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ix Table of Contents Acknowledgements…....……………………………………. xv Justification………………………………….……………… xvii Acronyms…………………………...…….…………………xviii Chapter 1: Introduction..………….………………………. 1 By Mirjam Van Reisen The ongoing human trafficking crisis………..……………… 1 Severe trauma…………………………….………………….6 A crisis of accountability………………….………………… 7 Main conclusions…………………………...………………..11 Part 1: The Ongoing Human Trafficking Crisis….……... 17 Chapter 2: Human Trafficking in the Sinai: Mapping the Routes and Facilitators……..…………….... 19 By Mirjam Van Reisen, Meron Estefanos and Lena Reim Introduction………………………………….……………... 19 Deliberate impoverishment and control: Establishing human trafficking structures……….…………... 21 Eritrea’s illicit cross-border trade in arms and people….……. 31 Abduction and trafficking to the Sinai…………….…………39 Involvement of Eritrean officials………………….…………56 In the Sinai and beyond: A coordinated network of traffickers……………………….….……………65 On release: Imprisoned and deported……….……………….72 Towards Israel……………………..……….……………….. 76 Following the ransom back to Eritrea……….…...………….. 82 Conclusion………………………………....……………….. 88 Chapter 3: The Exodus from Eritrea and Who is Benefiting…………………………………..…….. 95 By Mirjam Van Reisen and Meron Estefanos Introduction……………………………..…………………. 95 x Eritrea’s policy to push out youth: The students arrests of 2001……………..…………….…… 98 Mass detentions of 2001…………………………...……..…..109 The consolidation of power: 2003–2007…………..…………116 The post-2008 economy: Sources of funds for the regime…...117 Crisscrossing borders: No safe haven in Ethiopia or Sudan………………………………...………..... 130 Surveillance and deportation…………………..….………….139 Conclusion……………………………………….…………. 147 Chapter 4: Human Trafficking Connecting to Terrorism and Organ Trafficking: Libya and Egypt….…159 By Mirjam Van Reisen and Meron Estefanos Introduction………………………………………...………. 159 New routes from Sudan to Egypt and Libya……………..…. 161 Deportation from Egypt……………………………………..163 Held by ISIS in Libya…………………………….…….…… 167 Beheadings by ISIS…………………………………………. 177 Women abductees held by ISIS………………………….….. 180 Organ trafficking in Egypt………………..……………….…183 Conclusion…………………………………………….….… 186 Chapter 5: Eritrean Unaccompanied Minors in Human Trafficking…………………….…………… …193 By Mirjam Van Reisen and Taha Al-Qasim Introduction…………………………………………………193 Reasons for fleeing Eritrea………………….………… …… 196 The exploitation and extortion of unaccompanied minors in human trafficking…………………...……… …… 201 When minors become torturers……………….………. ……212 The trauma of unaccompanied minors…...……………… … 215 Conclusion………………………………………….… ……217 Chapter 6: The Fragmentation of Families: Eritrean Women in Exile in Uganda…………..………… 221 By Eyob Ghilazghy, Sacha Kuilman and Lena Reim Introduction……………………………………..……….… 221 xi Conditions in Eritrea and reasons for flight…………….……224 Migration journeys…………………………….…….……… 229 Life in Uganda…………………………….…………………237 Beyond Uganda………………………………….……..……255 Lifestory: Abrehet’s journey to Uganda…..……………..……258 Conclusion………………………………………….….…… 264 Part 2: Severe Trauma………………….………………… 269 Chapter 7: The Trauma of Survivors of Sinai Trafficking……………….………….…….………… 271 By Mirjam Van Reisen, Selam Kidane and Lena Reim Introduction……………………………..…………..……… 271 Methodology……………………………….………….…… 275 The camps where Sinai survivors live………..……………… 278 Theoretical framework……………………………………… 281 Overview of torture practices…………….………….………285 Impact of events scale and trauma in Sinai victims…….……. 290 Physical examination…………………….………….….…… 293 Interviews…………………………………………..…..……300 Conclusion…………………………………………..……… 311 Chapter 8: Collective Trauma from Sinai Trafficking: A Blow to the Fabric of Eritrean Society………...…..……317 By Selam Kidane and Mirjam Van Reisen Introduction………………………………………..…..…… 317 Deliberate traumatisation of friends and family networks...……………………………………..…319 Secondary trauma……………………………………………320 Pain of multiple losses………………………….……………325 Pain of being ignored………………………….……….…… 327 Pain of injustice…………………………………...…………328 Impacts of collective trauma………………...….……………330 In search of healing………………………………….………333 Healing collective trauma…………………....……………… 336 Conclusion………………………………………….……… 340 xii Part 3: A Crisis of Accountability………………………… 347 Chapter 9: Crimes against Humanity: The Commission of Inquiry on Eritrea…………….……. 349 By Susan Höfner and Zara Tewolde-Berhan Introduction………………………………………...…….… 349 First report: Systematic and widespread, gross human rights violations…………………….……….… 350 Second report: Crimes against humanity………………….… 352 Methodology of the COIE…………………………………. 354 Response by Eritreans in the diaspora…………….…………355 Response by people inside Eritrea: Silence……………..…… 359 Ongoing ‘shoot-to-kill’ policy and national service……....….. 361 Response by the Government of Eritrea……………….…… 362 Conclusion………………………………………….…….… 363 Chapter 10: The Long Arm of the Eritrean Regime in the Netherlands……………….……………….369 By Klara Smits, DSP-Group and Tilburg University Introduction…………………………………………………369 Eritrean community in the Netherlands………….…….…….373 Impact of the long arm on integration……………………….381 Forms of intimidation……………………...…………..…….387 The 2% tax…………………………………….…………….397 Conclusion…………………………………….…….……… 400 Chapter 11: Atlantic Council: The Eritrean Regime's US Spin Doctors? ………………………………405 By Francȫois Christophe Introduction……………………………...………………… 405 What we know about the human rights situation in Eritrea…. 406 The Atlantic Council’s stance……………………………….. 410 The Nevsun case…………………………………………… 419 Blurring the line between policy research and lobbyism…..….423 Conclusion………………………………….……….……… 424 xiii Chapter 12: The Policy Agenda in Europe and Africa…... 429 By Zara Tewolde-Berhan, Martin Plaut and Klara Smits Introduction……………………...……………….………… 429 The European Union…………………………...……………430 The African Union and IGAD………………………………441 The African Union’s approach to trafficking……………...… 446 Addressing the causes of migration ……….…………………453 Conclusion……………………………..…………………… 454 Chapter 13: Prosecuting Sinai Trafficking: An Overview of Options..………………...…..……..….………465 By Daniel Mekonnen and Wegi Sereke Introduction……………………………………....………… 465 Prosecution: Essential in combating human trafficking…...… 467 The international legal framework………………..……..……468 Eritrea at the centre of Sinai trafficking...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9789956764167
Related ISBN
9789956764877
MARC Record
OCLC
975238241
Pages
520
Launched on MUSE
2017-03-14
Language
English
Open Access
No
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