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145 Notes INTRODUCTION 1. Fram, “Mutts Like Me”; Rhee, “Chewing over Obama’s ‘Mutt’ Reference.” 2. As Meisha Rosenberg has astutely observed, President Obama’s eventual choice of Bo, a Portuguese water dog, “reads . . . as an acceptance of pedigree and all it implies,” and at the same time serves “to cloak as much as to reveal race politics” (“Golden Retrievers Are White, Pit Bulls Are Black, and Chihuahuas Are Hispanic: Representations of Breeds of Dog and Issues of Race in Popular Culture,” 114). 3. See Scott, A Singular Woman, 13. 4. Kuzniar, Melancholia’s Dog. 5. Ritvo, The Animal Estate, 96. For other historical accounts on the creation of breeds, see Ritvo, “Race, Breed, and Myths of Origin”; Ritvo, The Platypus and the Mermaid; Derry, Bred for Perfection ; Russell, Like Engend’ring Like; and Landry, Noble Brutes. 6. Foucault, The History of Sexuality, 136, 139; emphasis in the original. Needless to say, Foucault’s thinking on biopower has facilitated some rich discussions in animal studies, two of the most prominent being Seshadri, HumAnimal, and Wolfe, Before the Law. 7. Derrida, Of Grammatology, 112. The point of nature being always already technologized is made by Toadvine, “Life beyond Biologism,” among others. 8. Wolfe, What Is Posthumanism, xxix. 9. Donna Landry has explored the cultural effects of the hunt culture, and in particular the effect that the creation of the Thoroughbred had on the English countryside, in Noble Brutes. When she poses the challenging question “Might not horses have had some effect on human culture as well as the other way around?” she strikes just the right note, in my view (14). But her reduction of “animal studies as a field [that] has emphasized cruelty to animals as a way of unpacking the history of human-­ animal relations” (10) not only obscures the breadth of this burgeoning field, it also comes close to a reactionism born out of her oft-­ proclaimed membership in the English hunt culture. 10. Laurie Shannon conveys a sense of how these organizational principles work when she says, “The multiple criteria by which animals are said to vary in early modern classificatory thinking display an additive, cumulative, or inventorying sense of diversity”; The Accommodated Animal, 108. 11. Pope, “Lines on Bounce,” Minor Poems, 405. 12. See Nash, “Animal Nomenclature,” 109. Norman Ault discusses both sides of the question, allowing at most, however, that there might have been two Bounces (see New Light on Pope, 341). I do not wholly accept the multiple Bounce argument; Pope refers multiple times to dogs living for two decades, and he only mourns Bounce once. 13. Cummings, Windsor Forest, 70. 14. Cummings, Windsor Forest, 66; Cummings identifies his characterization as a paraphrase of Politian. 146| Notes to Introduction 15. Cummings, Windsor Forest, 66. 16. Paulson, Emblem and Expression, 22. 17. Wasserman, The Subtler Language. Wasserman gives the fullest account of concordia discors in the chapter on John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill. 18. Wasserman, The Subtler Language, 111; emphasis mine. 19. Wall, The Prose of Things, 39. 20. Pope, The Correspondence of Alexander Pope. 21. Pope, The Correspondence of Alexander Pope, 1:74. 22. Tobit, 5:16. 23. Tobit, 11:4. 24. Pope, The Correspondence of Alexander Pope, 1:74. 25. Fabricant, “Defining Self and Others,” 524. 26. Fabricant, “Defining Self and Others,” 519. Crippled and as misshapen as his surly little dog, Pope was probably very aware of how he was seen. 27. Doody, The Daring Muse, 15. 28. Helsinger, “Land and National Representation in Britain,” 17. 29. Helsinger, “Land and National Representation in Britain,” 17. 30. Helsinger, “Land and National Representation in Britain,” 17. 31. Kant, Critique of Judgement, 187. 32. Kant, Critique of Judgement, 182, 181. 33. Rodolphe Gasché argues convincingly that the equation of beauty and the good requires such a tour de force that Kant briefly has to abandon Darstellung in favor of the rhetorical device of hypotyposis, which is used to make something seem vividly present to the mind (see Gasché, The Idea of Form, 209). Gasché’s careful and insightful discussion on this trope in Kant’s aesthetics has contributed significantly to my understanding of the dependence on visual rhetoric after Pope. 34. Kant, Critique of Judgement, 180. 35. Barrell, “The Public Prospect and the Private View,” 29; and for a more detailed version of this point, see Barrell, The Political Theory of Painting. 36. Wordsworth, “Preface” to Lyrical Ballads, 426. 37. Coleridge, “On the Principles of Genial Criticism,” 558. 38. Kant, Critique of Judgement, 82...


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