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Index

Age of Discoveries, 3

Agrarian societies, class system, 130131

AIDS, 109, 172173

Alexander III, 62

American Revolution, 84, 87

Anti-social behavior

definitions, 2, 101, 113

environment and, 103

fraud and, 105106

industry and, 102

modern civilization and, 114115

movements and, 117118

political disintegration, 104105

remedies for, 116118

rights and, 101102, 117

social obligations and, 102103

Appleby, R. Scott, 174

Apprenticeship, 1011, 12

Apter, David E., 175

Aristocracy. See also under Moral codes

shift to merchant class, 24, 2526

wager of law and, 56

Aristotle, 146

Arkwright, Richard, 1922, 3031, 43

Art, emotional reactions and, 164

Asceticism, 28, 55

Ashton, T. S., 19, 33, 42

Aśoka, 63

Assize, 4

Athens, 133, 145148

male autonomy in, 149150

Austerity, 56. See also Asceticism; Carthusians

Authority

abuse of, 137138

capitalism and, 5152

communal movements and, 6566, 6870, 79

domestic peace and, 136

economy and, 136137

equality and, 115

justice and, 136

kibbutz movement and, 6870

market and, 6061, 142

medieval moral personality and, 15

obedience to, 10, 15

oppression and, 136141

self-aggrandizement and, 137

social obligations to, 103104

Bacon, Francis, 17

Bankers, 26

Bankruptcy, 27

Barclay, John, 65

Barkai, Haim, 69

Behaviorism, 116117

“Bequests of the Nineteenth Century to the Twentieth” (Sumner), 168169

Black markets, 106107

Bona fide possession, 8

Boulton, Matthew, 20, 22, 34

Bourgeoisie, 9495

Bruno, St., 78

Buchanan, A., 38

Buddhism, 55, 5758, 6364, 77

Burckhardt, Jacob, 174

Bureaucracy, 97, 137

Capitalism. See also Economy; Market; Workers

authority and, 5152

Christian morality and, 3132

enforcement of morality, 15

fear of money and, 4546

fraud and, 4750

free market and, 42

medieval systems, similarity to, 42, 51

owner’s morality and, 3134

paternalism and, 3334

personality of capitalists, 2224, 26, 39, 51, 5253

provincial, 24

social obligations and, 2930, 52

Carthusians, 7880

Caste system, 127129

Catarivas, David, 68

Categorization, 2728

Catholic Church, 133134. See also Religion

business morality and, 7, 8, 11

rational discussion and, 151152

Censorate, 9091

Charles I, 84, 85

Charlotte, Lady, 35

Child labor hearings, 18, 3638

China, 88, 9091, 93, 131, 137

Chinese Empire, 129130

Maoist, 170171

memorandum culture, 148149, 151

rational discussion and, 148151, 153, 154

Ch’in dynasty, 90

Cholera, 35, 52

Christian left, 141142

Christian morality. See Catholic Church; Religion

Churchill, Winston, 83

Cistercians, 57, 5962

Cistercians: Ideals and Reality, The (Lekai), 57n

City authorities, 1314

Civil War (England), 16, 84, 85

Civil War (United States), 84, 131

Class systems, 127134. See also Middle class; Workers

breakdown of, 130131, 140141

rebellion against, 132133

skills and, 131132

Command-obedience relationships, 122, 127

Communal movements. See also individual movements

austerity of, 56, 7880

authority and, 6566, 6870, 79

community, sense of, 80

donations and, 5759

managerial functions, 5963

moral revolution and, 77

productive labor and, 5860

prosperity as detrimental to, 59, 6164, 66, 7173, 76, 7880

religious elements of, 5455

societal change and, 5556

splits in, 7678

Communism, 56. See also Leninism; Socialism; Stalinism

