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ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 9/11 was the genesis of this book. I was living in London at the time and was shocked to see the brutal and vivid images on my television screen as I returned home from work that evening. I still get emotional when relaying my own experience of that day to my students , most of whom are too young to remember. What I found most surprising though was not that America had been attacked in this horrific way, but the deep acrimony that was generated between European powers and the us in responding to the attacks, particularly over the widening of the “war on terror” to Saddam Hussein’s regime in Iraq. It was clear that Al Qaeda was a threat to international security, but the division that emerged in formulating an appropriate response to the attacks was something I felt the need to understand at a deeper level. This naturally led me to the study of nato as the world’s preeminent alliance, an organization that had bound Europe and America together in common endeavor for more than fifty years at that time, and within which the dispute between the Bush administration and the French and German leaderships played out. I hope this book sheds some light on why the us and European views on security diverge, acrimoniously at times, but also why nato has survived these challenges and continues to be an organization with an important role in international affairs. In the process of writing and revising this book, I have acquired a new appreciation of the importance of history to international relations (ir) scholarship. When I studied ir at Aberystwyth University in the mid-1990s, students had to complete two papers in international history before we got deeper into ir theory. This historical grounding did me a world of good and I now try to replicate this approach with my own students in New Zealand. History matters. Our knowledge and skills as students and scholars of international relations is only enhanced by the study of history and by an awareness of how history affects theory. I was fortunate to study under some influential scholars , including Ken Booth, Steve Smith, and Michael Cox, but the x ◆ acknowledgments academic who most comes to mind as I write these acknowledgments is the now emeritus professor at Aberystwyth, Ian Clark, someone noted for his contribution to both ir and history. I remember sitting in one of his seminars and my first contribution to the discussion was to repeat a common misunderstanding about the history of Nazi Germany, which he had just debunked in his lecture—a lecture I had just missed. He was kind in his response and did not draw further attention to my obvious absence from his class. The valuable lesson that now informs my approach to this book is to “turn up,” acknowledge the importance of studying history, and think about how historical impressions can be inaccurate and misleading. I will be sending him a copy of this book with my thanks. There are many other people I need to thank. First and foremost, my academic and professional mentor, Robert G. Patman, whose patience and support has enabled me to earn my doctorate and transition into academia. Thanks also to Lena Tan and David MacDonald for their valuable input at an early stage of the project. I would like to thank colleagues and friends at the Politics Department, University of Otago, for supporting me in my research and providing me with funds to travel to nato to conduct interviews in 2010. Being in New Zealand studying a transatlantic security organization was not easy at times, but this opportunity helped me to appreciate the complexities of the alliance first hand. Particular thanks go to Philip Nel, Chris Rudd, and Najibullah Lafraie for providing a supportive environment for my research. Najibullah Lafraie (Otago), Tanya OgilvyWhite (anu), and Benjamin Schreer (Macquarie) also gave me extensive feedback when this project was in its formative phase and this helped strengthen the work considerably. I would like to thank James Ketterer and Jess Scott at Bard College, New York for their friendship and support. My six weeks in America in July and August 2014 would not have been possible without their hard work and commitment to giving international scholars opportunities to study in the us, and I met many scholars and policy makers during my time on the susi fellowship who informed my thinking about the history and future of the transatlantic...


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