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155 A Note on Terminology and the Subject Group 1. The Alien ­ Enemy Act, first enacted in 1798 and amended by R.S. § 4067, 40 Stat. 531 (1918) to apply to females, became codified as 50 U.S.C. § 21 (2012). Once Congress has declared war or when invasion has occurred or is imminent, this law gives the president the power to direct the apprehension and removal of “all natives, citizens , denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government,”§ 21.­ Under the Alien ­ Enemy Act during World War II, nationals of Japan, Germany, and Italy ­ were designated “alien enemies.” Note that small numbers of Romanians, Hungarians, and Bulgarians suspected of disloyalty ­ were interned, but they ­ were designated “aliens of ­ enemy nationality,” meaning that they ­ were not subject to the regulations concerning travel, possession of signaling devices, and other restrictions on alien enemies. See Memo attached to United States Department of Justice’s “Questions and Answers on Regulations Concerning Aliens of ­ Enemy Nationalities,” Edward Corsi Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries (hereafter cited as Corsi Papers), Box 33, Folder “ACTIVITIES Alien ­ Enemy Hearing Board Correspondence to cases 7 May 1941 to 11 Feb. 1944.” 2. Marian Smith, chief, Historical Research Branch, U.S. Citizenship & Immigration Ser­ vices, e-­ mail message to author, October 3, 2013. 3. The census in 1940 recorded more than 1.6 million American residents as born in Italy. U.S. Congress, House Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration , Fourth Interim Report (hereafter cited as House Select Committee, Fourth Interim Report), 241. 4. Alien Registration Act of 1940 (Smith Act), Pub. L. No. 76–­ 670, 54 Stat. 670–­ 71 (1940). The Act has been amended multiple times and can be found at 18 U.S.C. § 2385 (2000). 5. House Select Committee, Fourth Interim Report, 241. 6. “Report on Pro­ gress: Naturalization Delays Decreasing,” 20. Note that Attorney General Biddle assured the alien population that ­ there ­ were three classes of German and Italian aliens who still could obtain naturalization: ­ those who had taken out papers at least two years before December 8, 1941, but not more than seven years before that date; ­ those not required to take out first papers, such as spouses of American citizens; and ­ those whose petition for naturalization was pending in court. “Alien Curbs Aimed Only at Disloyal,” 9. Biddle, quoted in the same article, told the public that restrictions on naturalization ­ were intended “to weed out” the few ­ enemy aliens considered subversive. In actuality, though, delays in investigations for petitions by the INS prevented even individuals in ­ these three classes from obtaining their citizenship papers. Notes 156 Notes to A Note on Terminology and the Subject Group 7. I gathered my data in­ de­ pen­ dently of a study by the Department of Justice which cites 418 as the number of “persons of Italian ancestry who ­ were interned” in Appendix D, § 3(3) of U.S. Department of Justice, Report to the Congress of the United States, A Review of the Restrictions on Persons of Italian Ancestry During World War II, November 2001, http:​/­​/­judiciary​.­house​.­gov​/­legacy​/­italian​.­pdf (site discontinued), accessed on November 13, 2013 (hereafter cited as DOJ Report). The report includes appendices of lists of individuals subject to the vari­ ous restrictions. The Justice Department compiled its list of internees and where they ­ were held, if known, from government rec­ ords and personal interviews. It recognizes that its list may have multiple inclusions of the same ­ people identified by dif­fer­ ent names. 8. Note that this study includes all Latin Americans for whom I could find a file in the Provost Marshal General rec­ ords at the National Archives at College Park, Mary­ land. Relying on correspondence from 1946 in the Special War Prob­ lems Division of the State Department, Max Friedman states that 288 Italians ­ were deported from Latin Amer­ i­ ca and interned in the United States, more than half of whom ­ were­ family members accompanying the suspected Fascists. Friedman cites the other deportee figures as follows: 4,058 Germans and 2,264 Japa­ nese. Friedman, Nazis and Good Neighbors, 2, 9; Compare Kashima, Judgment without Trial, 124, who cites the number of Italians from Latin American countries as 78 based on a 1948 memorandum of W. F. Kelly, the assistant commissioner of the Alien ­ Enemy Control Program. One discrepancy may be in the number arrested or expelled from Latin Amer­ i­ ca as opposed to the number actually interned in the United...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781469634364
Related ISBN
9781469634333
MARC Record
OCLC
1005354200
Pages
250
Launched on MUSE
2018-01-03
Language
English
Open Access
No
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