Comparative history, 82

Competition, 4244, 52

Compurgators, 56, 50

Confucianism, 148, 150

Confucius, 90

Corn Laws, 45

Courts, medieval merchant, 48, 1314

Cranfield, Lionel, 17, 18

Creditworthiness, 2527

Davidoff, Leonore, 2428, 4546

Debt, 67, 15, 2527

Demagogy, 146

Democratic socialism, 96

Demosthenes, 146147

Dishonesty. See Fraud; Honesty

Donations, 5758

Downing, Brian, 123

Economic man, 114, 115, 117

Economy. See also Capitalism; Market; Medieval merchants

authority and, 136137

division of labor, 125126

inequality and, 124125

liberal democracy and, 94

nonhierarchical distribution, 124

social disorder and, 13, 16, 5152

social obligations and, 105107

Soviet, 9596

surplus, 124125

Economy of the Israeli Kibbutz, The (Kanovsky), 57n

Edwardian era, 26

Egalitarian society, 141143

Elizabeth I, 18

Emotions

art forms and, 164166

rational discussion and, 144, 153155

Enfranchisement, 10

England. See also Opposition movement; Parliament

abuse of authority in, 138

legitimate opposition and, 8588

liberal tradition, 159

monarchy, 1617, 87

Equality, 5455. See also Inequality

authority and, 115

Cistercians and, 59

kibbutz movement and, 59, 6667, 80

principles, defined, 119

Quakers and, 66

social obligation and, 115

Equality (Tawney), 141

Essays (Sumner), 168

Evans, D. Morier, 4850

Fairness, 4041, 50, 106

Family Fortunes (Davidoff and Hall), 2425

Fear, 138139

Federalists, 88

Fishmongers, 1314

Fitton, R. S., 20, 21, 43

Force

inequality and, 127, 133, 138139

rational discussion and, 150

Francis, St., 56, 7677

Franciscans, 7677

Fraud. See also Honesty

anti-social behavior and, 105106

capitalism and, 4750

inequality and, 122123, 127, 138139

legal history and, 5051

Free market, 4243

French Revolution, 84, 161

Fundamentalism, 173177. See also Movements

leftist, 176

political use of past, 174175

violence and, 175, 176

Fundamentalism Project, 174

Galtons, 27

Gaulle, Charles de, 140

Genovese, Kitty, 112

Gentility

cultivated life and, 4647

salvation and, 25

George, Lloyd, 45

George II, 87

George III, 86

Gide, André, 115

GKN (Guest, Keen, and Nettlefolds), 3435

Glasnost, 9798

Glorious Revolution (1688), 85

Good will, 177

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 95, 9899

Government

inequality and, 122

as social obligation, 103104

Grange system, 60

Gregory of Tours, 122

Guest, John, 34

Guest, Keen, and Nettlefolds (GKN), 3435

Guilds. See also Medieval merchants

capitalism and, 42

market control and, 1314, 16, 52

wager of law and, 56

Hall, Catherine, 2428, 4546

Hedonism, 153, 166

History of Criminal Law (Radzinowicz and Hood), 4748

History of the Factory Movement (Kydd), 23

Hitler, Adolf, 123, 156

Hofstadter, Richard, 88

Home, as moral refuge, 2425, 4546

Honesty, II. See also Fraud

evasion and, 1415, 105

Hood, Roger, 4748

Hudson, George, 47, 4850, 52

Independents, 2627

Indignation, 171

Individualism

kibbutz movement and, 71, 75

mysticism and, 154

social obligation and, 3637, 39

sons of merchants, 12

Industrial revolution, 1. See also Capitalism; Workers

distribution of goods, 34

historical sources, 1819

Inequality. See also Equality

age and sex distinctions, 120121

biological, 141142

class systems and, 127133

division of labor and, 125126, 142

economy and, 124125

