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Index Note: Page numbers followed by “n” denote endnotes. A Airlangga, 82 Alaungsithu, 125, 156 Ananda Temple, 35, 36 Anawrahta, 122, 136 canal system, 125 era of, 134, 135 textual accounts of, 180–81 “Anawrahta’s Palace”, 185, 187, 211 Anjali Mudra, 63 Arabo-Persian traders, 202 Arakan, 157, 158, 167 archaeological political economy, 184–85 archaeological reasoning, 201 archaeology, in Bagan, 185–86, 194 Arimaddanapura (Bagan), 159 architecture of Bagan building materials, 40–42 parabaiks, 27 reconstructed plan, 27 stone, advantages of using, 40, 41 stupas, construction of, 28, 38 temples. See temple construction, in Bagan timber buildings, 41–42 urban design principles in, 27–28 vaulting techniques, 6–7, 39 artefact(s), 17 Anawrahta and Kyanzittha Palace sites, 185, 187, 192 distribution of, 17, 185, 201 of metals, 205 from random surveys, 188–92 style/types, 150n24, 200, 201, 210 Arthasastra, 15 ash deposits, 93, 123, 145, 146 Aung, Myint, 99, 101 Aung Thaw, 6, 207, 210 Aung-Thwin, Maitrii, 97 Aung-Thwin, Michael, 97 Avalokitesvara, 60 Ayeyarwady River, 27, 164, 168, 203 B Bagan, 153 Angkor’s dependency in, 162 archaeological zone, 185–86, 194 Buddhism, 157, 171n5 development of, 170, 212–13 economy of, 155–60, 165–67, 169–70, 183–84 enigma of, 154 fault lines, 163 gold and silver trade, 157, 158 internal layout of, 213 labour issues, 156 metals, 158–62, 167, 169 monetization, 156–57 Mongol invasions, 157–58 polities, 165–66 pottery, 214 17-J02381 11 Bagan and the World.indd 221 9/10/17 8:48 AM 222 Index rivers, 163–64 silver deposits, 155 southeastern Bengal, interactions with, 155 as urban centre, 185–87 Bagan–Arakan silver link, 157 Bagan Archaeological Museum, 185, 187 Bagan Museum, Śiva in, 72, 80 Bagan period, phases of, 57 Baw-Baw-Gyi, 24, 26 Bawdingyi mines, 171n2 Be Be Temple, 59 Beikthano building technologies in, 18–19, 21–22 ceramics at, 209–10 radiocarbon dating, 89–97, 200 Bellwood, P., 91, 202 Bengal economy, 159–60 gold coins, 160 metals, 158–62 overseas trade and currency, 161 silver currency in, 159, 160 trans-regional trade routes, 162 valuation units, 166 Bhitargarh, 169 Bhumija, 64 bhūmisparśa mudra, 136, 137 Bochyomi Gubyauk Temple, 64, 139 Brahmanical function, 70 Brahmanism, 81 Bronson, B., 202 bronze–iron culture, 200 Brumfiel, E.M., 184 BTO 32, 91–93, 97, 98 BTO 35 (230–390 ce), 97 BTO 36 (380–540 ce), 97 Buddha, life of, 66 Buddha’s tooth relic, 180 Buddhism Brahmanism and, 81 Kyaukse context, 122, 124 in Mrauk-U, 47–48 three jewels of, 60–61 Buddhist ecumene, 179–80 Buddhist pilgrims, 203 Buddhist transformation, of rajadharma, 84 Buddhist Triad, 60 building technologies in Beikthano, 18–19, 21–22 in Southeast Asia, 17–18, 20 in Sri-Khitara, 19, 23–26 Burman buildings, 7 Burmese archaeology, 203 Burmese earthenware, 188, 189, 191–92 Burmese sculptures, 66 C Cambodia, Viṣṇu Anantasayin images in, 82 Carbon-14 (14 C), 89 Catalan Atlas of 1375, 163 ceramics Beikthano, 209–10 Chinese, 186–88, 190, 194 density, 187–89 distribution, 187–88 sampling of, excavated from Bagan, 192–93 sites, 189–90 Sriksetra, 208–9 Tagaung, 210 Champa, 83, 158 charcoal samples, 92, 97, 112 Chattagrama/Arakan, 161 Chindwin, 161, 167, 168 Chinese ceramics, 186–88, 190, 194 Chinese porcelain sherds, 190, 191 17-J02381 11 Bagan and the World.indd 222 9/10/17 8:48 AM Index 223 Choḷa and Pala art, of 11th century, 75 coinage decline, 166, 177 Cūlavaṁsa, 180 D Dali Yunnan, 155, 158, 162 decorative motifs, 209 Dhammayazika, 69, 190 Dhanyawadi city, excavations of, 46 Dhanyawadi Yazawinthit, 46 dhyani mudra, 137 double Gu, with encased images, 130–34 Dry Zone of Myanmar, 199–200, 202, 204, 207 E Earle, T.K., 184 early urban Halin, 99–104 East Java, 82–83 ecumene, Buddhist, 179–80 encasement of temple, 139–45 Esoteric Buddhism, 60, 62, 65n1 EURASEAA 14 Conference, Dublin, 66 F fire debris, 101 G Geological Survey of India, 67 Geological Survey of Prussia (1886), 67 “Glass Palace”, 88 Goh Geok Yian, 210 Grünwedel, Albert, 69 Gu-taw-thit-hpaya, 137 Gutman, Pamela, 200 H Halin early urban, 99–104 pre-urban, 98–99 Hall, K.R., 165, 214 Harappa culture, 16, 23 Harikela, 160 ‘head of an ogre’, 63–64 Hermitage Viṣṇu, 73, 78, 80 heterogenetic cities, 183, 185 Hlan-Kya Temple, 32 HMA 52, 112 HMA 53, 110–12 Hmannan Yazawindawgyi (Twinthin), 180...

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