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181 NOTES introduction: explaining nato’s durability 1. Baldor, L.C., “Panetta: usMilitary Can’t Make up natoShortfall,” MSNBC, May 10, 2011, us_news-security/t/panetta-us-military-cant-make-nato-shortfalls/#. Tx9A8vkg7IU 2. 2. For notable examples, see Gelpi, C., 1999. “Alliances as Instruments of Intra-Allied Control.” In H. Haftendorn, R. Keohane, and C. Wallender, eds. Imperfect Unions: Security Institutions over Time and Space. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 107–139; Walt, S.M., 1997. “Why Alliances Endure or Collapse.” Survival, 39(1), 156–179; Waltz, K.N., 2000. “nato Expansion: A Realist’s View.” Contemporary Security Policy, 21(2), 23–38; Thies, W.J., 2009. Why nato Endures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Tuschoff, C., 1999. “Alliance Cohesion and Peaceful Change in nato.” In H. Haftendorn, R. Keohane, and C. Wallender, eds. Imperfect Unions: Security Institutions over Time and Space. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 140–161; Wallander, C.A., 2000. “Institutional Assets and Adaptability: nato after the Cold War.” International Organization, 54(4), 705–735; RisseKappen , T., 1996. “Collective Identity in a Democratic Community: The Case of nato.” In P.J. Katzenstein, ed. Culture of National Security. New York: Colombia University Press, 357–399; Schimmelfennig, F., 1999. “nato Enlargement: A Constructivist Explanation.” In G. Chafetz, M. Spirtas, and B. Frankel, eds. The Origins of National Interests. London: Frank Cass Publishers,198–234; Van Ham, P., 2001. “Security and Culture, or, Why nato Won’t Last.” Security Dialogue, 32(4), 393–406. 3. Holsti, K.J., “Mirror, Mirror on the Wall, Which Are the Fairest Theories of All?,” International Studies Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 3 (September 1989), 255. 4. Trachtenberg, M. “The Craft of International History,” http://, p. 33. 182 ◆ notes to chapter 1 5. Perhaps the most prominent recent example of this approach is Webber, M., Sperling, J., and Martin, A., 2012. nato’s PostCold War Trajectory: Decline or Regeneration, Palgrave MacMillan, which considers realism, liberalism, constructivism, and reflects on the overall utility of the theories in light of nato’s post–Cold War experiences 6. Roberts, G. 2006, “History, Theory and the Narrative Turn in ir,” Review of International Studies, 32, p. 703. 7. Ibid., 708. 8. Clark, I., “International Relations: Divided by a Common Language ?,” Government and Opposition, vol. 37, issue 2 (April 2002), 271–279. 9. Ibid., 39. 10. See the appendix for further discussion of theory as narrative. 11. Buzan, B., and Little, R., “Why International Relations Has Failed as an Intellectual Project and What to do About it,” Millennium: Journal of International Studies, (2001). ISSN 0305–8298, vol. 30, no. 1, 19–39, 38. 12. Trachtenberg, 2012. The Cold War and After: History, Theory, and the Logic of International Politics, Princeton University Press, 48. chapter 1: the post–cold war environment and nato enlargement 1. For detailed analysis of nato’s Cold War role and evolution, see the following: Cook, D., 1989, Forging the Alliance: nato 1945– 50, Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd; Smith, J., 1990, The Origins of nato, University of Exeter Press; Kaplan, L., “The United States and the Origins of nato 1946–1949,” The Review of Politics, vol. 31, no. 2 (April 1969), 210–222; Kaplan, L., 1988, nato and the United States: The Enduring Alliance, Twayne Publishers, Boston; Jordan, R.S., 1979, Political Leadership in nato: A Study in Multinational Diplomacy, Westview Press; Smith, M. 2000, nato Enlargement during the Cold War: Strategy and System in the Western Alliance, Palgrave, New York; Wenger, A. “The Multilateralization of Détente: nato and the Harmel Exercise, 1966–68,” Parallel History Project on Cooperative Security, harmel/intro_wenger.cfm?navinfo=15713#_ftn15; Sloan, S.R., 2010, “Permanent Alliance? nato and the Transatlantic Bargain from Truman to Obama,” Continuum. notes to chapter 1 ◆ 183 2. Kitchen, V.M., “The Globalization of nato: Intervention, Security and Identity,” (Routledge Global Security Studies, 60). Taylor and Francis. Kindle edition. 3. Paul Kennedy, for example, highlighted that the us spent more on its military every year than the next nine states combined, stating that “Nothing has ever existed like this disparity of power; nothing,” see Kennedy, P., “The Greatest Superpower Ever,” New Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 19, issue 2, (06/2002), 11–12. 4. Krauthammer, C., “The Unipolar Moment,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 70, no. 1, (1990/1991), 24. 5. Patman, R.G., 2010, Strategic Shortfall: the Somali Syndrome and the March to 9/11, Preager...


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