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199 Notes Preface 1. Michael Vickery, Cambodia, 1975–1982. 2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology: Including Theses on Feuerbach and Introduction to the Critique of Political Economy, 42; Communist Party of Kampuchea , “Report of Activities of the Party Center according to the General Political Tasks of 1976,” 202. 3. See, for example, Alexander Hinton, Why Did They Kill? Cambodia in the Shadow of Genocide, 48 passim; and William W. Willmott, “Analytical Errors of the Kampuchean Communist Party.” 4. David P. Chandler, “From ‘Cambodge’ to ‘Kampuchea’: State and Revolution in Cambodia, 1863–1979,” “Revising the Past in Democratic Kampuchea: When Was the Birthday of the Party?,” and “Seeing Red: Perceptions of Cambodian History in Democratic Kampuchea”; Ben Kiernan, How Pol Pot Came to Power: A History of Communism in Kampuchea, 1930–1975 and “Origins of Khmer Communism”; Steve Heder, Cambodian Communism and the Vietnamese Model: Imitation and Independence, 1930–1975; Craig Etcheson, The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea; Serge Thion, “The Cambodian Idea of Revolution.” 5. Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space, 54. 6. See also Tony Cliff, State Capitalism in Russia; William Jerome and Adam Buick, “Soviet State Capitalism? The History of an Idea”; James Petras, “State Capitalism and the Third World”; Ben Turok, “Zambia’s System of State Capitalism”; Mark N. Cooper, “State Capitalism, Class Structure, and Social Transformation in the Third World: The Case of Egypt”; Adam Buick and John Crump, State Capitalism: The Wages System under New Management; and Linda Matar, “Twilight of ‘State Capitalism’ in Formerly ‘Socialist ’ Arab States.” 7. Friedrich Engels, Anti-Dühring: Herr Eugen Dühring’s Revolution in Science, 382; Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, 2:177; Stephen Resnick and Richard Wolff, “State Capitalism in the USSR? A High-Stakes Debate,” 48. 200  •  Notes to Pages xiv–2 8. Stephen Resnick and Richard Wolff, “Between State and Private Capitalism: What Was Soviet ‘Socialism’?,” 10. 9. Vickery, Cambodia, 1975–1982, 40, 39. 10. Communist Party of Kampuchea, “The Party’s Four-Year Plan to Build Socialism in All Fields, 1977–1980,” 91. 11. Ibid. 12. Kiernan, Pol Pot Regime; Hinton, Why Did They Kill? 13. James A. Tyner and Stian Rice, “Cambodia’s Political Economy of Violence: Space, Time, and Genocide under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79,” 85 passim. 14. David P. Chandler, Brother Number One: A Political Biography of Pol Pot, 3; Benjamin A. Valentino, Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century, 491, 493. 15. Marx and Engels, German Ideology, 61. 16. Michael Heinrich, An Introduction to the Three Volumes of Karl Marx’s “Capital ,” 31. 17. David Harvey, A Companion to Marx’s “Capital,” 4. 1. A Critique of Khmer Rouge Political Economy 1. See, for example, Vickery, Cambodia, 1975–1982; Kiernan, How Pol Pot Came to Power; David Chandler, The Tragedy of Cambodian History: Politics, War, and Revolution since 1945; Kiernan, Pol Pot Regime; Hinton, Why Did They Kill? 2. There is no consensus as to whether the violence that transpired constitutes, in a legal sense, genocide. It is worth noting that of the three individuals prosecuted thus far (Kang Kech Ieu [alias Duch], Nuon Chea, and Khieu Samphan), none was found guilty of genocide. 3. Notable exceptions include Ben Kiernan and Michael Vickery. Kiernan, for example, acknowledges some influence of Marxism and Leninism, but privileges an explanation based on the racism and nationalism of members of the CPK. Vickery denies that the CPK was communist, arguing instead that the members were “petty-bourgeois radicals overcome by peasantist romanticism.” See Kiernan, Pol Pot Regime, 26; and Vickery , Cambodia, 1975–1982, 306. 4. “Statement of the Communist Party of Kampuchea to the Communist Workers ’ Party of Denmark, July 1978,” archived at the Documentation Center of Cambodia, Phnom Penh,; Scott Straus, “Organic Purity and the Role of Anthropology in Cambodia and Rwanda,” 50. 5. Kate Frieson, “The Political Nature of Democratic Kampuchea”; Margaret Slocomb , “The Nature and Role of Ideology in the Modern Cambodian State”; Donald W. Beachler, “Arguing about Cambodia: Genocide and Political Interest.” Notes to Pages 2–4  •  201 6. Leo Cherne, “Cambodia—Auschwitz of Asia,” 22. To be fair, Cherne was writing before the collapse of the Khmer Rouge and thus was without present-day archival materials ; that being said, I doubt that his interpretation would differ that much. 7. Boraden Nhem, The Khmer Rouge: Ideology, Militarism, and the Revolution That Consumed a Generation, 43; James A. Tyner, Genocide and the...


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