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GLOSSARY ‘āpō. funeral wake ‘ātolopolosia. anthropology ‘ave hala. presenting gifts at a funeral fahu. highest-ranking female relative; a paternal aunt who is highly respected by her brother’s children, receives tributes and gifts from her brother’s children, and has the right to name her brother’s children faikava. kava-drinking gathering failotu. prayer vigil faimali. wedding; to perform a wedding faingamālie. opportunity faingatāmaki. lack of opportunity faiputu. funeral; to perform a funeral fāitaha. unity, oneness, working together faiva. performing art fakahela‘i. to burden faka‘osiako. high school graduation celebration fatongia. social duties, responsibilities, obligations fefūsiaki. to pull one against another; power struggle fe‘iloaki. to greet each other with a kiss on the cheek fekainaki. to be constantly fighting with each other feke‘ike‘i. to quarrel repeatedly with each other fekīhiaki. to quarrel (argue) with each other 158 GLOSSARY fekumi. to do research together; a communal research approach femolimoli‘i. to share food in small portions fe‘ofa‘aki. mutual love feongo‘i‘aki. mutual compassion fesiosiofaki. to look down on each other fetokoni‘aki. mutual support fetu‘utaki. social connection fiemālie. content; satisfied fokifokihi. to turn upside down and downside up hākailangitau. elation, joy, or gladness hala. lack of synchrony, incorrectness, or wrong heliaki. to say one thing and mean another; metaphors, epiphora, figurative language hingoa matāpule. ceremonial name; special name of the master of ceremonies hohoko. genealogy; tracing genealogy kahokaho. a type of yam; a chiefly yam originating in Pulotu, the Tongan ancestral homeland and spirit world kaifa‘o. the inappropriate manner of stuffing food in a bag or taking a pile of food from a feast; hoarding food kāinga. kin, extended family kāinga fonua. land-based kin kāinga toto. blood-based kin kāingalotu. church congregation, church kin, fellow church members kaipō. to be stingy with one’s food kaitaha. eating gatherings; to eat together kātoanga. gathering, celebration, festival kaungamālie. well provided, well supported kaungatāmaki. lacking in support kei‘ingo. to be upset at sharing one’s meal (food) with others kilina. house or building cleaners; Tonganization of the English word cleaner koloa. treasured goods such as fine mats ( fala), bark cloths (ngatu), woven baskets (kato), quilts (monomono), and blankets (sipi) kupesi. an intricate geometrical design; a poetic term for harmonious social patterns (such as fetokoni‘aki or ‘mutual support’) lakalaka. a communal performing art lalava. the decorative and functional art of lashing GLOSSARY 159 lāngilangi. honor lavengamālie. to experience (or participate in) the full benefit lī pa‘anga. giving money, donating money mā. shame māfana. a feeling of inner warmth; feeling warm-hearted, emotionally moved, or welled up (emotionally) mālie. harmonious beauty, well done, something that is aesthetically pleasing matakāinga. having the countenance (form) of kin, behaving like kin matāpule. master of ceremonies in traditional encounters ma‘uma‘uluta. social stability, social cohesion melino. social and political peace moana. deep ocean Moanan. Oceanian, Polynesian ngalipoto. dignity, esteem, saving face ngalivale. disgrace, dishonor, losing face ngatu. decorated bark cloth, tapa cloth poto. skillful, competent poto-he-angá. skillful in the art of sociospatial relations (tauhi vā) puke. sick siu‘alaimoana. flying over the ocean highway; long-distance migration tā. time; time marker; to mark time, to beat, to form, to perform, or to draw tā sīpinga. to set an example (literally ‘to form/mark a pattern’) talanoa. “talk-story,”friendly conversations talatalanoa. ongoing conversations; to discuss, to dialogue tāmaki. disharmony, discord, or dissonance ta‘ovala. ceremonial waist mats; a symbol of respect for the fonua (the land and its people) ta‘ovala putu. funeral waist mats tapupu. frequent occurrence; close intervals tātuku. conclusion (literally ‘the final beat/mark’) tauēlangi. jubilation, exuberance, or euphoria tauhi vā/tauhi vaha‘a. the art of creating and maintaining beautiful socio­ spatial relations (vā) through the mutual performance of social duties ( fatongia) tau‘olunga. a Tongan dance that is generally performed by a young woman tāvani. intertwine teu le vā. to take care of the sociospatial relations; to adorn the space (a Samoan phrase) 160 GLOSSARY tohi. splitting pandanus leaves; painting/marking bark cloth (tohi ngatu); writing; a book tohi fe‘unu. stripping or splitting pandanus leaves tokamālie. order and peace tokatāmaki. disarray, chaos, or conflict tokonaki. funeral food gifts (yams, green bananas, sweet potatoes, meat) tonu. synchrony, correctness, right tufunga. material art tufunga fonua. socioecological architect tu‘umālie. prosperity...


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