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NOTES CHAPTER 1 1. Unless indicated, I use pseudonyms to protect the identity of my research participants. 2. ‘Āmaka is the Tongan name for rock walls. Tongans are known on Maui for their skills in constructing rock walls. 3. GenerallyTongans place the word that indicates time before the word that indicates space.The phrase “time beats in space”explains the word order in a timespace compound.For example,tā nafa means ‘beating drums’(tā: temporal,nafa: spatial) and tā fafangu means ‘ringing a bell’(tā: temporal,fafangu: spatial). 4. Viliami Toluta‘u is associate professor of fine arts at Brigham Young University–Hawai‘i. 5. The term kilina is a Tongan transliteration of the English word cleaner. 6. Every year, the Tongan LDS ward (congregation) holds a week-long outdoor camp (kemi ‘ae uooti) for its members. The camp builds stronger relationships among the ward members. 7. In the Tongan language, ‘talk-story’ is expressed as pōtalanoa (talking during the night). 8. The workers are known in Tongan as kau ‘iate (yard work/construction), kau fakameili (handicraft merchants), kau tā tiki (tiki carvers), kau meiti (hotel maids), and kau tauhi ‘api (groundskeepers). 9. In Tongan,tā is the root word in many of the terms that describe the frequency (time) of events or intervals between (time). For example, tapupu denotes events that occur at frequent intervals; tanunu describes events that happen 136 NOTES TO PAGES 14–17 almost simultaneously or events that follow one another in a quick succession; tāitaha/tātāitaha/tātātaha describes events that occur once in a while or events that are rare, infrequent, or occasional; tātu‘olahi refers to events that occur many times or frequently; and ta‘imālie describes events that occur at the correct time or at the most opportune time. The Tongan language has terms relating to the fast beating of time (tā) in space: tavave (ta-vave), tapupu (ta-pupu), tanunu (ta-nunu), and tamulu (ta-mulu).Tavave (or tovave) refers to the unusually fast beating of time in space. For example,it might be said that someone walks at an unusually fast pace (laka fakatovave).Tapupu denotes the beating of close intervals in space or the occurrence of events at frequent intervals (e.g.,tapupu e putu,tapupu e ngāue).Tanunu refers to the fast and continuous beating of time in space. It refers to the occurrence of problems in a fast and continuous succession (tanunu e palopalema). Finally, tamulu refers to the fast and careless beating of time in space. Tamulu often results in uneven and slipshod results (e.g., fakatamulu e ngāue). It often occurs when people are working at an accelerated rate (see appendix). 10. These funeral activities are called failotu (prayer vigils), feime‘akai or feime‘atokoni (cooking), hiva he ‘āpō (singing at the wake), malanga‘i e putu (funeral service), and tanu e putu (burial service). 11. My anthropological fieldwork was conducted in the Tongan language. I recorded my field notes in Tongan.For the purpose of simplifying the text,my field notes have been rendered in English. 12. Working for businesses such as hotels and resorts is called ngāue kautaha (company work). 13. Glenview (Keleni) Ngaluafe’s beautiful artistic rendition illustrates the deity Maui raising the sky, capturing and slowing down the sun, “fishing up” (discovering ) the island of Tongatapu,and creating food plants (breadfruits,coconuts , taros, sweet potatoes, and yams). 14. The Maui clan includes Maui Motu‘a,Maui ‘Atalanga,Maui Loa,Maui Puku, and Maui Kisikisi (Moala 1994, 4). 15. La‘ā (the sun) is a metaphor/symbol for the paramount chief or king. For example: “la‘ā kuo ungafonua”(the sun that has taken refuge in the land).This is a metaphor for a deceased paramount chief or king. “la‘ā kuo hopo”(the sun that has risen).This is a metaphor for a new paramount chief or king. NOTES TO PAGES 17–23 137 “la‘ā ‘oku tu‘utonu” (the sun that is standing at high noon). This is a metaphor for a paramount chief or king who is alive and well. “la‘ā ‘oku tōtōfā ‘i mo‘unga”(the sun that is reclining in the mountain).This is a metaphor for a paramount chief or king who is buried in the royal tomb. 16. Helu thought that this oral tradition might be a history about the relocation of Moanan (Oceanian) settlers from semipolar regions to places in the tropics (1999, 253). 17. Kalapu...


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