ethical approach, 141142

fear and, 138139

force and, 127, 133, 138139

fragmentation of population and, 138141

fraud and, 122123, 127, 138139

government and, 122

hierarchies and, 124, 127128

justifiable, 143

ladder and rank metaphor, 127128

management of unknown and, 133134

oppression, 136138

religion and, 5455, 123

shifts in structure of, 133135

social obsolescence and, 134135

social reproduction and, 126127

status systems, 129130

subordinate strata and, 136, 138141

women and, 120121

Innocent III, 62

Inventor-tinkers, 19, 22, 53. See also Capitalism

Jackson, Samuel, 40

James I, 7, 17

Japan, 8890

Japanese Socialist Party, 89

Jefferson, Thomas, 88

Jones, Edgar, 35

Jones, Rufus M., 154

Justice, 136

Kanovsky, Eliyahu, 57n

Keller, Albert Galloway, 168

Khrushchev, Nikita, 95

Kibbutz movement

authority and, 6870

child rearing, 72, 7375

community spirit and, 7071

consumer demand and, 76

controversial issues, 7173

dependence and, 68

division of labor, 6768, 76

donations and, 5758

education, 73

equality and, 59, 6667, 80

household income, 6667, 7576

individualism and, 71, 75

labor and, 59

privacy, 70, 71

religious elements, 55

women’s work, 7172

Knowledge

aesthetic evaluation, 161162

art forms and, 164166

democracy of curiosity, 159160

educational failure and, 163

emotions and, 162166

intellectual autonomy and, 166167

science and, 161162

utilitarian evaluation, 160161

Kydd, Alfred, 23

Labor, division of, 6768, 76, 125126, 142

Lancashire cotton spinners, 19, 21

Lea, Henry C., 5

Legal history, fraud and, 5051

Lekai, Louis J., 57n

Lenders, 67

Leninism, 9697, 171

Liberal democracy. See also Opposition, legitimate

bourgeoisie and, 9495

civil war and, 84

conditions for, 9394

skills and, 93, 95

socialist version, 98

Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), 89

Liberal tradition, 159

London, 915

Loyd, Lewis, 39, 41

Madison, James, 88

Mandarinate, 129130

Mao, 123, 175176

Maoism, 170171, 175176

Market. See also Economy

authority and, 142

black market, 106107

communal movements and, 6061

competition and, 4243

as field of opportunities, 4344

medieval, 8, 5152

merchant control over, 1314

nonhierarchical coordination of, 124

price regulation, 4245

socialist, 142

wages and, 4142

Marty, Martin E., 174

Marx, Karl, 2223, 52, 117

Marxism, 5556, 134, 159, 171, 176

Mathematics, 12, 147, 156

Matthews, William, 4445

Medieval merchants, 5152. See also Guilds; Middle Ages

business morality and, 78

courts, 48, 1314

poor, attitudes toward, 1112

as producers, 11

prudence, 1011

respectability and, 10

social stratification and, 56, 913

traveling, 45, 8

Memorandum culture, 148149, 151

Mencius, 90, 148, 150

Merchant Class of Medieval London, [1300–1500], The (Thrupp), 1

Merchants. See Medieval merchants

Metropolis, 9n

Middle Ages. See also Medieval merchants; Pre-industrial societies

court system, 48, 1314

economic status in, 12

management of unknown, 133134

market, 8, 5152

production in, 3, 911

social stratification, 56, 913

Middle classes, 2526, 2829

Military service, 104

Ming Dynasty, 88, 9091

Minorities, organization of, 139141

Modern society. See also Capitalism

shifts of morality in, 134135

skills and, 93, 95, 131132

Monarchy (British), 87

Monasticism, 5455. See also Carthusians; Cistercians;

