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ABBREVIATIONS AC American Cinematographer AF Arthur Freed Collection AFI American Film Institute BFI British Film Institute ELC Ernest Lehman Collection EW Entertainment Weekly GCC George Cukor Collection HR Hollywood Reporter HRC Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin LAE Los Angeles Examiner / Los Angeles Herald Examiner LAT Los Angeles Times MGM MGM Collection MHL Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Margaret Herrick Library MPAA/PCA Motion Picture Association of America/Production Code Administration File MPH Motion Picture Herald NYDN New York Daily News NYHT New York Herald-Tribune NYT New York Times NYWT New York World-Telegram PBC USC Press Book Collection PCA Production Code Administration RW Robert Wise interviewed by Biesen RWC Robert Wise Collection UC University of California Notes 178 not e s to pa ge s 3 – 7 UNC Universal Collection USC University of Southern California Cinema Library Special Collections, Los Angeles, California VAR Variety WBA USC Warner Bros. Archive WP Washington Post WSC William Schaefer Collection CHAPTER 1: THE NOIR MUSICAL 1. Films included Syncopation, Casablanca, This Gun for Hire, Jammin’ the Blues, To Have and Have Not, Lady in the Dark, Cover Girl, Phantom Lady, Christmas Holiday, Detour, Club Havana, Gilda, The Big Sleep, Black Angel, Lured, New Orleans, Dead Reckoning, The Man I Love, Road House, Casbah, The Red Shoes, Young Man with a Horn, The Strip, Glory Alley, Affair in Trinidad, Moulin Rouge, A Star Is Born, The Barefoot Contessa, Young at Heart, Love Me or Leave Me, Pete Kelly’s Blues, and Sweet Smell of Success. 2. Nino Frank, “Un Nouveau Genre ‘Policier’: L’Adventure Criminelle,” L’ Ecran Francais 61 (August 28, 1946), 8–9, 14; Jean Pierre Chartier, “Les Americains aussi font des films noirs,” Revue du Cinema 1 (November 3, 1946), 66–70; James Naremore, “Film Noir: The History of an Idea,” Film Quarterly 49, no. 2 (Winter 1995–96), 14–17. 3. Raymonde Borde and Etienne Chaumeton, Panorama du film noir Americain 1941– 1953 (Paris: Editions du Minuit, 1955); A Panorama of American Film Noir, trans. Paul Hammond (San Francisco: City Lights, 2002), 9. 4. Sheri Chinen Biesen, Blackout: World War II and the Origins of Film Noir (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 1; Paul Schrader, “Notes on Film Noir,” Film Comment 8, no. 1 (1972), 8–10. 5. Biesen, Blackout, 36; Thomas Schatz, Boom and Bust (New York: Scribner’s, 1997), 236; Janey Place, “Women in Film Noir,” in Women in Film Noir, ed. E. Ann Kaplan (London : BFI, 1980), 35, 41–42; see Schrader, “Notes on Film Noir; Frank Krutnik, In a Lonely Street (New York: Routledge, 1991); James Naremore, More Than Night (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008); David A. Cook, A History of Narrative Film (New York: W. W. Norton, 1996, 2004), 377, 404. 6. Schrader, “Notes on Film Noir.” 7. Jane Feuer, “The Self-Reflexive Musical and the Myth of Entertainment,” Quarterly Review of Film Studies 2, no. 3 (1977), 313–26; Feuer, Hollywood Musical (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982); Thomas Schatz, Hollywood Genres (New York: McGrawHill , 1981); Rick Altman, American Film Musical (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987); Drew Casper, Postwar Hollywood (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007); Richard B. Jewell, The Golden Age of Cinema (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2007). 8. Feuer, “The Self-Reflexive Musical,” 313–26. 9. Rick Altman, “A Semantic/Syntactic Approach to Film Genre,” Cinema Journal 23, no. 3 (Spring 1984), 13; Altman, “Confessions of a Genre Theorist: The Unexpected Truth about the Historical Origins of the Musical, the Western, and the Biopic,” Lecture, University of California, Los Angeles, February 1995; Altman, American Film Musical; David Neumeyer, “Merging Genres in the 1940s: The Musical and the Dramatic Feature Film,” American Music 22, no. 1 (Spring 2004), 122–32. not e s to pa ge s 7 – 1 2 179 10. By 1946, the peak of film noir production, even John Ford’s Western My Darling Clementine, included abundant atmospheric low-lit noir visual style in its exquisite cinematography , a sexy ethnic prostitute singing musical numbers in a bar (and would-be femme fatale dying for her sins), and a Tombstone preacher declaring the Bible doesn’t forbid dancing, commenting on the moral constraints of Hollywood’s Production Code censorship. 11. Biesen, Blackout, 1; Schrader, “Notes on Film Noir,” 8–10; Schatz, Boom and Bust; David Bordwell, “The Bounds of Difference,” in David Bordwell, Janet Staiger, and Kristin Thompson, The Classical Hollywood Cinema: Film Style and Mode of Production to 1960 (New York: Columbia...


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