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2 INDIGENOUS TIME AND SPACE TIME-SPACE AND MOANAN SCHOLARS AS PART OF DECOLONIZATION within the Pacific, there is a reclaiming of the indigenous name Moana. I use the name Moana instead of Polynesia because Moana is an indigenous name for the Pacific Ocean in many of the islands.I also use the name Moana to highlight the oceanic culture of people from the islands. I was inspired by ‘Ōkusitino Māhina’s writings on the term moana (1999a, 278; 1999b,53),by Futa Helu’s claim that the name Samoana means ‘sea people’(1999, 113; Finney 1973), and by the late Queen Sālote Tupou III of Tonga and her use of the name ‘api moana (ocean homeland) as a reference to Tonga in her famous song “Nepituno”(Velt 2000, 114).The Pacific Ocean is known as Te Moana Nui a Kiwa in the Māori language and Moanaākea in Hawaiian (Maielua 2010).The term moana appears to originate from the worldview of in-between space. In fact,the word moa-na may be derived from the word moa,which means ‘middle space/in-between space.’  Thus,moana is the ‘space between’islands.In the Tongan language,moana and vaha (space between islands) are used interchangeably. The Tongan people originated in the moana. The resurrection of Moana, the name for the largest ocean space, coincides with the current attention to Oceanian time and space.In recent years,Moanan scholars have taken a great interest in the topics of time and space.1 Lilikalā Kame‘eleihiwa wrote about the way Hawaiians locate the past as the time in front and the future as the time that comes behind (1992, 22–23). Similarly, Epeli Hau‘ofa (2000) argued that for Moanans the past is ahead and in front. 24 chapter 2 This concept of time, according to Hau‘ofa, helps Moanans retain their memories of the past and awareness of its presence. Linda Tuhiwai Smith identified the significance of time and space to indigenous languages (1999, 50). Some indigenous languages, according to Smith, do not linguistically mark a distinction between time and space. For instance, the Māori word for time or space is the same (1999, 50): waa (Biggs 1990, 143). Scholars such as Sitiveni Halapua (2000, 2003), Konai Helu Thaman (2004), Albert Wendt (1999), Sa‘iliemanu Lilomaiava-­ Doktor (2004), I‘uogafa Tuagalu (2008), and Albert Refiti (2009) have contributed to the Moanan concept of space, vā. Other scholars, including ‘Ōkusitino Māhina (2010a, 2010b), Nuhisifa Seve-Williams (2009), Sēmisi Potauaine (2010), Telesia Kalavite (2010), Bruce Moa (2011), Belinda ‘Otukolo Saltiban (2012), Fepulea‘i Micah Van der Ryn (2012), Cresantia Frances Koya (2013), Mahinarangi-­ Mārama-He-Tāvā Helen Erana Ferris-Leary (2013), and Sione Vaka (2014) have contributed to the Moana concepts of both space (vā) and time (tā). ENCOUNTERING TĀ-VĀ In April 2001, I attended the Tonga History Association (THA) Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah.2 The conference provided me with an opportunity to discuss my ideas with scholars of Tongan history and culture. During the conference ,I listened closely to the presenters.I was deeply engaged by the presentation of indigenous Tongan historian-anthropologist ‘Ōkusitino Māhina. In one of the breaks, I met up with him and we talked briefly about tā and vā.This conversation was not only my introduction to the ideas of tā and vā, but it also sparked my interest in the topic of time and space (‘Ōkusitino Māhina,personal communication, April 3, 2001). During our conversation, Māhina briefly mentioned that he had written a paper titled “Tā, Vā, and Faiva: Time, Space and Art” and that he was going to present it at a philosophy conference in Chico, California (Māhina 2001).He anticipated that tā and vā would make significant contributions to the current academic debate on the philosophical and social ideas of time and space. In one of the THA Conference sessions, medical anthropologist Barbara McGrath and I co-presented a paper titled “The Complexity of the Tongan Diaspora: Tales from the Field” (McGrath and Ka‘ili 2001). Project Talanoa, a research and community program for Samoan and Tongan adolescents in Seattle, Washington, provided the narratives for our paper.3 In my section of Indigenous Time and Space  25 the paper, I presented an account of my personal experience as a Tongan graduate student doing research among Tongans in Seattle, Washington. I argued that tauhi vaha‘a (the act of nurturing social...


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