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NOTES P+++++++p Introduction 1. Cicero, De oratore, trans. E. W. Sutton, with an introduction by H. Rackham (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1942), 2:lxxxvi, 351–54. 2. Eleanor A. Maguire, “Spatial Navigation,” in Neuroergonomics: The Brain at Work, ed. Raja Parasuranam and Matthew Rizzo (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 137. See also D. W. Lee, L. E. Miyasato, and N. S. Clayton, “Neurobiological Bases of Spatial Learning in the Natural Environment,” Neuroreport 9 (1998): R15–R27, in which the authors explore this in the avian and mammalian hippocampus. 3. Yadin Dudai and Mary Carruthers, “The Janus Face of Mnemosyne” Nature 434 (March 31, 2005): 567. 4. David J. Bodenhamer, John Corrigan, and Trevor M. Harris, The Spatial Humanities : GIS and the Future of Humanities Scholarship (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010). See also Bodenhamer, Corrigan, and Harris, eds., Deep Maps and Spatial Narratives (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2015); Ian Gregory and Alistair Geddes , eds., Towards Spatial Humanities: Historical GIS and Spatial History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014); Ian N. Gregory, Niall A. Cunningham, C. D. Lloyd, Ian G. Shuttleworth, and Paul S. Ell, Troubled Geographies: A Spatial History of Religion and Society in Ireland (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013). 5. I do not mean here “bilocal” in the anthropological sense of place of residence based on kinship patterning. I refer instead to theories about “experiences” of bilocality that some scholars have described as taking place in one geographic location. 6. See, for example, Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: Norton, 1997). 7. Bernard Bailyn, Atlantic History: Concept and Contours (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005); Alan Taylor, American Colonies (New York: Viking, 2001); John Thornton, Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400–1680 (Cambridge , U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998); Douglas Egerton, Alison Games, Jane G. Landers, Kris Lane, and Donald R. Wright, The Atlantic World: A History, 1400–1888 (Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 2007); David Armitage and Michael J. Braddick, The British Atlantic World, 1500–1800 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002). 8. See the essays in The Creation of the British Atlantic World, ed. Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005). On the British Atlantic as part of a broader approach to colonization that was manifest in Australasia as well, see these essays specifically: William M. Offutt, “The Atlantic Rules: The Legalistic Turn in Colonial British America”; Elizabeth Mancke, “Chartered Enterprises and the 286 Notes to Pages 4–15 Evolution of the British Atlantic World”; and John E. Crowley, “A Visual Empire: Seeing the British Atlantic World From a Global British Perspective.” 9. The recent literature on this and the debates that they prompt have been well discussed . For a sampling of criticisms, see Alison Games, Philip J. Stern, Paul W. Mapp, and Peter A. Coclanis, “Forum: Beyond the Atlantic,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 63, no. 4 (2006): 675–742; Peter A. Coclanis, “Drang Nach Osten: Bernard Bailyn, the World-Island, and the Idea of Atlantic History,” Journal of World History 13, no. 2 (2002): 169–82; and Coclanis, “Atlantic World or Atlantic/World?” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 63, no. 4 (2006): 725–42; Jack P. Green and Philip D. Morgan, Atlantic History: A Critical Appraisal, Reinterpreting History series (Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 2009). Other recent discussions of the Atlantic world that support its utility as an organizing tool include Thomas Benjamin, The Atlantic World: Europeans, Africans, Indians , and Their Shared History, 1400–1900 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009); Egerton, Games, Landers, Lane, and Wright, Atlantic World; Wim Klooster and Alfred Padula, eds., The Atlantic World: Essays on Slavery, Migration, and Imagination (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2004); Bailyn, Atlantic History; Bernard Bailyn and Patricia L. Denault, eds. Soundings in Atlantic History: Latent Structures and Intellectual Currents, 1500–1830 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2009); David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006); Felipe Fernández-Armesto, “The Origins of the European Atlantic,” Itinerario 24 (2000): 111–28; Armitage and Braddick, British Atlantic World. 10. J. H. Elliott, “Afterword: Atlantic History, a Circumnavigation,” in Armitage and Braddick, British Atlantic World, 239. 11. Recent work by Benjamin Schmidt, among a few others, has begun to establish some beachheads for exploring that issue. See Schmidt, “The Dutch Atlantic: From Provincialism to Globalism,” in Atlantic History: A Critical Reappraisal, ed. Jack P. Greene...