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No t e s Introduction: Bilingual Personhood and the Cultural Politics of Asian American and Latino Literature 1. Francois Grosjean, Bilingual: Life and Reality (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010), 15–16. 2. Ibid., 15. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid., 16. 6. Ibid. 7 The 1965 Hart-Celler Act, also known as the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, abolished the 1924 Johnson-Reed Immigration Act’s national origin quotas, which had virtually suppressed immigration from non-European countries. For how the immigration restriction worked between 1924 and 1965, see Mae M. Ngai, Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004). 8. Marc Shell, “Babel in America; or, the Politics of Language Diversity in the United States,” Critical Inquiry 20, no. 1 (1993): 103–27; “Language Wars,” CR: The Centennial Review 1, no. 2 (2001): 1–17; Werner Sollors, ed. Multilingual America: Transnationalism, Ethnicity, and the Languages of American Literature (New York: New York University Press, 1998); Doris Sommer, ed. Bilingual Games: Some Literary Investigations (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003); Doris Sommer, Bilingual Aesthetics: A New Sentimental Education (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2004). 9. See the following for the most representative works. Rosaura Sánchez , Chicano Discourse: Socio-Historical Perspectives (Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press, 1987); Juan Bruce-Novoa, Retrospace: Collected Essays on Chicano Literature (Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press, 1990); Frances Aparicio, “On Sub-Versive Signifiers: Tropicalizing English in the United States,” in Language Ideologies: Critical Perspectives on the Official English Movement, vol 1., ed. Roseann Dueñas González and Ildikó Melis (Mahwah , Mass.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2000): 248–75; Gustavo Notes 210 Pérez-Firmat, Tongue Ties: Logo-Eroticism in Anglo-Hispanic Literature (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003); Kirsten Silva Gruesz, “Translation: A Key (Word) into the Language of America(Nists),” American Literary History 16, no. 1 (2004): 85–92. 10. Joshua Miller’s recent book, Accented America, for example, is a study of multilingualism in American modernism yet his introduction squarely points to the English Only movement to argue for the political and cultural relevance of his project. Joshua L. Miller, Accented America: The Cultural Politics of Multilingual Modernism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). 11. Ana Celia Zentella, “Puerto Ricans in the United States: Confronting the Linguistic Repercussions of Colonialism,” in New Immigrants in the United States, ed. Sandra Lee McKay and Sau-ling Cynthia Wang (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2000), 156. 12. Epifanio Fernández-Vanga, quoted in Negrón-Muntaner, “English Only Jamás but Spanish Only Cuidado: Language and Nationalism in Contemporary Puerto Rico,” in Puerto Rican Jam: Rethinking Colonialism and Nationalism, ed. Frances Negrón-Muntaner and Ramón Grosfoguel (Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press, 1997): 267. 13. Ibid. See also Juan Bruce-Novoa’s discussion of Fernández-Vanga’s linguistic purism. Bruce-Novoa, Retrospace, 36. 14. Gustavo Pérez-Firmat, Life on the Hyphen: The Cuban-American Way, 2nd ed. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2012), 43. 15. Einar Haugen, “The Stigmata of Bilingualism,” in The Ecology of Language: Essays, selected and introduced by Anwar S. Dil (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press), 308. 16. Eileen O’Brien, The Racial Middle: Latinos and Asian Americans Living beyond the Racial Divide (New York: New York University Press, 2008). The thesis of racial triangulation, offered by Claire J. Kim, also is based on a similar triad of black, white, and Asian. Claire Jean Kim, “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans,” Politics & Society 27, no. 1 (1999): 105–38. 17. O’Brien, The Racial Middle, 12–18. 18. Ibid., 14. 19. See especially Werner Sollors’s introduction to Multilingual America. 20. I use the term flexibility here with the currency it has gained in discussions of late capitalism in mind. My use of the term has been influenced by not only David Harvey’s discussion of flexible accumulation as a mode of post-Fordist capitalism but also by Aihwa Ong’s coinage of the term flexible citizenship to refer to the transnational Chinese elite and by Viet Thanh Nguyen’s discussion of the “flexible strategies between resistance and accommodation ” in Asian American writers. David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, reprint (Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1992); Aihwa Ong, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1999); Viet Thanh Nguyen, Race and Resistance: Literature and Politics in Asian America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 4. Notes 211 21. Pierre...


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