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Index

Agriculture, 7980, 190, 195

Agriculture, Department of, 8283n

Aldrich, Nelson, 112, 125127, 131, 138139, 141, 143

Algeciras Conference (1906), 124

Allison, William B., 104, 127128, 141

Anarchy, 2122

Anglo-American cooperation, 164, 178182

Argentina, 131, 234

Arrow, Kenneth, 85

Arthur, Chester A., 109

Artwork, 126, 130

Austria-Hungary, 102, 135

Axelrod, Robert, 5354

Baack, Bennett D., 74n

Balfour, Arthur, 150151

Becker, William H., 74n 79

Benedict, Murray R., 80

Benham, Frederick, 188

Blaine, James G., 86, 102, 126, 137138, 140, 144, 220221

and passage of the McKinley Act, 100, 108113, 115

Boot and shoe manufacturers, 139

Brandeis, Louis D., 81

Brazil, 101, 128129, 171, 234

Breckinridge, William C. R., 104

Britain. See United Kingdom

Browne, Edward E., 192

Bryan, William Jennings, 159

Burbridge, J. B., 39

Burgess, William, 176

Canada, 135n, 142n, 202, 208

Cannon, Joseph, 143

Chamberlain, Joseph, 120, 149150, 153

Chandler, William E., 128

China, 124, 126, 180

Clark, Colin, 236

Cleveland, Grover C., 86, 137, 144, 156157, 199, 220221, 224

887 Annual Message, 9899, 113

and passage of the Wilson-Gorman Act, 113117

Coal, 102103

Coffee, 126127

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, 20

Coletta, Paolo E., 143

Colombia, 102

Commerce, Department of, 83n

Conybeare, John A. C., 38

Crumpacker, Edgar, 135

Cuba, 171, 181

Culbertson, William S., 174176

Curtis, W. G., 110

Dawes, Charles G., 188

Dawes Plan, 179180

Denmark, 131

Dingley, Nelson, 125

Dingley Tariff Act of 1897, 125131, 133134, 136, 146

and domestic policy process, 136141

rates of duty, 125126

Dominican Republic, 131

Economies of scale. See Infant industry argument; International trade theory; Relative labor productivity

Ecuador, 131

Edge, Walter, 197

Eikengreen, Barry, 189n, 201

Emergency Tariff Act of 1921, 167, 177, 201

Emmanuel, Arghiri, 42

Endogenous tariff theory, 1, 7

and the state, 70

Europe, 97, 106107, 121123, 125, 126, 131, 134, 146. See also France; Germany; United Kingdom

Export dependence, 75

Ferguson, Thomas, 211

Finance, American, 79

Fordney, Joseph W., 167

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act of 1922, 166178, 194196, 201, 207, 214, 222

and domestic policy process, 173178

rates of duty, 167

Foreign direct investment, American, 78

Foreign policy executive, 13

bargaining strategies, 221

efined, 6971

and trade strategy, 8586, 117, 147, 182, summarized, 219222

in United States, 83

France, 47, 128, 135136, 172, 179180, 191, 202, 224, 229231, 234236

and British hegemony, 93n

Cobden-Chevalier treaty (1860), 51

Meline Tariff (1892), 122124

reciprocity with U.S., 129130, 138139

Free trade free riders:

under bilateral opportunism, 55

under hegemony, 50, 52

trade policy preferences defined, 48

Frelinghuysen, Frederick T., 109

Frieden, Jeff, 78n, 79n

Frye, William R., 112

Garfield, James A., 108

Germany, 47, 51, 96, 122, 128, 135136, 157, 164, 171, 178179, 181, 210, 224, 229231, 234236

and British hegemony, 93n

reciprocity with United States, 102, 129130

Gilpin, Robert, 911, 59, 228229

Glassie, Henry M., 176

Gloves, 143

Goldstein, Judith, 10

Goluchowski, Agenor, 123

Gorman, Arthur, 115

Great Depression, and Smoot-Hawley Act, 200

Gresham, Walter Q., 114

Guatemala, 101

Haiti, 102

Hale, Eugene, 100, 112

Hamilton, Alexander, 2, 20, 42

Hanna, Marcus, 137

Harding, Warren G., 220, 222

and passage of the Fordney-McCumber Act, 168, 173177

Harrison, Benjamin, 99, 102, 144, 220, 224

and passage of McKinley Act, 109113

Harrison, Pat, 192

Hay, John, 141

Hegemonic leader:

and economic openness, 5052, 59

trade policy preferences defined, 4546

Hegemonic stability, theory of, 811, 31, 38, 228229

Hides, 10m, 102103

Hirschman, Albert, 42

Honduras, 101

Hoover, Herbert, 1, 173, 185, 193, 196, 220222

and passage of Smoot-Hawley Act, Agreements Act, 196199

Hornbeck, Stanley K., 174

House, Colonel Edward, 159

Hughes, Charles Evans, 170, 174

Hull, Cordell, 86, 192, 204205, 220221

and passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, 209211

Huntington, Samuel, 83

Imperial leaders:

