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NOTES Preface 1. Putnam, Illinois and Michigan Canal, 10. Introduction 1. Herndon, Herndon’s Lincoln, 1:79. 2. Cronon, Nature’s Metropolis, 54. 3. Basler et al., Collected Works [hereafter, CW], 4:67, written by Lincoln in summer 1860 in his presidential campaign biography. 4. Moses,Illinois,2:1198.Similarly,fromthetimepartyidentificationsbecamerecorded forcongressionalraces,DemocratsheldallthreeIllinoishouseseatsfrom1835to1839;2:1 Whig from 1839 to 1843; and 6:1 Whig in the five terms from 1843 to 1853. Party success changed from 1853 to 1855, with four Whigs and five Democrats, and from 1855 to 1863 with four Republicans and five Democrats. Moses, Illinois, 2:1199–1200. 5. Allen and Lacey, Illinois Elections, 137–39. 6. Ibid., 141–43; Moses, Illinois, 2:621. 7. Allen and Lacey, Illinois Elections, 144–45. 8. Moses, Illinois, 2:638. 224 Notes to Chapter 1 Chapter 1. Illinois before Statehood: Slave Country of the Northwest Territory 1. Davis, Frontier Illinois, 64–75. Clark was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, on November 19, 1752. His youngest brother, William Clark, would lead the Lewis and Clark expedition. 2. Alvord, Illinois Country, 323–24. 3. The “American Bottom” is the nickname that evolved to describe the fertile flood plain in far southwestern Illinois, along the east bank of the Mississippi River, which had been occupied for more than six decades, from 1699 until 1763, by settlements that were colonies of France. With the exception of Green Bay, Wisconsin, first established as a mission in 1634, these former French colonies remain today as the oldest settlements in the Northwest Territory. For a discussion of the French explorations in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in Illinois, see Alvord, Illinois Country; Parkman, LaSalle. 4. Ekberg, French Roots, 34–35. The first Fort de Chartres was built in 1720 on the east bankoftheMississippiRiver.Floodsdestroyeditandasuccessor.Ahandsomelimestone replacement was erected in the 1750s farther from the river. Abandoned after the end of Frenchrule,asubstantialpartofthestructuresandwalls,whichenclosedafour-acresite, still stands. The structures in their pastoral setting are now a registered historic landmark managed by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. 5. Alvord, Illinois Country, 322–27; Moses, Illinois, 2:146–47. 6. Cahan, Court That Shaped America, 4. 7. Alvord, Illinois Country, 320–32; Cayton, Frontier Indiana, 70–73; Howard, Illinois, 53–54. American settlers complainedthatHamiltonencouragedIndianraidsandincited barbarous behavior by paying bounties for scalps and for captives at the same rate. 8. Alvord, Illinois Country, 327–35; Howard, Illinois, 53–54. 9. Alvord, Illinois Country, 335–47; Moses, Illinois, 1:158–61. 10. Howard, Illinois, 54. 11. Alvord, Illinois Country, 339–40. 12. Ibid., 348–78. 13. Ibid., 356. 14. Ibid., 354–57. 15. Ibid.,357,357n47.OneofthecausesofthewarwasthattheBritishdidnotwithdraw from all the Great Lakes forts as required by the Treaty of Paris. 16. Ibid., 339–59; Howard, Illinois, 54–60, 58n7. 17. Alvord, Illinois Country, 358, 372–78. 18. Ibid., 380; Moses, Illinois, 1:174. 19. Howard, Illinois, 62; Moses, Illinois, 1:174. 20. Alvord, Illinois Country, 383; Moses, Illinois, 1:176–80; Howard, Illinois, 62. Notes to Chapter 1 225 21. Buck, Illinois in 1818, 181; Howard, Illinois, 62; Moses, Illinois, 1:176–81. 22. Ekberg, French Roots, 35–128; Ekberg, Stealing Indian Women, 32, 41. Under Jesuit tutelage,manycouples,slavepairsandmixed,sanctifiedtheirrelationshipwiththesacrament of marriage and had their children baptized. By the 1720s three villages of Illinois Indians were close to the French settlements. The village of the Kaskaskia Indians was close to Kaskaskia; a village of the Michigamea and Kaskaskia was near Chartres; the village of the Tamaroa and Cahokia was just outside Cahokia. Alvord, Illinois Country, 222; Morrissey, Empire by Collaboration, 128; Tanner, Atlas, 58–59, 63, 93–94. 23. Alvord, Illinois Country, 154, 190–209; Ekberg, French Roots, 33–34,147. 24. Ekberg, Colonial Ste. Genevieve, 11–43; Ekberg, French Roots; Ekberg, Stealing Indian Women, 51. Creole or French-Creole were descendants born in Louisiana territory of unions between French and Indian or, occasionally, black slaves. See, for example, Ekberg, Stealing Indian Women, 2, 5, 63–64, 71. Ste.Genevieve,Missouri,existstothisdayandretainsstructuresandfeaturesofFrench coloniallifefromtheeighteenthcentury,includingverticalloghouses,squareresidential lots, a common, and other topographical features. 25. Ekberg,French Roots,150–52,table1;Ekberg, Stealing Indian Women,41;Morrissey, “Empires, Identities, and Communities,” 231. There is a slight discrepancy between the census numbers in the references cited by these two authors. There were one hundred troopsatFortdeChartresin1722,aconsiderablepresenceinthepopulation.Thegarrison was reduced to forty-one men by 1732. Morrissey, “Empires, Identities, and Communities ,” 231. 26. Ekberg, French Roots, 157; Huston, Calculating the Value, 26–29; Levine, House of Dixie, 3. 27. Alvord, Illinois Country, 386–87...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780252050343
Related ISBN
9780252041679
MARC Record
OCLC
1028553078
Pages
264
Launched on MUSE
2018-03-18
Language
English
Open Access
No
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