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NOTES NOTES TO CHAPTER 1 1. Press release, “NIU Steel Band to Celebrate Three Decades with Special Concert,” NIU News, March 31, 2003. 2. Liam Teague, interview by Andrew Martin, November 17, 2012. 3. The US military confined its efforts to Trinidad and did not have any tangible base or presence on Trinidad’s sister island of Tobago. 4. For information on the American occupation of Trinidad during WWII,see Harvey Neptune,Caliban and the Yankees: Trinidad and the United States Occupation (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007). 5. Kim Johnson, interview with Andrew Martin, February 22, 2011, Port of Spain, Trinidad. See also StephenStuempfle,TheSteelbandMovement:TheForgingof ANationalArtinTrinidadandTobago(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995), 76–140, and George Goddard Forty Years in the Steelbands 1939–1979, ed. Roy D. Thomas (London: Karia Press, 1991). 6. Molly Ahye, Cradle of Caribbean Dance: Beryl McBurnie and the Little Carib Theatre. (Trinidad and Tobago: Heritages Cultures, 1983), 48. 7. Andrew Martin and Ray Funk, “Show Me the Music: A Brief History of Pan Music Notation,” in Proceedings of the International Conference and Panorama 2015, ed. Andrew Martin and Ray Funk (St. Augustine, Trinidad: University of the West Indies Press, forthcoming). 8. Stuempfle, Steelband Movement, 101. 9. For more information on the calypso craze, see Ray Funk and Michael Eldridge, Calypso Craze, Bear Family BCD 16947, 2014. 10. The most important of these was the Hart-Cellar Act, which abolished the National Origins Formula that restricted the influx of immigrants based on existing percentages of an ethnic group’s population present in the United States at any given time. The National Origins Formula was first enacted in 1924 and effectively set low immigration quotas for several geographic areas including Eastern Europe and the Caribbean, whose citizens, prior to the act, enjoyed relatively easy immigration access to the United States. N O T E S T O C H A P T E R 2 138 11. Ted Solís, “Teaching What Cannot Be Taught: An Optimistic Overview,” in Performing Ethnomusicology, ed. Ted Solís (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 7. 12. Brandon Haskett, “Thoughts on Multicultural Music Education and Creativity,”“Brandon Haskett’s Music Education Blog,” accessed September 22, 2013, 13. See Solís. “Teaching What Cannot Be Taught.” See also Brandon Haskett, “They Came for the Kids and Stayed for the Teacher: The DesertWinds Community Steel Orchestra,”International Journal of Community Music 6, no. 2 (July 2013): 175–82; and Brandon Haskett, “A Study of U.S. Collegiate and K–12 Steel Band Directors’Attitudes Regarding Steel Band Curriculum and Pedagogy,”Update: Applications of Research in Music Education 34, no. 2 (2016): 5–12. 14. Andrew R. Martin, “A Voice of Steel through the Iron Curtain: Pete Seeger’s Contributions to the American Steel Band Movement,” American Music 29, no. 3 (Fall 2011): 353–80. NOTES TO CHAPTER 2 1. Kuo-Huang Han, e-mail to Andrew Martin, March 18, 2013. 2. Al O’Connor, interview by Andrew Martin, November 6, 2014. 3. Al O’Connor, telephone interview by Andrew Martin, October 16 2012. 4. Al O’Connor, interview by Satanand Sharma, November 6, 2000. 5. Electronic Music from the University of Illinois, MGM/Heliodor H/HS-25047, 1967. 6. Ibid. 7. Al O’Connor, e-mail to Andrew Martin, March 27, 2013. 8. Bill Bass, “About,” “Bill Bass Steel Pans,” accessed October 28, 2013, about/. 9. They recorded one album in 1969. See “Mike Alexander and The Pott Steelers— Virgin Islands Beach Party,” “Discogs,” accessed March 10, 2016, Mike-Alexander-And-The-Pott-Steelers-Virgin-Islands-Beach-Party/release/3068872. 10. “Steelband Makes First Recording,” Virgin Island Daily News,August 13, 1966. 11. Al O’Connor, interview by Andrew Martin, November 16, 2012. 12. This number is based on a reading of issues of Percussive Notes from the decade of the 1970s. 13. “Electric Stereopticon,” Annex Group, accessed March 29, 2013, blog/?page_id=15. 14. See liner notes to the Cook recordings from mid-1950s, Emory Cook, Brute Force Steel Band of Antigua, Cook 01042, 1955. 15. Andrew R. Martin, Military Might, Melodious Music: The United States Navy Steel Band 1957–1999 (Oxford: University of Mississippi Press, 2016). 16. Al O’Connor, interview by Andrew Martin, November 16, 2012. 17. Kuo-Huang Han, e-mail to Andrew Martin, March 20, 2013. 18. Musica Exotica III program and program notes,April 1–3...


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