trade policy preferences defined, 4748

Infant industry argument, 2, 20

and increasing returns to scale, 42

Instability. See international economic infrastructure

Interest groups:

and trade strategy, 1887–1939, 226227; 1887–1897, 118; 1897–1912, 146; 1913, 162; 1922, 177178; 1930, 201; 1934–1939, 211

in United States, 7482

See also endogenous tariff theory

International American Conference (1890), 86, 109111, 114, 221

International Economic Conference (1933), 210, 221

International economic infrastructure, 2122, 3338

and bilateral opportunism, 5256

and hegemony, 51

instability, 3537, 163165, 178, 187, 202, 232

and unilateral opportunism, 5659

International economic structure

bilateral opportunism, 5256, 149153, 163166

defined, 30

difference from hegemonic stability theory, 11

hegemonic, 5052, 9298, 120124

methodological considerations, 6365

since mid-19th century, 49

theory of, assumptions, 2124; developed, 2860; limitations of, 224225

unilateral opportunism, 5659, 186193, 202203

1945–Present, 229232

International trade theory, 2429

Heckscher-Ohlin theory, 24, 25n, 27, 41

law of comparative advantage, 24

new mercantilism and open economy multiplier, 2627, 39

optimal tariff theory, 2526, 3839

and returns to scale, 2729, 41, 233234

Iron ore, 102103

Isaacs, Asher, 208

Italy, 122, 129130, 202

Japan, 47, 49, 126, 180, 229, 234

Jefferson, Thomas, 160

Kaldor, Nicholas, 4142

Kasson, John A., 129131, 138139

Katzenstein, Peter J., 83

Keohane, Robert, 10, 54

Kerr, Winfield S., 127

Keynes, John Maynard, 26

Kindleberger, Charles P., 9, 11, 32n, 36, 213214, 229

Klein, Julius, 188

Knox, Philander C., 142, 145

Krasner, Stephen D., 911, 60n, 229

Labor, Department of, 83n

Labor productivity. See Relative labor productivity

LaFollette, Robert, 143144

Latin America, 95, 97, 108110, 114, 121, 179180

and Dingley Act, 126, 128, 134

and McKinley Act, 101

and Wilson-Gorman Act, 105107, 157

Laughlin, J. Lawrence, 102

Law, Bonar, 151, 159

Leadership, executive or presidential, 74, 116, 162

Leather, 160

Leech, Margaret, 140

Leffler, Melvyn P., 174, 191

Liberal Free Riders:

under bilateral opportunism, 56

under hegemony, 5052

trade policy preferences defined, 4547

under unilateral opportunism, 5657

Lippmann, Walter, 81

List, Fredrich, 2, 20, 22, 228

Locarno Treaty, 179

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 142, 144145, 162, 171

Lumber, 102103, 143

McClure, Wallace M., 174

McCumber, Porter J., 167, 171

McKinley Tariff Act of 1890, 96, 99102, 146

and domestic policy process, 108113

McKinley, William, 137138, 140141, 147, 220221

and passage of the Dingley Act, 125127, 129, 131, 137138

and passage of the McKinley Act, 99, 110111

Maddison, Angus, 236

Marvin, Thomas D., 175

Mastanduno, Michael, 51n

Maximum-minimum schedules. See Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909

Mercantilism, 2

Mill, John Stuart, 22

Mills, Roger Q., 99, 104

Moley, Raymond, 209

Morgan, H. Wayne, 141

Morrison, Elting E., 198

Most-favored-nation principle, 122n, 123124, 149, 214

adopted by U.S., 169172, 175

conflict with Britain over, 181

Multiplier effect. See International trade theory

Myrdal, Gunnar, 42

National trade interest, defined, 60, 63, 66

Naval Disarmament Conference (1927), 180

Nelson, Knute, 84

Netherlands, 46n, 130

Nicaragua, 101, 131

Nondiscrimination, 119, 131, 133134

and Fordney-McCumber Act, 169173

and Smoot-Hawley Act, 196

Olney, Richard, 97

Olson, Mancur, 3536

Open Door Notes, 214

Opportunists:

under bilateral opportunism, 5256

under hegemony, 5052

trade policy preferences defined, 4547

under unilateral opportunism, 5659

Optimal tariffs:

theory. See International trade theory

in U.S., 9495; 121

Osborne, John Ball, 127

Palmer, A. Mitchell, 209

Panama Canal, 124, 171, 181

Pareto, Vilfredo, 72

Parties, political:

as explanation of trade strategy, 8, 91n

and trade strategy, 1887–1939, 227; 1887–1897, 91, 118; 1897–1912, 132, 146; 1913, 162; 1922, 177; 1930, 200; 1934–1939, 211

