In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

5 RECONNECTING TONGA AND HAWAI‘I MIGRATION FROM PULOTU TO TONGA THE PRESENT-DAY MIGRATION of Tongans is not a new phenomenon but a continuation of a deep-sea voyaging that began thousands of years ago.According to the cosmogonic story (see figure 13),Tongans originated from the ocean and island of Pulotu.1 In the beginning was vahanoa (the open sea) from which the Tongan primordial ancestors Limu (Sea Weed) and Kele (Sea Mud) emerged, floating with the tide and carried by the waves and winds. Limu and Kele merged and landed on the island of Pulotu, location of the Tongan spirit world and ancestral homeland. On Pulotu, they gave birth to Tou‘ia-‘a-Futuna, a metallic rock (maka ukamea). This metallic rock shook and trembled like an earthquake and rumbled like thunder. It split open, and out of it emerged four sets of brother-sister twins. The first twins, Piki and Kele, had two children, a son named Taufulifonua and a daughter named Havealolofonua. The second twins,‘Atungaki and Mā‘imoa‘alongonoa,had a daughter named Velelahi (Vele the elder). Fonu‘uta and Fonutai, the third twins, also had a daughter, and her name was Velesi‘i (Vele the younger). The last set of twins, Hē‘imoana2 and Lupe, had two children, a son Tokilangafonua and a daughter Hinatu‘aifanga. Taufulifonua and his sister Havealolofonua, the children of the first twin, gave birth to the goddess Havea Hikule‘o. Taufulifonua and his cousin Velelahi gave birth to the god Tangaloa ‘Eiki, and Taufulifonua and his cousin Velesi‘i gave birth to the god Maui Motu‘a. Havea Hikule‘o, Tangaloa ‘Eiki, FIGURE 13. Talatupu‘a: Tongan cosmogony. 68 chapter 5 and Maui Motu‘a are the three principal gods of Tonga. All members of the Tangaloa clan descend from Tangaloa ‘Eiki,and all members of the Maui clans originate from Maui Motu‘a. Tokilangafonua and his sister Hinatu‘aifanga, the children of the last twin, had Siamese twin sisters, Nāfanua and Topukulu. Tokilangafonua migrated to Samoa where he resided.With his twin daughters,Tokilangafonua had two children ,Tafakula and Hē‘imoana‘uli‘uli.These two children had a son named Lofia. Taufulifonua and Havealolofonua created an island named Tongamama‘o for their daughter Havea Hikule‘o.They assigned their children to govern the different realms: Havea Hikule‘o ruled Pulotu (Spiritual/Ancestral World),Tangaloa ‘Eiki controlled Langi (Sky), Maui Motu‘a ruled Maama and Lalofonua (Earth and Underworld), Tukuhali lived in Tahi (Ocean), and Lupe resided in ‘Uta (Inland) (Collocott 1921; 1924,275; Māhina 1992b,59–65; Moala 1994,2; E.Wolfgramm 1998).3 Tangaloa ‘Eiki is the father of godsTangaloaTamapo‘ulialamafoa, Tangaloa ‘Atulongolongo, Tangaloa Tufunga, Tangaloa Mana, and Tangaloa Langi. Maui Motu‘a is the father of gods Maui Loa, Maui Puku, and Maui ‘Atalanga. Maui ‘Atalanga is the father of Maui Kisikisi, who is also known as Maui Fusifonua (Maui the Land-Fisher/Puller). In Tonga (Maama, or Earth), the realm of the Maui gods, people continued to maintain their vā with Pulotu, the ancestral land (Geraghty 1993; Kirch and Green 2001, 96).Tongans made return trips to Pulotu to acquire chiefly items, such as the kahokaho yam and taro (Gifford 1924,153–73; Helu 1999,239; Māhina 1992b; Mariner 1981, 300; Potauaine 2010, 47–51). Moreover, when chiefs and high-ranking individuals passed away, their souls made return voyages to Pulotu.4 Pulotu was the source of many chiefly things and the land of bounty. It had the most beautiful birds,the best livestock,and the highest quality of fruits and fragrant flowers (Mariner 1981, 300).5 Even Vaiola, the Healing Water of Life, was found in Pulotu (Moala 1994, 10–11).6 Vaiola is the water that healed all sickness, according to Tongan tradition. Although Pulotu may appear to be a mythical island,Tongan oral traditions tell us that it was an actual and historical island located northwest of Tonga where the sun set, possibly an island in Fiji (Gifford 1924, 153; Helu 1999, 115; Mariner 1981, 300). Linguist Paul Geraghty (1993) argued that the Fijian island of Matuku in the Lau archipelago was part of the ancient Pulotu. Havea Hikule‘o was the paramount chiefess of Pulotu (Moala 1994, 10). She was deified as the goddess of fertility, harvest, and agriculture (Helu 1999, 193). The greatest ceremony in Tonga was the kātoanga ‘inasi,the annual presentation Reconnecting Tonga and Hawai‘i 69 of first fruits to the Tu...


Additional Information

Related ISBN
MARC Record
Launched on MUSE
Open Access
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.