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TĀTUKU Concluding Note I HAVE SHOWN THAT the Tongan artistic arrangement of tā (time) in vā (space) operates within tauhi vā (the art of mediating sociospatial relations). In addition , symmetrical form and beauty—two intrinsic qualities of Tongan art—are central to the art of sociospatial relations. I have also demonstrated that tauhi vā is manifested in mutual actions such as sharing of food, giving of treasured goods (koloa) at birthdays and weddings to the fahu (highest-ranking female) and church leaders, donating money to fundraising events, and presenting ceremonial gifts and food at funerals.These actions permeate all aspects of Tongan life on Maui. On Maui, Tongans actively mediate times-spaces by extending the timespace structure of certain activities and places in order to practice tauhi vā and create beautiful sociospatial relations. The extension of time-space is rooted in indigenous Moanan oral traditions.Thus, Maui Tongans are continuing a long tradition that began with their ancestors. The extension of time-space is manifested in the faikava (kava-drinking gatherings) that last from sunset to sunrise,the long eating gatherings,the long conversations (talanoa), the all-night funeral wakes, and the early arrival and late departure from meetings and celebrations. These events are extended in order for Tongans to create enough time and space to participate in symmetrical (mutual) actions.These symmetrical actions give rise to harmony and beauty. In the end, the tauhi vā is a way of marking indigeneity by creating symmetry (tatau), harmony, and beauty (mālie/faka‘ofo‘ofa). As illustrated by the 112 TĀTUKU lives of Tongans on Maui, the performing art of tauhi vā is about the creation and maintenance of symmetrical forms through the mutual performance of fatongia (social duties).This symmetrical arrangement of tā and vā gives rise to mālie,which evokes powerful feelings of warmth,elation,and honor among the performers.1 RELEVANCE OF THIS BOOK The ideas presented in this book are relevant to the development of an anthropological understanding of time and space. Recently anthropologists have recognized the importance of space in anthropological analysis. Since the influential work on space by theorists such as Michel Foucault (1980), Henri Lefebvre (1991), and Edward Soja (1996), an increasing number of anthropologists have been advocating for anthropological theories of space (Gupta and Ferguson 1997; Kahn 2000; Low and Lawrence-Zúñiga 2003; Rodman 1992). This book not only adds to the anthropological theories of space but it also promotes an anthropological theory of both space and time like Harvey’s (1990) concept of “time-space compression” and Giddens’s (1984, 1990) notion of “time-space distanciation.” I see the need to link the concepts of time and space in our anthropological theories.For in reality,according to the Tongan worldview,tā and vā are intrinsically connected dimensions. Both must be examined together and in relation to one another in order to gain a deeper insight into our world’s sociocultural concepts and practices.The critical examination of the time and space in tauhi vā shows that the maintenance of social relations is an artistic expression as well as a marking of indigeneity. I also highlight the form and aesthetics of sociospatial relations. I have advanced Māhina’s tā-vā theory of reality in several ways.First,I have shown that tauhi vā, like other indigenous art forms, creates specific forms of kupesi (beautiful patterns) that give rise to certain kinds of mālie (harmony and beauty). Furthermore, I have demonstrated that the asymmetrical performance of social duties often results in specific forms of disharmonious patterns that give rise to certain kinds of tāmaki (discord). Third, I have added the concepts of tonu (synchrony), poto (artistic skills), and lāngilangi (honor) to Māhina’s theory.In the tā-vā theory of reality,Māhina (2008) argued that mālie gives rise to emotions such as māfana (warmth) and CONCLUDING NOTE 113 tauēlangi (jubilation). My research, however, has added honor, dignity, and esteem to the emotions that are evoked by the mālie of tauhi vā. This is a crucial addition to Māhina’s theory. Furthermore, my contribution to the tā-vā theory of reality provides a tempospatial explanation for why people lose face (ngalivale) when they fail to perform their fatongia. INDIGENOUS ANTHROPOLOGY My research has contributed to the emerging field of indigenous anthropology. Native Hawaiian anthropologist Ty Kāwika Tengan proposes that indigenous anthropology should include 1. involving Kanaka Maoli (indigenous people...


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