Payne, Sereno E., 133, 143

Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909, 80, 84, 131136, 150, 153154, 167, 178, 214, 227

and domestic policy process, 141145

maximum-minimum schedules, 133136, 144145

rates of duty, 133

Peek, George, 209210

Peel, Sir Robert, 155

Philippines, 124, 171, 181

Platt, Orville, H., 141

Portugal, 129130, 135

Prisoners’ dilemma, 5256, 152, 187

Progressive (Bull Moose) Party, 153

Progressives, 81, 155, 160

Proportion of world trade. See Relative size

Protectionist free riders:

under bilateral opportunism, 5556

under hegemony, 5052

trade policy preferences defined, 4849

under unilateral opportunism, 5657

Public good, 3536

Ray, Edward John, 74n

Realism, 12, 66, 87

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934, 84, 204209, 227

compared with other tariff acts, 205206

and domestic policy process, 209211

rates of duty, 207208

Reciprocity:

in Dingley Act, 126131, 137141, 146147

in McKinley Act, 100102

in Underwood Act, 158

Reed, David A., 197

Regimes, 10, 35

Relative labor productivity, 233236

defined, 2930, 234

effects on trade strategy, 4044

operationalized, 3233, 234

Relative size:

defined 2930

effects on trade strategy, 3340

operationalized, 3132

Representative element of the state, 13

defined, 6970

in United States, 8283

See specific tariff acts, domestic policy process

Ricardo, David, 1, 24, 152

Robinson, Joan, 40

Romania, 172

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 204, 206207, 209211

Roosevelt, Theodore, 131132, 153154, 221222

and passage of the Payne-Aldrich Act, 141145, 162167

Root, Elihu, 144145

Russia, 191

Salisbury, Lord, 93

Salvador, 101

Schattschneider, E. E., 80, 199

Sherman, James, 145

Sherman, John, 137

Smith, Adam, 1, 24, 152

Smoot, Reed, 166, 169, 174, 176, 192, 197

Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of 1930, 1, 80, 191, 193196, 205206, 208209, 214, 222, 227

and domestic policy process, 196201

rates of duty, 194195

and Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, 205–206, 208209

retaliation against, 189, 202203

Society. See Interest groups

Soviet Union, 48n

Spain, 101, 130, 171172, 202

Spoilers:

under bilateral opportunism, 5556

under hegemony, 5052

trade policy preferences defined, 4849

under unilateral opportunism, 5657

Spooner, John, 141

State:

defined, 6672

economic agencies, 69n

structure, 7374,

in United States, 8387

See also Foreign policy executive; Representative element of the state

Steel, and Underwood Act, 159

Stein, Arthur, 54

Stimson, Henry L., 198, 222

Sugar, 102103, 126, 129, 139, 147, 160, 195

Sumner, William Graham, 97

Taft, William Howard, 162, 221222

and maximum-minimum schedules, 144145, 178

and passage of the Payne-Aldrich Act, 132, 141145, 147

Tariff Commission, 134135, 169, 174176, 196, 205, 211212, 221222

Tariffs:

as second-best policy, 43n

See specific tariff acts by principle author’s name

Taussig, Frank W., 167

Tea, 126127

Textiles, 139

Thornton, John Randolph, 160

Tobacco, 139

Trade strategy:

defined, 45

methodological considerations, 6365

See also United States trade strategy

Truman, David B., 84

Trusts, and the tariff, 155

Tyson, Laura, 41

Underwood, Oscar O., 159160, 169

Underwood Tariff Act of 1913, 153159, 163, 194195, 208, 211, 214, 227

compared with Wilson-Gorman Act, 157

and domestic policy process, 159163

rates of duty, 154155

United Kingdom, 138139, 164, 179180, 190, 214, 233236

as bilateral opportunist (1912–1932), 149153, 157, 163166, 178182

as declining hegemonic leader (1897–1912), 120123

as hegemonic leader, 46, 51, 59, (1887–1897), 9298, 107

imperial preferences, 120121, 189

most-favored-nation principle, 171172, 175, 181

reciprocal trade negotiations, 101, 130, 208209

return to protection, 165166, 187189

as spoiler (1932–1939), 186189

trade with United States, 93n, 121, 152

United States, 4647, 51, 5960, 229231, 233236

trade with specific regions, 107, 163n, 208

See also United States trade strategy; specific tariff acts

United States trade strategy:

and the international economic structure, 6063

as least likely crucial case study, 3, 61, 225226

pre-1887, 6

1887–1939, summarized, 67, 216219

1887–1897, 98107

1897–1912, 124136

1913, 153159

1922, 166173

1930, 193196

1934–1939, 204209

post-1945, 6, 1415, 228232

Venezuela, 106, 172

Vest, George G., 102

Vinson, Fred M., 206

Waltz, Kenneth, 12, 20

Weber, Max, 67

Willis, H. Parker, 102

Wilson, Joan Hoff, 74n, 79, 177

Wilson, William L., 103, 114115

Wilson, Woodrow, 86, 142, 166, 170, 177, 220221

and passage of the Underwood Act, 153163

and tariff lobby, 161

Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, 96, 102107, 125, 200, 211, 227

and domestic policy process, 113117

rates of duty, 106107

Wine (and other spirits), 126127, 129130, 195

Wool, 102106, 110, 139, 157, 160, 195

World War I. See International economic infrastructure, instability

Zeckhauser, Richard, 3536

Zysman, John, 41

Additional Information

ISBN
9781501723049
Related ISBN
9780801421341
MARC Record
OCLC
1057677514
Pages
237-242
Launched on MUSE
2018-04-06
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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