Franciscans Monopolies, 20, 43

Moral codes. See also Capitalism; Economy; Medieval merchants

deemphasis of morality, 45

enforcement of, 1315

failure of business and, 27, 46, 53

law and order as focus of, 9

military aristocratic, 23

personal honor, 7

prohibitions, 12, 4

shifts in, 24, 12, 2526, 134135

social stratification and, 56, 1013

Moravia, Alberto, 115

Mosca, Gaetano, 139

Motherhood, 120121

Movements. See also Communal movement; Fundamentalism; Kibbutz movement; individual groups

anti-social behavior and, 117118

rational discussion and, 153

Mysticism, 154

Mysticism and Democracy in the English Commonwealth (Jones), 154

Nationalism, 139140

Nazis, 156, 159

Nightingale, Peter, 20

Nonconformists, 2627, 45

Norman, George W., 39

North, Lord, 86

Oldknow, Samuel, 22, 3334, 4243

Opposition, legitimate. See also Liberal democracy

China and, 9091

England and, 8588

etiquette and, 86

Japan and, 8890

leadership, 92

limited conflict and, 8590

Parliament and, 8588

politicians and, 88

popular needs and, 9091

remonstrance, 9091

royal decree and, 9293

social contacts and, 92

surveillance, 9091

United States and, 88

Opposition movement (England), 8588

Oppression, 136141

Parliament. See also England

child labor hearings, 18, 3638

economic hearings (1833), 3841, 44

elections and, 8788

etiquette, 8687

monarchy and, 87

Opposition and, 8586

Patent infringement, 1921

Pattison, James, 38

Peel, Robert, 37

Perestroika, 99

Pericles, 145146

Persian Wars, 133

Philosophy of Manufacture, The (Ure), 23, 3132

Piepowder courts, 45

Plato, 146, 147

Politics. See also Liberal democracy; Opposition, legitimate

anti-social behavior and, 104105

legitimate opposition and, 88

moral rhetoric and, 45

rational discussion and, 150

Population, homogeneous, 94

Poverty, 1112, 172, 177

Pre-industrial societies. See also Middle Ages

abuse of authority in, 138

age and sex distinctions in, 120

anti-social behavior and, 114

inequality in, 119

subordinate strata in, 140

Prestige systems, 125126

Prices, 1314, 41, 142. See also Wages

interest groups and, 44

merchant control of, 16

regulation, 4245

Priesthood, 23

Production. See also Capitalism; Economy; Market

communal movements and, 5860

medieval, 3, 911

Profits, 3940, 4546

Property rights

anti-social behavior and, 101102

in customers, 42

liberal democracy and, 93

trade marks and patents, 1921

Protestantism, 4546, 53

Prudence, 1011, 15, 51

Punishment, public, 6

Quakers, 27, 55, 58, 6466

Radzinowicz, Leon, 4748

Rational discussion

Athens and, 145150

Catholic Church and, 151152

China and, 148150, 153, 154

criticism and, 148149, 151

defined, 144

as elitist, 151, 155, 156

emotions and, 144, 153155

favorable factors, 155156

force and, 150

mathematics and logic, 147, 155156

money and, 152153

movements and, 153

national state and, 152153

origins of, 144145

popular sovereignty and, 149150

religious obstacles to, 151155

Soviet Union and, 153, 154

toleration and, 152

unfavorable factors, 156157

Rationality, 27, 50, 115116, 122

Reform of 1832, 39

Religion, 2. See also Catholic Church

Calvinist predestination, 22

capitalism and, 3132

home, supervision of, 25, 27, 46, 53

inequality and, 5455, 123

priesthood, 23

Protestantism, 4546, 53

rational discussion and, 151153

science and, 27

sexuality and, 107108

Report on Manufactures, Commerce and Shipping, 3641, 4445

Republicans, 88

Respectability, 10, 28, 53

Revolution, 169171

