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Preface After a reluctant start, American leadership of the international intervention in the former Yugoslavia ended the most destructive set of regional conflicts and humanitarian disasters in Europe since World War II. A series of unexpected circumstances placed me at the heart of the US crisis-management process during the disintegration of Yugoslavia from 1995 until the independence of Kosovo in 2008. I left the US Army in 1994 as a colonel in the Pentagon, where I held the position of deputy J-2 (Intelligence ) on the Joint Chiefs of Staff. As the end of my military career drew near, I began searching for follow-on work in Washington, DC, in the field of current intelligence or foreign policy. When Undersecretary of Defense for Policy Walter B. Slocombe hired me as a civilian to lead the Balkan Task Force in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, I never imagined the adventures ahead of me as the series of crises unfolded in the former Yugoslavia. While I served as director of the Balkan Task Force, a major shift in US policy toward Bosnia and a tragic accident near Sarajevo propelled me into American diplomacy and policy development at the highest levels. I was to remain deeply involved in the US diplomatic and political-military policy in the Balkan region for the next thirteen years. In that adventure, I saw American diplomacy and political-military policy making firsthand in a variety of situations, ranging from war termination in Bosnia to war prevention in Macedonia. This book is my account of those events, the leaders involved, the decisions they made, and how they made them as America and its allies struggled with the humanitarian tragedies and the security issues in the former Yugoslavia. I thought carefully before using the word genocide in the title of this book. Genocide is a powerful term that recalls the horrific brutality against the Jews in Europe during World War II. After the war, the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide established genocide as acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group. Violence meeting those standards in the town of Srebrenica, Bosnia, in 1995 produced the US-led international intervention in Bosnia, which ended war crimes xiv Preface in Bosnia and brought many perpetrators of genocide to justice in a recognized international court. The intervention also prevented other war crimes in Kosovo and potentially Macedonia. I chose to highlight the term genocide because one of the most important legacies of the international intervention in the former Yugoslavia is the knowledge that those who commit genocide, including heads of state and government, military leaders and civilians, can be held legally accountable for their decisions and actions. Crisis management and diplomacy do not lend themselves to set-piece doctrine or a uniform list of principles to apply to all situations because the circumstances in each are usually very different. However, the situations can involve similar patterns and some shared elements. One goal of this book is to identify some common themes and techniques that might be useful in future negotiations and some common pitfalls that might be avoided. In that regard, I make some judgments on American operational diplomacy—what worked, what didn’t, how military operations and diplomacy meshed, and the strategic and tactical considerations that drove the process. War and diplomacy are intensely human endeavors. National interests, power, and national strategy are at the core of national security, but the people involved—their vision, their will, and their character—play an important part in any negotiation. The breakup of the former Yugoslavia featured international intrigue, ambition, and a cast of colorful personalities on all sides—tyrants, genocidal thugs, heroes, and victims. On these pages, I tell the human story of the people engaged in this drama. I describe them as I saw them in the struggle for peace and stability as Yugoslavia broke apart. I kept detailed personal journals throughout my experiences in the former Yugoslavia. Those journals, containing my observations of people, conversations, meetings, and decisions—recorded as events took place— are the primary sources for the details I give in this book. Except where I have cited other sources as references in the chapter notes, the quotations and descriptions on these pages are drawn from my journals or from my memory. Throughout the text, I rely on shorthand titles to help move the narrative along. For instance...


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