history of, 13132, 133; legitimacy of, 14142, 18081, 182; literature of nationality in, 5, 2529, 186; Rousseau’s influence in, 71, 76

Vaca, Cabeza de, 12

Vallois, Marie-Claire, 105n.4

Vargas Llosa, Mario, 221

Verrazzano, Giovanni da, 43, 46

Vespucci, Amerigo, 36, 39

Villegagnon, Chevalier de, 50

Violence, in Macunaíma, 23738

Virginie (Paul et Virginie), 112, 113, 11516, 117

Vom Roroima zum Orinoco (Koch-Grunberg), 230

Voyage à l’Ile de France (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre), 116

Voyage en Amérique (Chateaubriand), 128

Wahrhaftige Historie (Staden), 64

Wallace, James D., 156

“Week of Modern Art” (Brazil), 22122, 225

Weisbuch, Robert, 10, 11n.18

Weston, Peter J., 8687

Wilderness: Chateaubriand’s transformation of, 15053; in Cooper’s novels, 169, 17274; nature as, 132

Winnetou (May), 178

Women, 48; and matriarchy, 1056, 20910

Additional Information

ISBN
9781501726057
Related ISBN
9781501726064
MARC Record
OCLC
1057688720
Pages
281-288
Launched on MUSE
2018-04-06
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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