Revolutionary Discourse in Mao’s Republic (Apter and Saich), 175

Robber barons, 48, 106

Roll, Erich, 34

Roman Empire, 123

Roman Revolution, The (Syme), 175

Romanticism, 116, 122, 131

Royal absolutism, 1617

Royal courts, 5

Saich, Tony, 175

Salte, 4243

Salvation, 133134

donations and, 5758

gentility and, 25

Victorian goals, 46

Schulberg, Budd, 115

Schumpeter, Joseph Alois, 95

Science

evaluation of knowledge and, 161162

religion and, 27

Selden, John, 1n

Selden Society, 1, 4

Sexuality

AIDS, 109, 172173

middle classes and, 28

promiscuity, 109110

religion and, 107108

social obligations and, 107110

Sheffield trades, 4

Shillitoe, Thomas, 65

Sidgewick, William, 37

Skills, 93, 95, 131132

Smith, Adam, 37, 46

Social contract, 137

Social disorder, economic controls and, 13, 16, 5152

Social happiness, 161

Socialism

democratic, 96

economy and, 107

market and, 142

Socialist-Zionism, 55, 71

Social obligations, 1113

to authority, 103104

of business, 1516

capitalist, 2930, 52

economy and, 105107

equality and, 115

government and, 103104

individualism and, 3637, 39

military service and, 104

rescue, 110111

sexuality and, 107110

specialists and, 111112

to strangers, 110113, 115

welfare system and, 112113

workers and, 2930, 35, 52

Social reproduction, 126127

Social science, 58, 116, 162

Soviet Union, 105, 169

bourgeoisie, 9495

bureaucracy, 97

cultural situation, 96, 99

economy, 9596

glasnost, 9798

perestroika, 99

rational discussion and, 153, 154

self-criticism, 98

Stalinism, 170171

Western ideals and, 9798

Spencer, Herbert, 134

Stalin, Joseph, 98, 123

Stalinism, 92, 98, 170171

Status systems, 129130

Stendhal, 115

Stocks, Samuel, 37

Strikes, 3435

Stubs, John, 19

Stubs, Peter, 19, 21, 32, 42

Sufficiency, 10

Sumner, William Graham, 92, 168169, 177

Syme, Ronald, 175

Talmon, Yonina, 71

Taoism, 148

Tawney, R. H., 17, 141

Thatcher, Margaret, 140

Theft, 3, 8. See also Fraud

Thrupp, Sylvia L., 1, 1014, 16

Thucydides, 146, 169

Tocqueville, Alexis de, 9899, 115

Totalitarian regimes, 123, 127

Trade marks and patents, 1921

United States

Civil War, 84, 131

counter-revolution and, 171172

general welfare and, 104

hegemony, 169170

legitimate opposition and, 88

military, 133

Unwin, George, 33, 43

Urban areas, 9

Ure, Andrew, 23, 3132

Usury, 11

Van Buren, Martin, 88

Victorian morality, 4546, 138. See also Capitalism; Moral codes

Wager of law, 56

Wages. See also Capitalism; Economy; Market; Prices

egalitarian societies and, 142143

fair, 4041

market price and, 4142

setting, 4445

subsistence theory, 4041

wage contract, 29

Walpole, Robert, 8586, 87

Watt, James, 20, 22, 34

Weber, Max, 2223, 52, 144, 147

Wedgwood, Josiah, 20, 36, 43

Weights and measures, 4, 7

Weimar Republic, 104, 159

Women, 2425, 28

inequality and, 120121

kibbutz and, 7172

Woodward, C. Vann, 177

Workers

autonomy, 3031

child labor, 3638

collective action, 140

discipline, 29, 3132

health issues, 35, 52

loans to, 3233

paternalism and, 3334

social obligations toward, 2930, 35, 52

supervisors, relationship with, 3031

supply, 41

wages and, 2930, 3940, 4445

World war, 45, 169170

World War I, 171

World War II, 89, 133

Yale Review 22, 168

Zionism, 55, 71

Additional Information

ISBN
9781501726422
Related ISBN
9780801433764
MARC Record
OCLC
1057680727
Pages
179-186
Launched on MUSE
2018-04-06
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Creative Commons
CC-BY-NC-ND
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