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99 1. Liberty Hall is an extremely apt venue for a commemorative activity of this sort. The original Liberty Hall, on the same site, was closely connected to the Rising in that it was the base of the Irish Citizen Army, a force initially established to defend striking Workers. It was also where the Proclamation was first printed, in the basement of the building. Moreover this is not the first time that Liberty Hall has been draped in a banner; following the outbreak of the First World War, a banner proclaiming ‘We Serve Neither King nor Kaiser, But Ireland’ was hung on the front wall of the original building. 2. Only one of the ten plays included in the programme was written by a woman, and only three of the ten were directed by women. This lack of female representation gave rise to a Waking the Feminists campaign that arguably has had more of an impact on Irish society than the Abbey’s scheduled events. 3. Dublin: One City One Book is a Dublin City Council initiative, led by Dublin City Public Libraries. Launched in 2006, it encourages Dubliners to read a selected book connected with Ireland’s capital city during the month of April every year. Clearly, this project helps create a canon of Dublin-centric texts. While the Dublin: One City One Book canon includes both wellestablished classics and newer works, it is notable that of the twelve books chosen since the project’s inception, Fallen is the only female-authored one. 4. As a ‘star’ broadcaster on RTÉ, Duffy was afforded multiple opportunities on both radio and television to commemorate the Notes and References Commemoration 100 children injured or killed during the Rising, thereby garnering much publicity for Children of the Rising. 5. Ged Martin, Past Futures: The Impossible Necessity of History (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), p. 13. 6. ‘Welcome to the Decade of Centenaries Website’, p. 2, http:// (accessed 30 November 2016). 7. Decade of Centenaries Programme’, p. 1, http://www. (accessed 30 November 2016). 8. ‘Initial Statement by Advisory Group on Centenary Commemorations’, p. 5, http://www.decadeofcentenaries. com/initial-statement-by-advisory-group-on-centenarycommemorations / (accessed 30 November 2016). 9. David Fitzpatrick, ‘Historians and the Commemoration of Irish Conflicts, 1912–23’, in John Horne and Edward Madigan (eds), Towards Commemoration: Ireland in War and Revolution, 1912–23 (Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 2013), pp. 126–33, p. 126. See also Fitzpatrick’s earlier negative assessment of commemoration, particularly as it operates in the Irish context, in ‘Commemoration in the Irish Free State: A Chronicle of Embarrassment’, in Ian McBride (ed.), History and Memory in Modern Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), pp. 184–203. 10. Fitzpatrick, ‘Historians and the Commemoration of Irish Conflicts, 1912–23’, p. 126. 11. Ibid. pp. 126, 132. 12. Ibid. p. 126. 13. For an overview and analysis of alternative concepts and practices of legality in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ireland, see Heather Laird, Subversive Law in Ireland, 1879–1920: From ‘Unwritten Law’ to the Dáil Courts (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2005). 14. Associated in its earliest manifestations with such figures as Eric Hobsbawm and E.P. Thompson, ‘history from below’ is 101 Notes and References a Marxist-inflected social history that primarily focuses on the peasantry and the urban working class. See Eric Hobsbawm, Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1959), and E.P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (London: Victor Gollancz, 1963). 15. From the 1980s onwards, the Subaltern Studies Collective has offered a sustained analysis of the role of the subaltern or non-elite colonised subject. Ranajit Guha, the founder member of the group, famously called for the subaltern to be reinterpreted as the ‘subject of his own history’. This reinterpretation requires a radical decentring of familiar notions of power, and the political as the subaltern can only be viewed as an historical and political agent if the political arena is extended outside the structures of the state. Ranajit Guha, Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1983), p. 4. 16. Martin, Past Futures, p. 13. 17. ‘Welcome to the Decade of Centenaries Website’, p. 2. 18. Gerda Lerner, The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), pp. xiv, 145. See also Mary Cullen, ‘Foreword’, in Margaret Kelleher and James H...


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